Yantai
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Yantai

Yantai


Yentai
Yantai Skyline
Yantai Skyline
Location of Yantai City Jurisdiction in Shandong
Location of Yantai City Jurisdiction in Shandong
Yantai is located in China
Yantai
Yantai
Location in China
Coordinates (Yantai government administrative service center ()): 37°32?28?N 121°23?38?E / 37.541°N 121.394°E / 37.541; 121.394Coordinates: 37°32?28?N 121°23?38?E / 37.541°N 121.394°E / 37.541; 121.394
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceShandong
County-level divisions12
Townships-level divisions148
Municipal seatLaishan District
Government
 o CPC SecretaryZhang Shuping ()
 o MayorChen Fei ()
Area
 o Prefecture-level city13,739.9 km2 (5,305.0 sq mi)
Population
(2010)
 o Prefecture-level city6,968,202
 o Density510/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 o Urban
2,227,733
 o Metro
2,227,733
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
264000-265800
Area code(s)535
ISO 3166 codeCN-SD-06
GDP¥435.8 billion (2010)
GDP per capita¥62,541 (2010)
License Plate?F & ?Y
Websitewww.yantai.gov.cn
Yantai
YT name.svg
"Yantai" in Chinese
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Hanyu PinyinY?ntái
Literal meaning"Smoke Tower"
Former names
Yantai (Chefoo), Qing Dynasty postage stamp.gif
A Qing-era postage stamp from Zhifu ("Chefoo")
Zhifu
Chinese
Hanyu PinyinZh?fú
PostalChefoo

Yantai, formerly known as Zhifu or Chefoo, is a prefecture-level city on the Bohai Strait in northeastern Shandong Province, China. Lying on the southern coast of the Korea Bay, Yantai borders Qingdao on the southwest and Weihai on the east. It is the largest fishing seaport in Shandong. Its population was 6,968,202 during the 2010 census, of whom 2,227,733 lived in the built-up area made up of the 4 urban districts of Zhifu, Muping, Fushan, and Laishan.

Names

The name Yantai (lit."Smoke Tower") derives from the watchtowers constructed on in 1398 under the reign of the Hongwu Emperor of the Ming dynasty. The towers were used to light signal fires and send smoke signals, called langyan from their supposed use of wolf dung for fuel. At the time, the area was troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" (Wokou), initially raiders from the warring states in Japan but later principally disaffected Chinese. It was also formerly romanized as Yen-tai.[1]

The major district of Yantai is Zhifu, which used to be the largest independent city in the area. It was variously romanized as Chefoo,[2] and . Although this name was used for the city by foreigners prior to the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, the locals referred to the settlement as Yantai throughout.[1][3]

History

Moon Bay in Yantai

During the Xia and Shang dynasties, the region was inhabited by indigenous people vaguely known to the Chinese as the "Eastern Barbarians" (Dongyi). Under the Zhou, they were colonized and sinicized as the state of Lai. Lai was annexed by Qi in Under the First Emperor (Shi Huangdi), the area was administered as the Qi Commandery. Under the Han, this was renamed as the Donglai Commandery (???). Following the Three Kingdoms Period, the area was organized by the Jin as the Donglai Kingdom or Principality, later returning to prefecture status as a jùn and then zh?u. Under the Tang and during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, it was known as Deng Prefecture and organized with the Henan Circuit. It was then organized as the Laizhou (???) and then, under the Qing, Dengzhou Prefecture (???).

Up to the 19th century, however, the Zhifu area consisted of nothing but small unwalled fishing villages of little importance.[1] Under the Ming, these were first troubled by the "Dwarf Pirates" and then by the overreacting "Sea Ban", which required coastal Chinese to give up trading and most fishing and relocate inland upon pain of death.

Following the Second Opium War, the Qing Empire was obliged to open more treaty ports by the unequal 1858 Treaty of Tianjin, including Tengchow (now Penglai). Its port being found inadequate, Zhifu--about 30 miles (48 km) away--was selected to act as the seat of the area's foreign commerce.[1] The mooring was at considerable distance from shore, necessitating more time and expense in loading and unloading, but the harbor was deep and expansive and business grew rapidly.[1] The harbor opened in May 1861, with its status as an international port affirmed on 22 August. The official decree was accompanied by the construction of the Donghai Customs House (?).[4] It quickly became the residence of a circuit intendant ("taotai"), customs house, and a considerable foreign settlement located between the old native town and the harbor.[1]Britain and sixteen other nations established consulates in the town.[4] The town was initially expanded with well-laid streets and well-built stone houses, even for the poorer classes, a Catholic and a Protestant church were erected, and a large hotel did business with foreigners who employed the town as a summer resort.[1]

