Xuzhou
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Xuzhou
Xuzhou

TV Tower of Xuzhou.jpg
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Xuzhou is located in China
Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°16?N 117°13?E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21Coordinates: 34°16?N 117°13?E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceJiangsu
County-level divisions10
Township-level divisions161
Government
 o MayorZhou Tiegen ()
 o CPC Committee SecretaryZhang Guohua ()
Area
 o Prefecture-level city11,259 km2 (4,347 sq mi)
 o Urban
3,037 km2 (1,173 sq mi)
 o Metro
2,347 km2 (906 sq mi)
Population
(2010 census)
 o Prefecture-level city8,577,225
 o Density760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 o Urban
3,053,778
 o Urban density1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 o Metro
2,623,066
 o Metro density1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
221000(Urban center), 221000, 221000, 221000(Other areas)
Area code(s)0516
ISO 3166 codeCN-JS-03
GDP¥ 660.595 billion (2017)
GDP per capitaUS$ 11,200 (2017)
Major NationalitiesHan
Licence plate prefixes?C
WebsiteArchived link
Xuzhou
XZ name.svg
"Xuzhou" in Chinese characters
Chinese
PostalSuchow
Pengcheng
Chinese

Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in Jiangsu province, China. The city, with a recorded population of 8,577,225 at the 2010 census (2,623,066 of which lived in the built-up area),[1] is a national complex transport hub and the central city of Huaihai Economic Zone.[2]

The city is designated as National Famous Historical and Cultural City since 1986 for its relics, especially the terracotta armies, the Mausoleums of the princes and the art of relief of Han dynasty.

Romanization

Before the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was typically romanized as Suchow[3] or Süchow,[4][5] though it also appeared as Siu Tcheou [Fou],[6] Hsu-chou,[7] Hsuchow,[8] and Hsü-chow.[5][9]

History

Early history

The early prehistoric relics around Xuzhou are classified as Dawenkou culture system. Liulin () site together with Dadunzi () site, Huating () site, and Liangwangcheng () site correspond to the initial, middle and late stages of this culture, respectively.[10] While the remains of sacrificial rituals performed to Tudi deity found at Qiuwan () site and Gaohuangmiao () site, both of them are in the outskirts of the city, indicate that Shang dynasty affected the area.[11] History relates that Peng or Great Peng, the transitions from a tribe to a chiefdom contained within the boundary of the city. Peng Zu is believed to be the first chief, while the state was eventually conquered by King Wu Ding of Shang in around 1208 BC.[12][13]

During the Western Zhou, a chiefdom called Xuyi or Xu rose and controlled the Lower Yellow River Valley. Allied with Huaiyi, Xuyi fought against Zhou and its vassals at irregular intervals. Since its declining, Xuyi once moved the capital to the area of Xuzhou and populated it with people who were migrated southwards.

After Song annexed the area, the city within was designated as Pengcheng. In 573 BC, Chu and Zheng armies seized Pengcheng, for a corridor connects Wu. Song laid siege to recapture, but failed. Thus Song had recourse to Jin. In the next year,the allies succeed in regaining Pengcheng.[14] In 385 BC, Marquess Wen of Han invaded Song and capture a duke in Pengcheng.

Imperial China

In 208 BC, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang pull their troops into Pengcheng, to where the Emperor Yi of Chu transferred his capital from Xuyi later, after Xiang Liang's death.[15][16] The Emperor Yi was exiled to the southern China by Xiang Yu in 206 BC, the latter then proclaimed himself the Hegemon-King of Western Chu, and established his capital in Pengcheng too, until 202 BC.

Liu Jiao, the younger half-brother of Liu Bang, became the Prince of Chu whose seat was Pengcheng. His grandson, Wu succeeded the title. Wu participated the Rebellion of the Seven Princes, he was defeated afterwards and his power was diminish by reducing the fief. By the end of the 2nd century, a prosperous Buddhist community had been settled at Pengcheng.[17]

At the turn of the 2nd century, Pengcheng changed hands several times among Cao Cao and his rivals before being annexed to Cao Wei in about 200. In the intervening years, the seat of Xuzhou (Xu province) was transferred from Tancheng to Xiapi, which located in the northwest of Suining. While Pengcheng became the seat later than 220.

