|Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banate|
Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat
|Crownland of the Austrian Empire|
|18 November 1849|
|27 December 1860|
|Today part of|| Serbia|
The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and the Banate of Temes (German: Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temeser Banat), known simply as the Serbian Voivodeship (Serbische Woiwodschaft), was a crownland of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860.
It was a separate crownland named after two former provinces: Serbian Vojvodina and Banat of Temeswar. Its former area is now divided between Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The Voivodeship gave its name to the present Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.
In contemporary German, the duchy was officially known as Woiwodschaft Serbien und das Temescher Banates or Woiwodschaft Serbien und das Temeser Banat(e). In contemporary Serbian it was known as Vojvodina Srbska i Tami?ki Banat ( ? ? ) and Vojvodstvo Srbija i Tami?ki Banat (? ? ? ). In Hungarian it was known as Szerb Vajdaság és Temesi Bánság, and in Romanian as Voivodina Sârbeasc? ?i Banatul Timi?an.
In various sources (both, Serbian and German) there are two somewhat different variants of the name of the voivodeship, one could be translated into English as Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat and another as Serbian Voivodeship and Temes Banat.
Also in modern English use, the term Temes Banat or Banat of Temes is sometimes incorrectly replaced with term Banat of Temeschwar or Temeschwar Banat. In the original name in all native languages, there is no mention of the city of Temeschwar (Timi?oara) in the title of Voivodeship. As shown above, the reference to the Temes region is always used, and should be translated into English as Temes Banat or Banat of Temes.
The Voivodeship was formed by a decision of the Austrian emperor in November 1849, after the Revolutions of 1848/1849. It was formed in accordance with privilege given to Serbs by the Habsburg emperor in 1691, recognizing the right of Serbs to territorial autonomy within the Habsburg Monarchy.
It consisted of the regions of Banat, Ba?ka and northern Syrmian municipalities of Ilok and Ruma. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of Voivode belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was "Grand Voivod of the Voivodeship of Serbia" (German: Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). Even after the Voivodeship was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918.
In 1860, the Voivodeship of Serbia and Temes Banat was abolished and most of its territory (Banat and Ba?ka) was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, although direct Hungarian rule began only in 1867, after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise. Unlike Banat and Ba?ka, in 1860 Syrmia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Slavonia, another separate Habsburg crown land. Kingdom of Slavonia subsequently joined with the Kingdom of Croatia forming new kingdom named Croatia-Slavonia, which made a pact with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1868, hence becoming self-governed part of the Kingdom of Hungary within Austria-Hungary.
The two official languages of the Voivodeship were German and "Illyrian" (what would come to be known as Serbo-Croatian).
The Voivodeship was ethnically very mixed, since the southern parts of Syrmia, Banat and Ba?ka with compact Serbian settlements were not included in it, while eastern Banat, with a Romanian majority was added to it.
According to the 1846 census, the territory that in 1849 formed the voivodeship included:
In 1857, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,526,105 inhabitants, including:
According to the 1850/51 census, ethnic composition of the voivodeship was as follows:
By religious makeup:
In 1851, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,426,221 inhabitants, including:
In 1860, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,525,523 inhabitants, including:
At first, Voivodeship was divided into two districts:
Later, it was divided into five districts:
Woiwodschaft Serbien und das Temeser Banat