Original German Post Office in Yantai's old town

The principal traders were the British and Americans, followed by the Germans and Thais.[a] In the 1870s, the principal imports were woolen and cotton goods, iron, and opium and the principal exports were tofu, soybean oil, peas, coarse vermicelli, vegetables, and dried fruit from Zhifu itself, raw silk and straw braid from Laizhou, and walnuts from Qingzhou. The town also traded Chinese liquors and sundries for the edible seaweed grown in the shallows of the Russian settlements around Port Arthur (now Dalian's Lüshunkou District).[1] In 1875, the murder of the British diplomat Augustus Margary in Tengchong, Yunnan, led to a diplomatic crisis that was resolved in Zhifu by Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang the next year.[5] The resultant Chefoo Convention gave British subjects extraterritoriality throughout China and exempted the foreign merchants' enclaves from the likin tax on internal commerce. Its healthy situation and good anchorage made it a favorite coaling station for foreign fleets, giving it some importance in the conflicts over Korea, Port Arthur, and Weihaiwei.[5]

Along with much of the rest of Shandong, Yantai was under German influence for about 20 years.[6] In the run-up to the First World War, its trade continued to grow[b] but was limited by the poor roads of the area's hinterland and the necessity of using pack animals for portage.[5] The trade items remained largely the same as before.[5] After the Germans were defeated by Allied forces in World War I, Qingdao and Yantai were handed over to the Japanese, who turned Yantai into a summer station for their Asian fleet. They also set up a trading establishment in the town.[7] The different foreign influences that shaped this city are explored at the Yantai Museum, which used to be a guild hall. However, the city's colourful history has not left a distinctive architectural mark, there has never been a foreign concession, and though there are a few grand 19th-century European buildings, most of the town is of much more recent origin.[8] After 1949, the town's name was changed from Chefoo to Yantai, and it was opened to the world as an ice-free trade port in 1984.[9]

On 12 November 1911, the eastern division of Tongmeng Hui declared itself a part of the revolutionary movement. The next day, it established the Shandong Military Government () and, the day after that, renamed itself the Yantai Division of the Shandong Military Government (). In 1914, Jiaodong Circuit () was established with Yantai as the capital. Jiaodong Circuit was renamed Donghai Circuit () in 1925. On 19 January 1938, Yantai participated as part of an anti-Japanese revolutionary committee.

After the creation of the People's Republic of China, Yantai was officially awarded city status with the outlying towns of Laiyang and Wendeng tacked on as "Special Regions" () in 1950. Wendeng was merged into Laiyang six years later, and this larger Laiyang Special Region was combined with Yantai City to become Yantai Prefecture (?). Yantai is of strategic importance to China's defense, as it and Dalian, directly across the Bohai Sea from it, are primary coastal guard points for Beijing. In November 1983, the prefecture became a prefecture-level city.[10]

Geography

Yantai (labelled as YEN-T'AI (CHEFOO) ) (1953)

Yantai is located along the north coast of the Shandong Peninsula, south of the junction of Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea and parallel to the southern coast of Liaoning. The topographical breakdown consists of:

  • 36.62% mountainous
  • 39.7% hilly
  • 50.23% plain
  • 2.90% basin

About 2,643.60 km2 (1,020.70 sq mi) is urbanized. Only Qixia City is located entirely inland. All other county-level entities are coastal, with Changdao consisting entirely of islands. The total coastline of the prefecture is 909 kilometers (565 mi).

The summits in the hill country vary from 100-300 meters (330-980 ft); the average peak in the mountainous region is 500 meters (1,600 ft), and the highest point of elevation is the summit of Mount Kunyu (???) at 922.8 meters (3,028 ft).

There are 121 rivers over 5 kilometers (3.1 mi) in length, the largest being:

  • Wulong River ()
  • Dagu River ()
  • Dagujia River (?)
  • Wang River ()
  • Jie River ()
  • Huangshui River ()
  • Xin'an River ()

The core of the old town of Zhifu was located above the mouth of the Yi (??, Yí Hé).[1]

Climate

Climate data for Yantai (1971-2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.6
(58.3)
19.8
(67.6)
25.0
(77.0)
31.9
(89.4)
35.3
(95.5)
38.0
(100.4)
36.9
(98.4)
36.2
(97.2)
32.4
(90.3)
30.4
(86.7)
25.1
(77.2)
18.8
(65.8)
38.0
(100.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) -1.2
(29.8)
-0.3
(31.5)
4.8
(40.6)
12.0
(53.6)
17.8
(64.0)
22.0
(71.6)
24.8
(76.6)
24.8
(76.6)
21.1
(70.0)
15.7
(60.3)
8.4
(47.1)
1.8
(35.2)
12.6
(54.7)
Record low °C (°F) -12.8
(9.0)
-12.6
(9.3)
-8.1
(17.4)
-2.6
(27.3)
6.6
(43.9)
11.5
(52.7)
14.7
(58.5)
15.0
(59.0)
10.7
(51.3)
0.8
(33.4)
-4.9
(23.2)
-10.8
(12.6)
-12.8
(9.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 11.5
(0.45)
9.7
(0.38)
16.5
(0.65)
35.7
(1.41)
49.9
(1.96)
70.0
(2.76)
150.0
(5.91)
161.6
(6.36)
83.7
(3.30)
39.0
(1.54)
25.1
(0.99)
19.8
(0.78)
672.5
(26.49)
Average precipitation days 6.4 5.0 4.7 6.2 6.2 8.5 11.7 10.3 7.1 6.2 6.2 7.5 86.0
Source: Weather China[11]

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Yantai administers 12 county-level divisions, including four districts, seven county-level cities, one county, and one development zone. ()

These are further divided into 148 township-level divisions, including 94 towns, six townships, and 48 subdistricts.

