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White-collar crime (occasionally known as corporate crime) refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by business and government professionals. It was first defined in 1939 by the sociologist Edwin Sutherland as "a crime committed by a professional in his or her capacity in the professional world against a large corporation, agency, or other professional entity." Those who commit white-collar crimes are investigated and prosecuted by federal authorities in most countries, such as the Securities and Exchange Commission in the United States. There are many different variations of white-collar crime; examples include fraud, embezzlement, tax evasion, and money laundering.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
White-collar crime (or corporate crime, more accurately) refers to financially motivated nonviolent crime committed by businesses and government professionals. It was first defined by the sociologist Edwin Sutherland in 1939 as "a crime committed by a professional in his or her capacity in the professional world against a large corporation, agency, or other professional entity. There are fewer amount of lawyers that specialize in white-collar crime making it so everyone knows everyone. Those who commit white-collar crime get investigated and prosecuted by the federal authorities, therefore, defense attorneys in this area of crime have to go to court against the government.
Fraud makes up the vast majority of the white collar crimes and is the act of deceiving an individual for monetary advantage. 
A well known type of securities fraud is insider trading which is when an individual inside a company has information about investments or company exchanges and the information is exchanged in infringement of a duty or agreement.
Embezzlement is the act of inappropriately taking money from an individual to whom you owe something.
Tax Evasion is when an individual attempts to bypass paying taxes that they are normally obligated to pay.
Money Laundering is when someone obtains illegally acquired money (dirty money). This is done through a sequence of transactions that serve the purpose of making the money look like as if the company made the money. 
According to a 2016 study Kimberly Dodson and Paul M. Klenowski for The Oxford Handbook of White-Collar Crime,
A considerable percentage of white-collar offenders are gainfully employed middle-class Caucasian men who usually commit their first white-collar offense sometime between their late thirties and their mid-forties. Most have some higher education, are married, and have moderate to strong ties to community, family, and religious organizations. White-collar offenders usually have a criminal history, including infractions that span the spectrum of illegality, but many do not overindulge in vice. Recent research examining the five-factor personality trait model determined that white-collar offenders tend to be more neurotic and less agreeable and conscientious than their non-criminal counterparts.
In 2012, J.P. Morgan trader Bruno Iksil placed a large risky trade and ended up losing $6.2 billion for the bank. While losing money from a trade is not illegal it was indicated that his boss and his assistant conspired to cover up their losses by filing false reports. This lead to their arrest, but none of the men involved served time for their crime.
In the United States, sentences for white-collar crimes may include a combination of imprisonment, fines, restitution, community service, disgorgement, probation, or other alternative punishment. The Jeffrey Skilling and Enron scandal motivated the legislation of harsher punishments and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush. It defined new crimes and increased the penalties for crimes such as mail and wire fraud. In China, white-collar criminals can be given the death penalty, while some countries have a maximum of 10-25 years imprisonment.
When sentencing, Canada considers the relationship between the parties to be a significant feature when there is a breach of trust involved. Questions about sentencing disparity in white-collar crime continue to be debated.
In the US, the FBI, concerned with identifying this type of offense, collects annual statistical information on only three categories of convictions: fraud, counterfeiting/forgery, and embezzlement. All other types of white-collar crime are listed in as, "miscellaneous".
In the United States, the longest sentences handout to white-collar criminals to date are: Sholam Weiss (845 years for racketeering, wire fraud and money laundering in connection with the collapse of National Heritage Life Insurance Company); Norman Schmidt and Charles Lewis (330 years and 30 years, respectively, for a "high-yield investment" scheme); Bernard Madoff (150 years for a $65 billion fraud scheme); Frederick Brandau (55 years for a $117 million Ponzi scheme); Eduardo Masferrer (30 years for accounting fraud); Chalana McFarland (30 years for a mortgage fraud scheme); Lance Poulsen (30 years for $2.9 billion in securities fraud and money laundering).
The U.S. Department of Justice, announced new prosecution and enforcement regulations regarding white-collar crime on October 8, 2019 including, new guidance on how prosecution evaluation of corporate defendants's requests "for a reduction of fines and penalties based on a stated inability to pay," which states that [how the guidance has changed on this particular thing]. The second regulation the U.S. Department of Justice came out with was "the restructuring of DOJ's Securities and Financial Fraud Unit as the Market Integrity and Major Frauds Unit." The U.S. Department of Justice is trying to increase "transparency" by these new factors while also organizing a better enforcement system for the United States.
|Name||Company||Occupation||Crime||Counts||Losses caused by the defendant||Company Loss||Year||Co-defendants||Sentence (Yr)|
|Sholam Weiss||National Heritage Life Insurance||Investor, Consultant||Racketeering, Wire fraud, Money Laundering||77||$0||$0 (company realized a profit after all assets were sold off)||2000||13||845|
|Keith Pound||National Heritage Life Insurance||Mortgage Specialist||Racketeering, Wire fraud, Money Laundering||74||$0||$0 (company realized a profit after all assets were sold off)||2000||13||740|
|Norman Schmidt||Capital Holdings||Investment adviser, Financier||Ponzi scheme, Money Laundering, Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, securities fraud||36||$38,414,988||$38,414,988||2008||5||330|
|Bernard Madoff||Madoff Securities International Ltd||Stock broker, Investment adviser, Financier||Ponzi scheme, Money Laundering, Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, securities fraud, Theft or embezzlement,||11||$2,000,000,000||$13,000,000,000||2009||5||150|
|Robert Allen Stanford,||Stanford Financial Group||Businessman in the financial services sector||Ponzi scheme, Money Laundering, Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, securities fraud.||21||$5,900,000,000||$5,900,000,000||2009||110|
|Frederick Brandau||Frederick Brandau's South Florida life insurance company||Businessman in the financial services sector||Conspiracy to commit mail fraud; conspiracy to commit wire fraud, conspiracy to commit money laundering.||117,000,000||55|
|Bernard Ebbers||WorldCom||Businessman in the financial services sector and telecommunication||Accounting Fraud||15||$11,000,000,000 ($0 after $5.6 billion settlement with victims)||$11,000,000,000||2005||25|
|Marc Dreier||Dreier LLP||Attorney||Money Laundering, Mail Fraud, Wire Fraud, securities fraud, Theft or embezzlement,||8||$700,000,000||$700,000,000||2009||20|
|Walter Forbes||CUC International.||Accounting Fraud||12||$3,275,000,000||$14,000,000,000||2007||1||12|
|Jeffrey Skilling||Enron||Former CEO of Enron||False statement, Insider trading, securities fraud, conspiracy||51||$41,950,874||$7,200,000,000||2006||10|
|Richard Marin Scrushy||HealthSouth Corporation,||Businessman
former chairman and chief executive officer of MedPartners, Inc.