Yu Ying-shih
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Yu Ying-shih
Yu Ying-shih
Yu Ying-shih.jpg
Born (1930-01-22) 22 January 1930 (age 89)
Alma materYenching University
New Asia College
Harvard University
Awards2006 Kluge Prize
Scientific career
InstitutionsUniversity of Michigan
Harvard University
New Asia College
Yale University
Princeton University
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Doctoral advisorYang Lien-sheng
Doctoral studentsRay Huang
InfluencesCh'ien Mu

Yu Ying-shih (Chinese: ; born January 22, 1930) is a Chinese-born American historian and sinologist known for his mastery of sources for Chinese history and philosophy, his ability to synthesize them on a wide range of topics, and for his advocacy for a new Confucianism. He was a tenured professor at Harvard University, Yale University, and Princeton University, and is an Emeritus Professor of East Asian Studies and History, Princeton University.

He is the elder brother of philosopher and educator Paul Yu.

Prizes and honors

On November 15, 2006, Yu Ying-shih was named the third recipient of the John W. Kluge Prize for lifetime achievement in the study of humanity. He shared the 2006 prize with John Hope Franklin.[1] He is the inaugural winner of the Tang Prize in Sinology, which recognizes scholars conducting "revolutionary research" and is selected by the Academia Sinica.[2] Yu used his Tang Prize winnings of NT$10 million to establish the Yu Ying-shih Fellowship for the Humanities.[3] Asteroid 28966 Yuyingshih, discovered by Bill Yeung in 2001, was named in his honor.[4] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on April 6, 2019 (M.P.C. 112430).[5]

Early life

Yu's father, who had studied at Harvard, taught history in Tianjin, and at the start of the second Sino-Japanese War sent him to live with his aunt from 1937 through 1946 in rural Anhui province, where they would be safe from Japanese invasion.[6] He later recalled that "although rujia [Confucian] culture was in a degenerate state, it nevertheless controlled the activities of daily life: by and large, all interpersonal relationships--from marriage and funeral customs to seasonal festivals--adhered to the rujia norms, supplemented by Buddhist and Daoist beliefs and practices."[7] Wartime shortages meant that sometimes the family had no money for rice, forcing them to eat potatoes. "I hate potatoes," he later told an interviewer. The situation was too chaotic for him to attend school, so he read whatever material he could find, for instance, his aunt's popular novels.[6]

Academic career

In 1949, he enrolled in the department of History in Yenching University, but in 1950 came to Hong Kong for reunion with his family. He then studied in the newly founded New Asia College, later incorporated into Chinese University of Hong Kong. The founders of New Asia College, which Yu joined as a student, were staunchly anti-Communist, rejected the iconoclastic New Culture Movement but did not see Western liberal thought as the alternative. Yu studied with Ch'ien Mu, a scholar rooted in traditional Chinese philosophy, and became the first graduate of the college. He is remembered both as an international prodigy at weiqi (or Chinese chess) and for the number of cigarettes he smoked.

On Ch'ien's recommendation, he came to Harvard University in the United States in 1955, and received his PhD in 1962. He then taught at various universities including University of Michigan, Harvard, Yale University and Princeton University. As Yale historian Jonathan Spence commented, Yu is one of the few people to have been tenured at these three Ivy League universities. In 1973, he came back to his alma mater, New Asia College. He became the Head of the College and also the Pro Vice-Chancellor of University, before returning to Harvard, then moving to Yale in 1977, and then to Princeton in 1987. When asked later why he had moved to Princeton he said: "They had a really interesting library." He retired from Princeton in 2001.[6]


While still in Hong Kong, Yu started to write books and pamphlets in Chinese commenting on the problems of intellectuals and democracy in the People's Republic.[8] He was particularly tenacious over the years in presenting the achievements of Chen Yinke (1890-1969), the greatest modern scholar of Tang dynasty China, who was at first supported and then hounded to death by the revolution. His Harvard PhD thesis was published as Trade and Expansion in Han China; a Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967). Scrupulous and thematically relevant monographs, mostly published in Chinese, explored the role of intellectuals, especially early modern moral and political critics such as Fang Yizhi (1611-71), Dai Zhen (1723-77), and Zhang Xuecheng (1738-1801), who had been neglected in earlier scholarship. Yu also mastered the scholarship around Honglou Meng, the novel known in English as Dream of the Red Chamber, a masterpiece exploring the decline of a rich family at the height of the Qing empire in the late 18th century.

