|A version of the Windows NT operating system|
Screenshot of Windows Server 2008 showing the Server Manager application which is automatically opened when an administrator logs on.
|OS family||Microsoft Windows|
|Released to |
|February 4, 2008|
|February 27, 2008|
|Latest release||Service Pack 2 with March 19, 2019 or later update rollup (build 6.0.6003) / March 19, 2019|
|Update method||Windows Update, Windows Server Update Services, SCCM|
|Platforms||IA-32, x86-64, Itanium|
|Kernel type||Hybrid (Windows NT kernel)|
|Default user interface||Windows shell (Graphical)|
|License||Proprietary commercial software|
|Preceded by||Windows Server 2003 (2003)|
|Succeeded by||Windows Server 2008 R2 (2009)|
|Mainstream support ended on 13 January 2015|
Extended support ended on 14 January 2020
Extended Security Updates paid in yearly installements for 1, 2, or 3 years (or free for Windows Virtual Desktop users) until at most January 10, 2023 only for Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter volume licensed editions.
|Articles in the series|
Windows Server 2008 is a third server operating system produced by Microsoft and based on Windows NT 6.0. It was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and reached general availability on February 27, 2008, about 13 months after the launch of the Windows Vista operating system. Windows Server 2008 is the successor of Windows Server 2003, the server version of Windows based on Windows XP, released nearly five years earlier.
Beta 1 was released on July 27, 2005; Beta 2 was announced and released on May 23, 2006, at WinHEC 2006 and Beta 3 was released publicly on April 25, 2007. Release Candidate 0 was released to the general public on September 24, 2007 and Release Candidate 1 was released to the general public on December 5, 2007. Windows Server 2008 was released to manufacturing on February 4, 2008, and officially launched on 27th of that month.
Windows Server 2008 is built from the same codebase as Windows Vista and thus it shares much of the same architecture and functionality. Since the codebase is common, Windows Server 2008 inherits most of the technical, security, management and administrative features new to Windows Vista such as the rewritten networking stack (native IPv6, native wireless, speed and security improvements); improved image-based installation, deployment and recovery; improved diagnostics, monitoring, event logging and reporting tools; new security features such as BitLocker and address space layout randomization (ASLR); the improved Windows Firewall with secure default configuration; .NET Framework 3.0 technologies, specifically Windows Communication Foundation, Microsoft Message Queuing and Windows Workflow Foundation; and the core kernel, memory and file system improvements. Processors and memory devices are modeled as Plug and Play devices to allow hot-plugging of these devices. This allows the system resources to be partitioned dynamically using dynamic hardware partitioning - each partition has its own memory, processor and I/O host bridge devices independent of other partitions.
Windows Server 2008 includes a variation of installation called Server Core. Server Core is a significantly scaled-back installation where no Windows Explorer shell is installed. All configuration and maintenance is done entirely through command-line interface windows, or by connecting to the machine remotely using Microsoft Management Console (MMC). However, Notepad and some control panel applets, such as Regional Settings, are available.
Server Core does not include the .NET Framework, Internet Explorer, Windows PowerShell or many other features not related to core server features. A Server Core installation can be configured for several basic roles, including the domain controller (Active Directory Domain Services), Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (formerly known as Active Directory Application Mode), DNS Server, DHCP server, file server, print server, Windows Media Server, Internet Information Services 7 web server and Hyper-V virtual server roles. Server Core can also be used to create a cluster with high availability using failover clustering or network load balancing.
Andrew Mason, a program manager on the Windows Server team, noted that a primary motivation for producing a Server Core variant of Windows Server 2008 was to reduce the attack surface of the operating system, and that about 70% of the security vulnerabilities in Microsoft Windows from the prior five years would not have affected Server Core.
The Active Directory domain functionality that was retained from Windows Server 2003 was renamed to Active Directory Domain Services (ADDS).
Windows Server 2008 offers high availability to services and applications through Failover Clustering. Most server features and roles can be kept running with little to no downtime.
In Windows Server 2008, the way clusters are qualified changed significantly with the introduction of the cluster validation wizard. The cluster validation wizard is a feature that is integrated into failover clustering in Windows Server 2008. With the cluster validation wizard, an administrator can run a set of focused tests on a collection of servers that are intended to use as nodes in a cluster. This cluster validation process tests the underlying hardware and software directly, and individually, to obtain an accurate assessment of how well failover clustering can be supported on a given configuration.
This feature is only available in Enterprise and Datacenter editions of Windows Server.
Hyper-V is hypervisor-based virtualization software, forming a core part of Microsoft's virtualization strategy. It virtualizes servers on an operating system's kernel layer. It can be thought of as partitioning a single physical server into multiple small computational partitions. Hyper-V includes the ability to act as a Xen virtualization hypervisor host allowing Xen-enabled guest operating systems to run virtualized. A beta version of Hyper-V shipped with certain x86-64 editions of Windows Server 2008, prior to Microsoft's release of the final version of Hyper-V on 26 June 2008 as a free download. Also, a standalone version of Hyper-V exists; this version supports only x86-64 architecture. While the IA-32 editions of Windows Server 2008 cannot run or install Hyper-V, they can run the MMC snap-in for managing Hyper-V.