With the invasions of the Five Barbarians, considerable local households migrated to the south, a Liu clan from Pengcheng ascended to the gentry, its most well known descendant is Liu Yu, the Emperor Wu of Liu Song. Pengcheng was taken by the Northern dynasties later. Liu Yu recaptured the lost territory in the north of the Huai River in about 408. Xuzhou was divided into two parts: Beixuzhou (North Xuzhou) and Xuzhou (with Jingkou as its seat) in 411. North Xuzhou whose seat was Pengcheng bounded on the south by the Huai River. Beixuzhou was restored as Xuzhou a decade later, while its south counterpart was renamed Nanxuzhou (South Xuzhou). Since then, Pengcheng remained being the seat of Xuzhou until it was eliminated in the early Ming.

The raging wars inflicted upon Xuzhou until the Emperor Taizong of Tang's enthronement in 626. Keeping the northern rebellions and warfare a distance gave Xuzhou scope for developing during the most period of the Tang dynasty. According to the Old Book of Tang and the New book of Tang, in 639, the total population of Pengcheng County, Fei County and Pei County was only 21,768, versus 205,286 in 742.[18]

Throughout Sui and Tang dynasties, Xuzhou was heavily garrisoned for defending the Bian Canal (), a crucial course to supply Chang'an ran in a south-easterly direction through the region. In 781, General Li Na revolted against the court. His cousin Li Wei, the then prefect of Xuzhou, refused to cooperate with him. So Na's army lay siege to the city of Xuzhou afterwards. Although the revolted was quell, the halt of the transport by the Bian Canal made the court feel necessary to reinforce the defence in Xuzhou.[19]

The then prefect of Xuzhou, Zhang Jiafeng () was designated as the first military governor of Xuzhou-Sizhou-Haozhou () in 788. Its seat was in Xuzhou. The title was invaild since 800, but was reinstated and renamed Wuning () fiver years later. Mutinies had broken out among the garrison periodically since the early years of the ninth century. The court managed to restore order and continued to appoint its military governors. Wang Zhixing recruited some insubordinate and unscrupulous soldiers. That made the army notorious. In 832. Li Ting took it over and got a death threat from the garrsion soon afterwards. He obliged to resign even before he was in office. [20]

Later, Wuning suffered renewed garrison revolts in 849, 859 and again in 862.[21] Two governors on their term were expelled by the soldiers.[22] Thus, the government decided to demilitarize the region. Wang Shi () was sent to put down the mutiny in 862. He executed large numbers of the garrison troops and disbanded the rest. But the consequence was proved worse. The fleeing and disbanded soldiers became bandits plundering the surrounding area. In 864, the court declared an amnesty in the area, and promised that all former soldiers who willingly re-enrolled would be sent for a tour of duty in the southern, and then, presumably, returned to regular army service in the north.[23]

Three thousand men surrendered and were sent to the south to join the two thousand Wuning soldiers sent there two years before. However, the pledge to send them back was broken. Led by Pang Xun, eight hundred of them mutinied and marched back north.[24] The two-months march was unimpeded, they moved into the region by the winter of 868.[25] The civil governor refused Pang's demand to have the officers the hated removed, and a military confrontation ensued. Thousands of local peasants joined the rebels. They took the prefectural city of Xuzhou, captured the civil governor, and killed those officers. Pang acquired a considerable following. Still, the rebellion was crushed a year later eventually. Wuning was renamed Ganhua (; literal meaning: "Reclaiming [from insubordination]") with admonishment lest the garrison to revolt again.[26]

After the Yellow River began to change course during the Song dynasty, heavy silting at the Yellow River estuary forced the river to channel its flow into the lower Huai River tributary. The area became barren thereafter due to persistent flooding, nutrient depletion and salination of the once fertile soil.

In the first month of 1129, Nijuhun took the city after a siege of 27 days, and the then governor Wang Fu () was executed for refusing to submit. Wang's inferior Zhao Li () rallied the remains and constructed a local militia. They recaptured the city two months later but withdrew from there strategically soon. Henceforth, Xuzhou was ruled by Jurchen over a century.[27]

In 1232, the general Wang You (), Feng Xian () revolted, they expelled the Jurchen's governor Tuktan. Then the Mongolian army led by Anyong (), a Han Chinese general captured Xuzhou soon. Both the general of the state of Su () Liu Anguo () and the general of Pizhou Du Zheng () yielded their owned city to Anyong. Regarding Anyong's behave as grabbing reputation, the Mongolian general Asuru (Chinese: /) irritated and persisted to kill him. Felt panic, Anyong sought refuge from Jurchen.[28] The Jin Dynasty resumed its ruling in Xuzhou, and it was quite transient. The serious disunity made betraying recur. On November 1233, the garrison of Xuzhou welcomed the Mongolian.[29] Meantime, Anyong pledged loyalty to the Song Dynasty. He captured the city again after the Mongolian army left. In the spring of the next year, the Mongolian commander Zhang Rong () attacked Xuzhou,[30] Anyong drowned himself after the final defeat.[28] The Mongolian governor of Xuzhou and Pizhou called Li Gaoge () surrendered to the Song in 1262. Then he failed and was killed after several days.[31]

