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Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko"

? «»
LeaderNikolay Rybakov[1]
FounderGrigory Yavlinsky
Yury Boldyrev
Vladimir Lukin
Merger ofUnion of Greens of Russia (faction) (2016-present)
IdeologySocial liberalism[2]
Social democracy[2]
Green politics[3]
Green liberalism[3][2]
Rhine capitalism[6][7]
Third Way[8]
Political positionCentre (majority)[9][10]
Centre-left to Centre-right (factions)
European affiliationAlliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party (full member)
European Green Party (associate member for Green Russia faction of Yabloko)[11]
International affiliationLiberal International
ColoursGreen, Red
Federation Council
State Duma
Seats in the Regional Parliaments

The Russian United Democratic Party "Yabloko" (Russian: ? ? «?» Rossiyskaya obyedinyonnaya demokraticheskaya partiya "Yabloko") is a Russian social-liberal political party founded by former Soviet Deputy Prime Minister Grigory Yavlinsky, as well as two Senators, and currently led by Representative Emilia Slabunova. The party's logo consists of a red circle and a green isosceles triangle, suggesting an apple in a constructivist style, a nod to the party's acronym which is a Russian word for "apple" (Russian: ?, romanizedjábloko/yábloko). Yabloko's party platform stands for a social market economy, fair competition in politics and the economy, is for the inviolability of private property, and for equal opportunity. On a federal level, the party is represented by one senator, Vladimir Lukin.


The party dates back to early 1990s. The immediate predecessor of the Yabloko party was the electoral cartel Yavlinsky-Boldyrev-Lukin, formed for the legislative elections of 1993. "Yabloko" is an acronym of the names of its founders: "?" (Ya) for Grigory Yavlinsky; "?" (B) for Yury Boldyrev, and "?" (L) for Vladimir Lukin, with the full name meaning "apple" in Russian. The party stands for free markets and civil liberties in Russia, better relations with the United States and membership in the European Union. The party opposed president Boris Yeltsin's and his prime ministers' policies, earning the reputation of a determined opposition movement that nevertheless was devoted to democratic reforms (in contrast, most of the opposition was communist or far right at that time).[12] Similarly, it has continued to oppose Vladimir Putin for what they see as his increasing authoritarianism and has called for the removal of his government "by constitutional means."[]

Originally established as a public organization in 1993, it transformed into a political party in 2001. It contested the legislative elections of 1993, 1995, 1999, and 2003.

It is argued that the vote-count in the 2003 Russian parliamentary election was marred by fraud.[] Some exit-polls and parallel recounts conducted by opposition observers showed that Yabloko crossed the 5% threshold needed for parliamentary representation, gaining 6% of the vote, which should have been translated into some 20 parliamentary seats.[]Vladimir Putin himself telephoned Yavlinsky on the night of the election to congratulate his party on making it back into the Duma. However, most of these polls had a high margin of error (plus or minus three percent) and only showed Yabloko obtaining seats by a tiny margin. Official results announced by the Central Election Commission gave Yabloko 4.30% of the vote and no seats on the proportional party-list system. Only four Yabloko candidates won in individual district races and were elected to the Duma.

On 4 December 2005 Yabloko-United Democrats, a coalition formed by Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces, won 11% of the vote in the Moscow municipal elections and became one of only three parties (along with United Russia and the Communist Party) to enter the new Moscow City Duma. This success was seen by Yabloko leaders as a hopeful sign for the 2007 Russian parliamentary election, and reinforced the view that Yabloko and the Union of Rightist Forces need to unite in order to be elected to the State Duma in 2007.

The Commission on the Unification of Democratic Forces, under the chairmanship of Boris Nemtsov, was established by the Union of Rightist Forces on February 16, 2006. However, the merger plans were discarded in December 2006 since the differences seemed too large.[13]

The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko had been an observer of the Liberal International since 2002, and became a full member after the ELDR Bucharest congress in October 2006. The party's central office is located in Moscow.

In the 2007 Russian legislative election, Yabloko lost its representation in the State Duma.

In the Russian Regional elections on 4th of December 2011 Yabloko won a few places in regional parliaments of Russia: 6 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of Saint Petersburg, 4 of 50 in Legislative Assembly of the Republic of Karelia and 1 of 44 in Pskov legislative body.

In the Russian Regional elections on the 8th of September 2019 Yabloko won in different regional parliaments of Russia: 4 out of 45 seats in the Moscow City Duma and 1 in the Legislative Duma of Khabarovsk Krai. The party also managed to secure 111 municipal seats throughout the country, 81 of them in St Petersburg.


No Leader Took office Left office
Grigory Yavlinsky 16 October 1993 21 June 2008
Sergey Mitrokhin (Moscow International Book Fair 2013).jpg
Sergey Mitrokhin 21 June 2008 20 December 2015
Emilia Slabunova in the State Duma (2019-12-10) (cropped).jpg
Emilia Slabunova 20 December 2015 15 December 2019
? ? 2018.jpg
Nikolay Rybakov 15 December 2019 Incumbent

Election results

Presidential election

Presidency of Russia
Election year Candidate First Round Second Round
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
# of
overall votes
% of
overall vote
1996 Grigory Yavlinsky 5,550,752 7.4% (#4)
2000 Grigory Yavlinsky 4,351,450 5.9% (#3)
2018 Grigory Yavlinsky 769,644 1.05% (#5)

State Duma elections

Year Vote percent Seats won
1993 7.86
1995 6.89
1999 5.93
2003 4.3
2007 1.6
2011 3.43
2016 2.0

Regional parliamentary elections

Regional parliaments of Russia in which Yabloko is represented.

Regional Parliament Election year Seats
# Position
 Karelia 2016
 Khabarovsk Krai 2019
 Kostroma Oblast 2015
 Pskov Oblast 2016
Federal cities
 Saint Petersburg 2016
 Moscow 2019
  1. ^ a b Tied with other parties.

See also

Further reading

  • Hale, Henry (2004). "Yabloko and the Challenge of Building a Liberal Party in Russia". Europe-Asia Studies. 56 (7): 993-1020. doi:10.1080/1465342042000294338.
  • White, David (2006). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy, Burlington: Ashgate.


  1. ^ «» ?
  2. ^ a b c d "How Russia's political parties line up". BBC News. 6 March 2012 – via www.bbc.com.
  3. ^ a b "? "? " » ". rus-green.ru/. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ Publications, Europa (19 October 2018). The International Who's Who 2004. Psychology Press. ISBN 9781857432176 – via Google Books.
  5. ^ Lewis, Paul G. (19 October 2018). Party Development and Democratic Change in Post-Communist Europe: The First Decade. Taylor & Francis US. ISBN 9780714681740 – via Google Books.
  6. ^ White, David (19 October 2018). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754646754 – via Google Books.
  7. ^ White, David (19 October 2018). The Russian Democratic Party Yabloko: Opposition in a Managed Democracy. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 9780754646754 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ Yabloko, Author. "Russian Democratic Party YABLOKO » Concert in support of "The third way": "We'll fight till the end"". eng.yabloko.ru.
  9. ^ Gowland, David; Dunphy, Richard; Lythe, Charlotte, eds. (2006). The European Mosaic (Third ed.). Pearson Education. p. 228. ISBN 9780582473706.
  10. ^ Ross, Cameron (2009). Local Politics and Democratization in Russia. ISBN 9780415336543. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ "Green Russia". European Greens.
  12. ^ Shabaev, Andrey. "? ?. 4". partinform.ru.
  13. ^ Sputnik (16 December 2006). "Russian liberal SPS, Yabloko parties give up unification plans". Retrieved 2016.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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