Windows System Resource Manager (WSRM) is integrated into Windows Server 2008. It provides resource management and can be used to control the amount of resources a process or a user can use based on business priorities. Process Matching Criteria, which is defined by the name, type or owner of the process, enforces restrictions on the resource usage by a process that matches the criteria. CPU time, bandwidth that it can use, number of processors it can be run on, and allocated to a process can be restricted. Restrictions can be set to be imposed only on certain dates as well.
Server Manager is a new roles-based management tool for Windows Server 2008. It is a combination of Manage Your Server and Security Configuration Wizard from Windows Server 2003. Server Manager is an improvement of the Configure my server dialog that launches by default on Windows Server 2003 machines. However, rather than serve only as a starting point to configuring new roles, Server Manager gathers together all of the operations users would want to conduct on the server, such as, getting a remote deployment method set up, adding more server roles etc., and provides a consolidated, portal-like view about the status of each role.
Most editions of Windows Server 2008 are available in x86-64 and IA-32 versions. These editions come in two DVDs: One for installing the IA-32 variant and the other for x64. Windows Server 2008 for Itanium-based Systems supports IA-64 processors. The IA-64 version is optimized for high-workload scenarios like database servers and Line of Business (LOB) applications. As such, it is not optimized for use as a file server or media server. Windows Server 2008 is the last 32-bit Windows server operating system. Editions of Windows Server 2008 include:
The Microsoft Imagine program, known as DreamSpark at the time, used to provide verified students with the 32-bit variant of Windows Server 2008 Standard Edition, but the version has since then been removed. However, they still provide the R2 release.
The Server Core feature is available in the Web, Standard, Enterprise and Datacenter editions.
Windows Server 2008 shares most of its updates with Windows Vista due to being based on its codebase.
Due to the operating system being based on the same codebase as Windows Vista and being released on the same day as the initial release of Windows Vista Service Pack 1, the RTM release of Windows Server 2008 already includes Service Pack 1.
Service Pack 2 was initially announced on October 24, 2008 and released on May 26, 2009. Service Pack 2 added new features, such as Windows Search 4.0, support for Bluetooth 2.1, the ability to write to Blu-ray discs, and simpler Wi-Fi configuration. Windows Server 2008 specifically received the final release of Hyper-V 1.0, improved backwards compatibility with Terminal Server license keys and an approximate 10% reduction in power usage with this service pack.
Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 share the same service pack update binary because the codebases of the two operating systems are unified - Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 are the first Microsoft client and server operating systems to share the same codebase since the release of Windows 2000. The predecessors to Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003, had unique codebases that used their own updates and service packs.
On October 27, 2009, Microsoft released the Platform Update for Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. It backports several APIs and libraries introduced in Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7 to Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista, including the Ribbon API, DirectX 11, the XPS library, the Windows Automation API and the Portable Device Platform. A supplemental update was released in 2011 to provide improvements and bug fixes.
Windows Server 2008 shipped with Internet Explorer 7, the same version that shipped with Windows Vista. The latest compatible version of the browser with Windows Server 2008 is Internet Explorer 9, released in 2011. Internet Explorer 9 was continually updated with cumulative monthly update rollups until support for Windows Server 2008 ended on January 14, 2020.
Starting in March 2019, Microsoft began transitioning to exclusively signing Windows updates with the SHA-3 algorithm. As a result of this Microsoft released several updates throughout 2019 to add SHA-2 signing support to Windows Server 2008.
In June 2018, Microsoft announced that they would be moving Windows Server 2008 to a monthly update model beginning with updates released in September 2018 - two years after Microsoft switched the rest of their supported operating systems to that model.
With the new update model, instead of updates being released as they became available, only two update packages were released on the second Tuesday of every month until Windows Server 2008 reached its end of life - one package containing security and quality updates, and a smaller package that contained only the security updates. Users could choose which package they wanted to install each month. Later in the month, another package would be released which was a preview of the next month's security and quality update rollup.
Installing the preview rollup package released for Windows Server 2008 on March 19, 2019, or any later released rollup package, will update the operating system kernel's build number from version 6.0.6002 to 6.0.6003. This change was made so Microsoft could continue to service the operating system while avoiding "version-related issues".
The last non-extended security update rollup packages were released on January 14, 2020, the last day that Windows Server 2008 had extended support.
Windows Server 2008 is eligible for the Extended Security Updates program. This program allows volume license customers to purchase, in yearly installments, security updates for the operating system until at most January 10, 2023. The licenses are paid for on a per-machine basis. If a user purchases an Extended Security Updates license in a later year of the program, they must pay for any previous years of Extended Security Updates as well. Extended Security Updates are released only as they become available.
A second release of Windows Server 2008, called the Windows 7-based Windows Server 2008 R2 was released to manufacturing on July 22, 2009 and became generally available on October 22, 2009. New features added in Windows Server 2008 R2 include new virtualization features, new Active Directory features, Internet Information Services 7.5 and support for up to 256 logical processors. It is the first server operating system by Microsoft to exclusively support 64-bit processors.
System requirements for Windows Server 2008 are as follows:
||2 GHz or faster||1.4 GHz (x86-64 or Itanium)||2 GHz or faster|
|RAM||512 MB||2 GB or greater||512 MB||2 GB or greater|
||40 GB or greater||
|Devices||DVD drive, 800 × 600 or higher display, keyboard and mouse|
|Specification||Windows Server 2008 SP2||Windows Server 2008 R2|
when Hyper-V is disabled
when Hyper-V is enabled
|2 TB||2 TB|