A rebellion against Yuan rose by Li Er () who was nicknamed Sesame Li in the area around Xuzhou. In the eighth month of 1351, they took the city. Toghon Temür gave an edict that they would be granted amnesty if they surrendered to the authority, in the spring of the next year. The rebels ignored that, so he agreed that Toqto to suppress the unrest. The city fell in the autumn, and the multitudes were killed by Toqto's army afterwards.[32] It may be the symbolically most important victory for Toqto.[33] Thus, Xuzhou was renamed Wuan (; literal meaning: Restoring peace by force") as an favour for him, and a stone slab celebrating his deed was erected by the court in the city.[34]

Zhang Shicheng occupied Xuzhou as the northernmost city of his domain in 1360.[35] The Ming forces under Xu Da , captured Xuzhou in 1366.[36] Soon Köke Temür sent an army under General Li Er to attack Xuzhou. Fu Youde () and Lu Ju () who held the city raided them outside, most of the enemy were drowned while the remained about 270 soldiers and 500 horses were captured.[37]

The rubbing images of a copper identification token (which usually fastened on a belt) for a patrol officer in Xuzhou Guard. Its front was engraved with "Xuzhou Guard" in seal script, while the back was engraved with "Patrol".

Xuzhou had a long period of prosperity during the Ming dynasty. The flourishness largely attributed to the carriage, especially by the Grand Canal,[38] one of seven customs barriers (or customs houses, ) under the Ministry of Revenue was located in Xuzhou.[39] It was retained until the late Qing.[40] Korean Choe Bu affirmed that the city where he travelled by way of, hardly pale by comparison to the Jiangnan region.[41]

As a hub for both the national courier system and the grain tribute system for several centuries, Xuzhou was of vital importance.[42] Thus, the government of Ming established three garrison areas namely guards in the present-day area: Xuzhou guard (), Xuzhou Left guard (?) and Pizhou guard () for its security.

Yet, the local navigation was considerably constrained by two Rapids: the Xuzhou Rapids (), a kilometer southeast of the city, and the Lüliang Rapids (), another 24 kilometers further south.[43] The remedy provided by the Ministry of Works is constructing the Jia Canal, which paralleled the treacherous stretch of Xuzhou. However, the canal completed in the 1600s ravaged the city. Not only it disrupted the former drainage system, but also depressed the local economy.[44] Prior to the recession, flooding and the famines followed struck Xuzhou frequently.[45] The worst flooding occurred in 1624: it was immersed up to 1 zhang and 3 chi (about 4m) within the city.[46]

After the Hongguang Emperor enthroned in Nanjing, the court designated four defense areas along the southern bank of the Yellow River (?) to repulse the Qing armies. While the former bandit general, Gao Jie () was designated to take the crucial forward position at Xuzhou by Shi Kefa.[47] But the assassination of Gao seriously reduced the court's capacity to deal with challenges from Qing.[48] Gao's successor was Li Chengdong (). Being aware of forthcoming attack, Li deserted Xuzhou in the early summer of 1645. Then Dodo's army captured the city.

Map of the prefectural city of Xuzhou in the late Qing, the outer earthen ramparts against the Nian Rebellion is also shown.

The seismic activity of the Tancheng earthquake in 1688 was also involved Xuzhou. "More than half the houses of the city were ruined" and "led to enormous deaths", accroding to the gazetteer.[49]

In the 1850s, the Yellow River shifted its course from the southern to the northern side of the Shandong peninsula, the process caused serious floods and famine in Xuzhou, and almost made the waterway system within the prefecture defunct.

Modern China

Zhang Xun and his remaining army fled to Xuzhou after the Revolution of 1911. They entered the city on 5 December. The Nanking Government sent three armies to attack Xuzhou. In the middle of February, 1912, Zhang evacuated the city and moved north after he was defeated.

Since the Second Revolution began, Xuzhou became a front-line city. The Revolutionary Army fared badly as it advanced from there towards the north, and a rout ensued. Then the Beiyang Army captured the city on 24 July. Thereafter, Zhang Xun made Xuzhou his base. he convened four meetings of the Beiyang leadership. Involved the stalemate among Li Yuanhong and Duan Qirui in 1917, he marched on Beijing with a troop in June. His failure spread and caused a terrible wave of theft and arson committed by his garrisons later in Xuzhou in July.

