Voiced Retroflex Plosive
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Voiced Retroflex Plosive
Voiced retroflex plosive
IPA Number106
Entity (decimal)ɖ
Unicode (hex)U+0256
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-145)
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d`. Like all the retroflex consonants, the IPA symbol is formed by adding a rightward-pointing hook extending from the bottom of a d, the letter that is used for the corresponding alveolar consonant. Many South Asian languages, such as Hindi and Urdu, have a two-way contrast between plain and murmured (breathy voice) [?].


Features of the voiced retroflex stop:


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Astierna dialect ingua [?iwä] 'tongue' Corresponds to /?/ in other dialects. See Che Vaqueira
Bengali[1] [?äkät?] 'robber' Apical postalveolar.[1] See Bengali phonology
English Indian dialects dine [?a?n] 'to eat' Corresponds to /d/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Gujarati[2] ? [] (name of a letter) Subapical.[2] See Gujarati phonology
Hindustani[3][4] / [?ä:lnä:] 'to put' Apical postalveolar.[4] See Hindustani phonology
Javanese /dhahar [?aha?] 'to eat'
Kannada ?? [su] 'to join'
Malayalam ?? ['pä:är] 'Pandavas'
Marathi[2] ? [hä:?] 'bone' Subapical.[2] See Marathi phonology
Nepali ?? [r] 'fear' Apical postalveolar. See Nepali phonology
Nihali [bi?um] 'one'
Norwegian varde [':?] 'beacon' See Norwegian phonology
Odia ??/?a?g? [gä] 'boat' Apical postalveolar.
Pashto [?ak] 'full'
Punjabi [:u] 'frog'
Sardinian cherveddu 'brain'
Sicilian cou [k:u] 'neck'
Somali dhul [?ul] 'earth, land, ground' See Somali phonology
Swedish nord 'north' See Swedish phonology
Tamil[2][5] ?? [?i] 'cart' Subapical;[2] allophone of /?/.[5] See Tamil phonology
Telugu ?? [ru] 'to arise'
Torwali[6] ? [?i?u] 'late afternoon' Realised as [?] between vowels.
Urdu ? [?an?a] 'stick'

See also



  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111-116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 39 (3): 337-380, doi:10.1017/s0025100309990181
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (Second ed.), Blackwell
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4
  • Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan" (PDF), M.A. Thesis, University of Texas at Arlington
  • Masica, Colin P. (1991), The Indo-Aryan Languages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-29944-6
  • Mazumdar, Bijaychandra (2000) [First published 1920], The history of the Bengali language, New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, ISBN 8120614526
  • Tiwari, Bholanath (2004) [First published 1966], Hind? Bh?sh?, Kit?b Mahal: Kit?b Mahal, ISBN 81-225-0017-X

External links

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