Economy

Yantai is currently the second largest industrial city in Shandong, next to Qingdao. However, the region's largest industry is agriculture. It is famous throughout China for a particular variety of apple and Laiyang pear, and is home to the country's largest and oldest grape winery, Changyu.[12]

Modern day Chateau Changyu, Yantai, Shandong

The county-level city of Longkou is well known throughout China for its production of cellophane noodles.[]

Power

Yantai derives most of its energy from a large coal power plant using bituminous coal, and fitted with coal gasification technology to minimize pollution.[13] The plant is located close to Yantai port.[14]

Industrial Zones

  • Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area

Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area is one of the earliest approved state-level economic development zones in China. It now has a planned area of 10 km2 (3.9 sq mi) and a population of 115,000. It lies on the tip of the Shandong Peninsula facing the Yellow Sea. It adjoins downtown Yantai, merely 6 kilometers away from Yantai Port, 6 kilometers away from Yantai Railway Station (not to be confused with Yantai South Railway Station), and a 30-minute drive to Yantai International Airport.[15]

  • Yantai Export Processing Zone

Yantai Export Processing Zone (YTEPZ) is one of the first 15 export processing zones approved by the State Council. The total construction area of YTEPZ is 4.17 km2 (1.61 sq mi), in which the initial zone covers 3 km2 (1.2 sq mi). After developing for several years, YTEPZ is completely constructed. At present, the infrastructure has been completed, with standard workshops of 120,000 m2 (1,300,000 sq ft) and bonded warehouses of 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft). Up to now, owing to an excellent investment environment, YTEPZ has attracted investors from foreign countries and regions such as Japan, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Sweden, the United States, Canada, etc., as well as domestic investors, to operate in the zone.[16]

Average height

The people of Yantai are known to be one of the tallest in China. As the economy prospered, height increased. The average height for 16-18 year old male students in 2010 was 176.4 cm (5 ft 9.4 in).[17]

Education

The following is a list of prominent Yantai higher education institutions.

China Agricultural University and Binzhou Medical College house campuses in Yantai.

It houses a Korean international school, Korean School in Yantai.

Chefoo School previously educated foreign children.

Transport

Yantai Penglai International Airport provides scheduled flights to major airports in China as well as Seoul, Osaka, and Hong Kong.[18]

Tourism

Yantai Ship Mast
Temple of the Sea Goddess

Penglai City's Dan Cliffs () is said to be the departure point of the Eight Immortals on their trip to the Conference of the Magical Peach.[] It is important to note that Penglai is around 80Km from the city centre of Yantai.

Twin cities of Yantai

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in China[]

Notable people

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In 1872, 233 British vessels entered the port with 97,239 tons of cargo valued at £144,887 and 348 ships of all other nationalities entered with 149,197 tons of cargo valued at £177,168.[1]
  2. ^ Total imports and exports were valued at £2,724,000 in 1880, £4,228,000 in 1899, and £4,909,908 in 1904. The 905 vessels in 1895 had a total tonnage of 835,248; the 1842 in 1905 held 1,492,514 tons.[5]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k EB (1878).
  2. ^ Postal Map Romanization.
  3. ^ a b EB (1911), p. 132.
  4. ^ a b "?:", ?, 19 June 2008, archived from the original on 15 November 2012, retrieved 2012. (in Chinese)
  5. ^ a b c d e EB (1911), p. 133.
  6. ^ Zhou, Yingjie (24 July 2006), ",(?)", Sina Finance, archived from the original on 19 November 2012, retrieved 2012. (in Chinese)
  7. ^ Jin, Long (24 July 2006). ?(?). Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Wang, Xin (24 July 2006). :?. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ Liu, Xinguo (24 July 2006). --(?). Retrieved 2012.
  10. ^ . 24 July 2006. Archived from the original on 18 April 2014. Retrieved 2012.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 November 2018. Retrieved 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ Will Lyons (5 April 2013). "Indulge in China's Latest Export". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 27 August 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  13. ^ "A report- China's coal future and public permissions for building power plants". http://www.mep.gov.cn/home/rdq/hjyxpj/jsxmhjyxpj/xmslqk/201605/W020160522142498799849.pdf. Shandong university and Shandong provincial government. Retrieved 2018. External link in |website= (help)
  14. ^ Fairley, Peter (1 January 2007). China's coal future. USA: MIT Technology review. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ "RightSite.asia | Yantai Economic and Technological Development Area". Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  16. ^ "RightSite.asia | Yantai Export Processing Zone". Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  17. ^ "Yantai average height". 2015. Archived from the original on 29 April 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "Yantai Chaoshui International Airport project". Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 2011.

References

External links


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Yantai
 



 



 
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