The Zhili clique dominated Xuzhou by 1924. In the autumn of this year, the Second Zhili-Fengtian War broke out, Zhang Zongchang who supported the Fengtian clique seized the city with his thirty thousand soldiers. Sun Chuanfang led a coalition of forces to sortie the Fengtian Army in October 1925. They occupied the city on 8 November. As the leader of the Northern Expedition, Chiang Kai-shek arrived in Xuzhou on 17 June 1927.[50] He conferred with Feng Yuxiang and other Kuomintang officers on 20 June, Feng was courted by Nanjing.[51] Then Sun Chuanfang and Zhang Zongchang began to fight in unison against the Nationalist government. They captured the city on 24 June. The fall of Xuzhou arouse public outrage, Chiang 's first resignation ensued. On 16 December, Nanjing force took the area again.[52]

Chinese killed by Japanese Army in a ditch, Xuzhou

The area was the main site both of the Battle of Xuzhou in 1938 against the Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War and of the battle in the Chinese Civil War, the Huaihai Campaign in 1948-49.

On 19 May 1938, Chiang gave the order to abandon Xuzhou, then Japanese military took control of the city.

The Administrative Commission of the Su-Huai Special Region () was established in January 1942, with its seat at Xuzhou. It was replaced by a new puppet province, Huaihai (). Hao Pengju was appointed as the governor.[53]

After the Second Sino-Japanese War, the troop under He Zhuguo entered Xuzhou on 6 September. The Xuzhou Pacification Commission () was founded in the end of year, and Gu Zhutong was appointed as the Chief. It was disbanded when the Army Command Headquarters of transferred to Xuzhou on 5 March 1947. Meantime, a military tribunal attached to the commission was organized to sentence 25 Japanese soldiers.[54][55]

Guo Yingqiu as the representative of the CPC went to Xuzhou to negotiate a regional truce, since 10 February 1946. On 2 March, the "Committee of Three", comprising George Marshall, Zhang Zhizhong and Zhou Enlai arrived for the ceasefire in Central China. Still, the KMT and the CPC came into conflict soon. The CPC revealed that Yasuji Okamura assisted the KMT in the local warfare against the PLA.

The Huaihai was the a critical of the trinity of the major campaigns during the Chinese Civil War. Fighting centred around the city of Xuzhou, seat of the Bandit Suppression Headquarters () established on 6 June 1948. It turned into a fiasco, which led to the fall of the Nationalist Chinese capital Nanjing.[56] The CPC controlled the city on 1 December.

Then Xuzhou (the old urban area) was made a part of Shandong province temporarily, together with the rest area of the northern Jiangsu along the Longhai Railway. The city was returned to Jiangsu as the province was restored in 1953.

The railways in Xuzhou bore the brunt of the transporting muddle in the 1970s, Beijing was concerned with the issue in 1974. Thus, the then Minister of Railways, Wan Li went to Xuzhou to inspect and rectify in March. It was deemed as a breakthrough on restoring order later.[57]

On April 22, 1993, Xuzhou was ratified as a "Larger Municipality" with legislative power by the State Council.[58]

Administration

The evolutionary history

The present administrative division

The prefecture-level city of Xuzhou administers ten county-level divisions, including five districts, two county-level cities and three counties. These are further divided into 161 township-level divisions, including 63 subdistricts and 98 towns.[59]

Map
Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density (/km2)
City Proper
Gulou District G?lóu Q? 490,855 218.58 2,245.65
Yunlong District Yúnlóng Q? 345,393 119.72 2885.00
Quanshan District Quánsh?n Q? 539,693 99.97 5,398.55
Suburban
Jiawang District Ji?w?ng Q? 430,712 620.26 694.41
Tongshan District Tóngsh?n Q? 1,247,125 2,003.99 622.32
Rural
Feng County F?ng Xiàn 963,531 1,450.28 666.38
Pei County Pèi Xiàn 1,141,935 1,805.77 632.38
Suining County Su?níng Xiàn 1,039,315 1,769.34 587.40
Satellite cities (County-level cities)
Xinyi City X?nyí Shì 920,628 1,592.30 578.17
Pizhou City P?zh?u Shì 1,458,038 2,084.69 699.40
Total 8,577,225 11,764.88 729.05

Geography

Xuzhou is of strategic importance for linking South China and North China. The boundaries of its jurisdiction are adjacent to Lianyungang and Suqian in east; Suzhou of Anhui province to the south; Huaibei to the west; Linyi, Zaozhuang, Jining and Heze of Shandong province to the north.