The insistent, modest, meticulous voice of history which Yu developed in these studies was the one he used in the debates over democracy in the 1980s and 1990s. Some people, including both the defenders of the state in Beijing and western modernization liberals, still insisted that democracy and Confucianism were incompatible. But Yu developed the philosophical and historical arguments perhaps implicit in the thought of his mentors: liberal Confucian values, once freed from the imperial ideology of the dynasties, are essential to democracy: The independent spirit of the scholar both models and creates responsible criticism of politics. Confucian values had always insisted on the critique of political power, moral judgment grounded in historic comparison, the voice of the people in governance, the contingent nature of the political mandate, public discourse, the responsibility of the individual for social action, and could even be developed for a contemporary view of women's rights.[9]

Yu developed a critical view of the revival of Confucianism in mainland China. He commented "the Chinese Communists are not Confucianists." [10] He held that there were two kinds of Confucianism to be found in China's history: "the Confucianism that had been persecuted, the other is the Confucianism that has persecuted people." He termed the state sponsorship of Confucianism in China today "the kiss of death." Yet at the same time he argued that democracy had been practiced in China and was therefore not an importation from the West.[11]

In October 2014 it was reported that Beijing had ordered the banning of works by Yu Yingshi.[12][13]

Major works

  • Yu Ying-shih WorldCat.
  • Yu, Yingshi (1967). Trade and Expansion in Han China a Study in the Structure of Sino-Barbarian Economic Relations. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • —— (1981). Early Chinese History in the People's Republic of China : The Report of the Han Dynasty Studies Delegation, October-November 1978. Seattle: School of International Studies, University of Washington.
  • —— (1974). "The Two Worlds of 'Hung-Lou Meng'". Renditions. 2 (Spring): 5-21.
  • —— (1993). "The Radicalization of China in the Twentieth Century". Daedalus: 125-150.
  • —— (2001), "Neither Renaissance nor Enlightenment: A Historian's Reflections on the May Fourth Movement", in Dole?elová-Velingerová, Milena (ed.), The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China's May Fourth Project, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 299-320
  • —— (2004). Yu Yingshi Wenji . Guilin: Guangxi shifan daxue chubanshe.:
  • Vol 1 (history, historians and their times)
  • Vol 2 (Traditional Chinese Thought and its present day transformation)
  • Vol 3 (Confucian ethic and the spirit of capitalism)
  • Vol 4 ? (Chinese intellectuals and their historical investigations)
  • Vol 5 ? (Modern scholars and scholarship)
  • Vol 6 (Democracy and modern civilization)
  • Vol 7 (?) (Cultural critique Pt I)
  • Vol 8 (?) (Cultural critiques Pt II)
  • Vol 9 (Historical textual studies)
  • Vol 10 (Studies in Song and Ming Lixue and political culture)


  1. ^ "Historians John Hope Franklin, Yu Ying-shih Named Winners of 2006 John W. Kluge Prize for the Study of Humanity". The Library of Congress. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "Historian Yu Ying-shih Named Winner of the 2014 Tang Prize in Sinology". Archived from the original on 2014-07-26. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Hsu, Elizabeth (23 August 2015). "Yu Ying-shih Fellowship open for applications". Central News Agency. Retrieved 2015.
  4. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 28966 Yuyingshih (2001 HS24)" (2018-08-08 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Yu Ying-shih: The humble Scholar". New Jersey Star Ledger. December 31, 2006..
  7. ^ quoted in John Makeham, Lost Soul: "Confucianism in Contemporary Chinese Academic Discourse [1] (Harvard University Press, 2008): 1.
  8. ^ Ziyou Yu Pingdeng Zhi Jian [Between freedom and equality](Jiulong: Ziyou chuban she, 1955); Minzhu Geming Lun : Shehui Chongjian Xin Guan[On democratic revolution: new views on social reconstruction] (Jiulong: Ziyou chu ban she, 1954).
  9. ^ Yingshi Yu, Democracy, Human Rights and Confucian Culture (Oxford: Asian Studies Centre St. Antony's College, 2000).
  10. ^ Yu Ying-shih, "The Chinese Communists Are Not Confucianists," China Change July 1, 2015
  11. ^ Crane, Sam (2015). "Thoughts on Yu Ying-Shih's Brief Reflection on "Confucianism's Kiss of Death"". Useless Tree.
  12. ^ Cao Guoxing (11 October 2014), SARFT bans several authors Radio France Internationale
  13. ^ "China bans books by pro-Hong Kong protest author". Washington Post. Associated Press. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 2014.

Further reading

External links

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