The area can be divided into four sectors from east to west, constitute the Shandong-Jiangsu Traps (?), the Tancheng-Lujiang Fault Zone (), the Xu-Huai Downwarp-fold Belt () and the Fault-block of West Shandong (?) respectively. Most of the area is located in the Xu-Huai Alluvial Plain, the southeast part of the North China Plain.

The confluence of the former Si River and the former Bian Canal, situated off the ancient Xuzhou city north-eastwards. The city and its hinterland were the areas liable to severe flooding by the Yellow River since the 10th century. In 1194, the river changed its course to join the Si River, the former tributary of the Huai. From then on, it flowed along the north of the walled city until 1855. The city proper is bisected by its ancient course nowadays, while the Yunlong Lake () is located in the southwest. North of the lake is Yunlong Park.

Climate

Xuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, dry winters, warm springs, long, hot and humid summers, and crisp autumns. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 0.4 °C (32.7 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July; the annual mean is 14.48 °C (58.1 °F). Snow may occur during winter, though rarely heavily. Precipitation is light in winter, and a majority of the annual total of 832 millimetres (32.8 in) occurs from June thru August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 44% in July to 54% in three months, the city receives 2,221 hours of bright sunshine annually.

The lowest temperature recorded in Xuzhou was -23.3 °C, on 6 February 1969, while the highest was 43.4 °C, on 15 July 1955.[60]

Climate data for Xuzhou (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
(67.6)
25.9
(78.6)
30.1
(86.2)
34.8
(94.6)
38.2
(100.8)
40.6
(105.1)
40.0
(104)
38.2
(100.8)
36.2
(97.2)
34.5
(94.1)
29.0
(84.2)
21.3
(70.3)
40.6
(105.1)
Average high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46)
13.4
(56.1)
20.9
(69.6)
26.3
(79.3)
30.4
(86.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
14.1
(57.4)
7.7
(45.9)
19.7
(67.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.4
(32.7)
2.7
(36.9)
8.0
(46.4)
15.1
(59.2)
20.6
(69.1)
25.0
(77)
27.1
(80.8)
26.3
(79.3)
21.7
(71.1)
15.7
(60.3)
8.5
(47.3)
2.6
(36.7)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) -3.3
(26.1)
-1.4
(29.5)
3.2
(37.8)
9.8
(49.6)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.5
(74.3)
22.7
(72.9)
17.4
(63.3)
10.9
(51.6)
4.0
(39.2)
-1.6
(29.1)
10.0
(50.1)
Record low °C (°F) -17.3
(0.9)
-23.3
(-9.9)
-7.6
(18.3)
-1.4
(29.5)
4.8
(40.6)
12.4
(54.3)
15.9
(60.6)
13.4
(56.1)
5.0
(41)
-1.0
(30.2)
-8.3
(17.1)
-13.5
(7.7)
-23.3
(-9.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.6
(0.693)
20.5
(0.807)
36.0
(1.417)
47.1
(1.854)
65.5
(2.579)
106.8
(4.205)
241.0
(9.488)
132.6
(5.22)
72.3
(2.846)
51.5
(2.028)
26.7
(1.051)
14.0
(0.551)
831.6
(32.739)
Average precipitation days 4.0 5.4 6.4 7.1 7.4 8.0 13.5 9.9 7.2 6.8 5.1 3.7 84.5
Average relative humidity (%) 66 64 62 62 64 67 80 81 74 70 69 66 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.8 147.5 177.0 210.5 232.7 218.6 191.9 202.8 188.3 190.8 164.2 151.8 2,220.9
Percent possible sunshine 46 48 48 54 54 51 44 49 51 54 53 50 50
Source: China Meteorological Administration[61]

Demographics

According to the 1% National Population Sample Survey in 2015, the total resident population of Xuzhou reached 8.66 millions, and the sex ratio was 101.40 males to 100 females.[62]

Historical resident population[18]
Year Urban areas Tongshan Feng Pei Suining Pizhou Xinyi Total
1913 826,083 291,562 280,345 501,867 636,040 2,535,897
1918 854,213 281,696 294,604 506,975 639,064 2,576,552
1928 954,939 308,968 329,933 508,226 568,193 2,670,259
1932 986,536 304,480 346,593 547,848 584,904 2,770,361
1935 1,099,296 364,007 391,121 645,890 642,641 3,142,955
1953 333,190 1,072,430 473,815 395,094 653,854 683,113 452,203 4,063,699
1964 505,417 1,001,377 587,822 575,237 729,619 861,117 518,086 4,778,675
1982 779,289 1,414,460 834,568 869,778 981,917 1,187,526 741,600 6,809,138
1990 949,267 1,741,522 952,760 1,042,280 1,160,772 1,431,728 883,650 8,161,979
2002 1679626 1,262,489 1,068,404 1,183,048 1,217,820 1,539,922 962,656 8,913,965
2010 1,911,585 1,142,193 963,597 1,141,935 1,042,544 1,458,036 920,610 8,580,500

Economy

Historically, Xuzhou and the surrounding regions were a predominantly agricultural area. Its arable land was severely depleted by the changes in the course of the Yellow River since the mid 11th century, and the drought-resistant crops: wheat, sorghum, soybean, maize and potato, became the local staples. Besides, cotton, peanut, tobacco and sesame also grew in low-yield. The local mining traces it origins to an iron mine, Liguo. It was exploited since Han dynasty, and managed by a particular bureau in Song. And the city had major coal reserves of the province.[63] Local coaling began by the 1070s, according to a lyric of the then governor Su Shi.[64] Copper smelting in this area supposedly started in the Three Kingdoms era.[65]

The city astride the old course of the Grand Canal had been through several transitory periods of prosperity, before the grain tribute system was abolished in 1855. It remained being economically backward in the 1940s for wars, and a few people engaged in industrial sectors.

Later the CPC positioned the city as a region of coal mining and heavy industry. Its dominant sectors are machinery, energy and food production nowadays. The construction machinery manufacturer XCMG is the largest company based in Xuzhou. It was the world's tenth-largest construction equipment maker measured by 2011 revenues, and the third-largest based in China (after Sany and Zoomlion).[66]

Education

Xuzhou was not a regional centre for education, but two defunct institutions once chose their sites within the city: Provincial College of Kiangsu () and North China Theological Seminary. In the 1950s, the then Jiangsu Normal Academy relocated to the city in 1958, and the then Nanjing Medical College, Xuzhou was founded later, both survived the Great Leap Forward. In 1978, the then China Institute of Mining and Technology relocated to Xuzhou.

North gate of Wenchang Campus, Xuzhou Branch, China University of Mining and Technology

Schools

Universities and colleges

Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, Diocese of Xuzhou

Religion

The buildings of Xinghua Temple were erected from the Song dynasty onwards

According to the local administrator's survey in 2014, around 4.76% of the population of Xuzhou, namely 0.46 million people belongs to organised religions.The largest groups being Protestants with 350,000 people, followed by Buddhists with 70,000 people.

Xuzhou is deemed one of earlier Buddhist centres in China supposedly because the Emperor Ming of Han mentioned that the then Prince of Chu Liu Ying built a "temple for Buddha".[67]

The local Catholic activities were dominated by the French-Canadians of the Society of Jesus since the 1880s,[68] and there were 73,932 adherents and seventeen churches in 1940. Cathedral of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, completed in 1910, is still a principal church nowadays. While the initial Protestant mission in Xuzhou was led by Alfred G. Jones of BMS, then American Southern Presbyterian Mission took over it in the 1890s.

Culture

Arts

According to Xu Wei's Nanci Xulu (?; [Treatises and Catalogue of Nanqu]), Yuyao Tone (), one of then major Southern Operas, was prevalent in Xuzhou during the Mid-Ming period. Shanxi merchants popularized Bangzi in Xuzhou afterwards, since it was introduced in the late Ming along the Great Cannel. Fused the local ballads in dialect, this localized version evolved into a new opera over the following centuries. The opera was designated as Jiangsu Bangzi (?) in 1962.

The new municipal concert hall was opened in 2011, shaped like a myrtle flower. However, the various regular performances are unattainable. While the first local philharmonic orchestra is established in 2015.

Media

The first local newspaper entitled Hsing-hsü Daily (?) was started in 1913. Nowadays, Xuzhou's major newspaper is Xuzhou Daily (?), which was founded in the end of 1948. It is owned and operated by the Xuzhou Committee of the Communist Party of China.[69]

Local radio stations
Station Chinese name Frequency
News Radio ? 93 FM
Private Motor Radio 91.6 FM
Traffic Radio ? 103.3 FM
Joy Radio ? 89.6 FM
Local television channels
Channel Chinese name Description
XZ·1 ·1 News & General
XZ·2 ·2 Economy & Life
XZ·3 ·3 Arts & Entertainment
XZ·4 ·4 Public

The earliest local radio was broadcasting in 1934 for public education. Then Japanese military founded Hsuchow Broadcasting Station (; Joshi H?s?kyoku) in 1938, after the city was captured. The National Army took over it after the World War II. Broadcasting was resumed in 1949, operated by the CPC. In 1980, Xuzhou TV Station was established. A decade later, Xuzhou TV Tower was completed.

Museums

Dialect

As a subdialect of Central Plains Mandarin, Xuzhou dialect is spoken in the whole area, especially in the suburb and countryside.

Cuisine

Xuzhou cuisine is closely related to Shandong cuisine's Jinan-style. Xuzhou's most well known foods include b?zi ròu (pork belly, and other items stewed in a thick broth), sha tang (.svg?), and various dog meat dishes.

Another one of Xuzhou's famous dishes is di guo () style cooking which places ingredients with a spicy sauce in a deep black skillet and cooks little pieces of flatbread on the side or top. Common staples of di guo style cooking include chicken, fish, lamb, pork rib and eggplant.

Fu Yang Festival () is a traditional festival celebrated in the city. It starts on Chufu () which is around mid-July and lasts for about one month. During the festival, people eat lamb meat and drink lamb soup. This festival is very popular among all the citizens.

Transport

Roads

Expressways

National Highway

Rail

Xuzhou is an important railway hub, where two major passenger stations: Xuzhou and Xuzhou East are situated in. Xuzhou Railway Station is at the intersection of Jinghu Railway and Longhai Railway. While Xuzhou East Railway Station on the eastern outskirts is the junction of the Beijing-Shanghai and Xuzhou-Lanzhou high-speed railways.

Aviation

Xuzhou Guanyin International Airport serves the area with scheduled passenger flights to major airports in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hong Kong and many other cities.

Public transportation

The Xuzhou Metro will be the first subway in North Jiangsu. The project was approved by State Council in 2013. 3 subway lines are being built and expected to be completed by 2019-2020 one after another, with total length of 67 km.

The others

The Grand Canal flows through Xuzhou, and the navigation route extends from Jining to Hangzhou.

Luning oil pipeline, which originates from Linyi county of Shandong to Nanjing, passes through Xuzhou.

Military

Xuzhou is headquarters of the 12th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that compose the Nanjing Military Region responsible for the defense of China's eastern coast and possible military engagement with Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army Navy also has a Type 054A frigate that shares the name of the region.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "China: Ji?ngs? (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.
  2. ^ "(2017?78?)_". www.gov.cn. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Postal romanization, See, e.g., this 1947 ROC map.
  4. ^ Rosario Renaud, Süchow. Diocèse de Chine 1882-1931, Montréal, 1955.
  5. ^ a b Canadian Missionaries, Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 208.
  6. ^ Louis Hermand, Les étapes de la Mission du Kiang-nan 1842-1922 et de la Mission de Nanking 1922-1932, Shanghai, 1933.
  7. ^ See: Wade-Giles.
  8. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1116. ISBN 978-0-313-33539-6.
  9. ^ Twitchett, Fairbank (2009). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 5: The Sung Dynasty and Its Precursors, 960-1279 AD, Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 1042. ISBN 978-0521812481.
  10. ^ " (Brief Excavation Report of the Remains of Dawenkou Culture at the Site of Liangwangcheng in Pizhou, Jiangsu Province)" (PDF). ? (Southeast Culture). 2013(4): 21-41.
  11. ^ Yu, Weichao. "?". (Archaeology). 1973(5): 296-298.
  12. ^ ? [Bamboo Annals]. ...?,
  13. ^ Guoyu [Discourses of the States]. ?...?,
  14. ^ Ji (2008), p. 8.
  15. ^ Ji (2008), p. 17.
  16. ^ Twitchett, Loewe (1987), p. 114.
  17. ^ Twitchett, Loewe (1987), p. 670.
  18. ^ a b Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Demography Chorography (in Chinese). Nanjing: Jiangsu Guji Press. 1999. ISBN 7-80122-5260.
  19. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 593.
  20. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 541.
  21. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 687, 697.
  22. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 516, 557.
  23. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 558, 697.
  24. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 696.
  25. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 697.
  26. ^ Twitchett (2007), p. 727.
  27. ^ History of Song. 25. "...,,,...,?,,", "..."; 448. "?,?,?...,...?,,?,,,?"; Study of Northern Alliances During the Three Reigns []. 134. ",,?"
  28. ^ a b ·.
  29. ^ ·.
  30. ^ ·.
  31. ^ ·.
  32. ^ History of Yuan. 42. "...,?,", "...,?:,?,?,", "...,?,", "...,,,"; 138. ",,,?,,?,,?,,?,,,?,?,?,,?,,,?,,?".
  33. ^ Franke, Twitchett (2006). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 6: Alien regimes and border states, 907-1368. Cambridge University Press. p. 577. ISBN 978-0-521-24331-5.
  34. ^ History of Yuan. 138. ,?
  35. ^ History of Ming. 123. ,?,?,?
  36. ^ History of Ming. 1. ...?
  37. ^ [Veritable Records of the Hongwu Reign]. 22. ,,,?,?,,,,,?,,,?,?,,,?
  38. ^ Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 598.
  39. ^ Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 603.
  40. ^ Peterson (2002). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9: The Ch'ing Empire to 1800, Part I. Cambridge University Press. p. 647. ISBN 0 521 24334 3.
  41. ^ [A Record of Drifting Across the Southern Brocade Sea]. 3. ,,,,?,?,
  42. ^ Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 590.
  43. ^ Twitchett, Mote (1998), p. 599.
  44. ^ Shen, Defu. [Unofficial Gleanings from the Wanli Era]. 12. ?,,?,;?,,,,,,,?,?,,?,
  45. ^ For instances, in 1453, see History of Ming. 177. "......,?,?...,..."; in 1465, see History of Ming. 161. "...,:,?...?"; in 1518, see ? [General Gazetteer of Jiangnan]. 83. "...,"; in 1544, see [Veritable Records of the Jiajin Reign]. 290. "...?,"; in 1576, see History of Ming. 84. "......,,?,?,?"
  46. ^ History of Ming. 84. ...?,,,
  47. ^ Mote, Twitchett (2007), p. 633.
  48. ^ Mote, Twitchett (2007), p. 656.
  49. ^ [Jiangsu Provincial Gazetteer, Volume on Seismic Project] (PDF). 1994. pp. 78-9. ISBN 7-80519-550-1.
  50. ^ Fairbank (2005), p. 651.
  51. ^ Fairbank (2005), p. 665.
  52. ^ Fairbank (2005), p. 700.
  53. ^ Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Civil Administration Chorography. Beijing: China Local Records Publishing. 2002.
  54. ^ "(in Chinese)".
  55. ^ "?(in Chinese)".
  56. ^ "Battle of Suchow". Life Magazine, December 6, 1948.
  57. ^ "1975". China Railway (in Chinese).
  58. ^ ""?"".
  59. ^ "?(2016)".
  60. ^ "?(in Chinese)".
  61. ^ ?(1971-2000?) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved .
  62. ^ "The bulletin of 1% National Population Sample Survey in Xuzhou 2015 's main data".
  63. ^ "Jiangsu Provincial Geography" (in Chinese). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publishing Group. 2011. ISBN 9787303131686.
  64. ^ Feng, Yingliu (2001). "". [Commentary to an Integrator of Several Versions of the Collection of Su Shi's Poetry and Lyrics]. Shanghai. p. 878. ISBN 9787532526529. ,,?
  65. ^ A triangle-edge copper mirror with carved divine beasts unearthed at the Kurozuka Kofun [?], Tenri, Japan, bore "?;?[Copper from Xuzhou; craftman from Luoyang]".
  66. ^ "Analysis: China's budding Caterpillars break new ground overseas". Reuters. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  67. ^ History of the Later Han. 42. :,,?,?,?,,
  68. ^ "Le financement canadien-français de la mission chinoise des Jésuites au Xuzhou de 1931 à 1949" (PDF) (in French).
  69. ^ "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Press Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press.

References

  • Ji, Shijia (2008). (?) [Jiangsu Provical Gazetteer, Volume on Chronology, Part I: Prior to 1912] (PDF). Jiangsu Guji Press. ISBN 978-7-806-43321-8.
  • Twitchett, Loewe, Denis, Michael (1987). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 1: The Ch'in and Han Empires, 221 BC-AD 220. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24327-8.
  • Twitchett, Denis (2007). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 3: Sui and T'ang China, 589-906, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-21446-9.
  • Mote, Twitchett, Frederick W., Denis (2007). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
  • Twitchett, Mote, Denis, Frederick W. (1998). The Cambridge History of China, Volume 8: The Ming Dynasty, 1368-1644, Part 2. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-24333-9.
  • Fairbank (2005). The Cambridge History of China, Vol. 9: Republican China 1912-1949, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23541-9.
  • Zhao, Liangyu (2015). ··----?(1882-1948). China Social Sciences Press. ISBN 978-7-516-16418-1.

External links

  1. ^ 2010. Compiled by ? [Department of Population Census of the State Council], ? [Department of Population and Social Science and Statistics, National Bureau of Statistics]. Beijing: ? [China Statistics Print]. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6659-6.
  2. ^ Chongqing core districts urban area are consist of nine districts: Yuzhong, Dadukou, Jiangbei, Shapingba, Jiulongpo, Nan'an, Beibei, Yubei, & Banan.

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