Zoran Milanovi%C4%87
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Zoran Milanovi?
Z milanovic.jpg
President of Croatia

19 February 2020
Andrej Plenkovi?
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?
Prime Minister of Croatia

23 December 2011 - 22 January 2016
PresidentIvo Josipovi?
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?
DeputyRadimir ?a?i?
Branko Gr?i?
Milanka Opa?i?
Vesna Pusi?
Jadranka Kosor
Tihomir Ore?kovi?
Leader of the Opposition

22 January 2016 - 26 November 2016
Tihomir Ore?kovi?
Andrej Plenkovi?
Tomislav Karamarko
Davor Bernardi?

2 June 2007 - 23 December 2011
Ivo Sanader
Jadranka Kosor
Ivica Ra?an
?eljka Antunovi? (acting)
Jadranka Kosor
President of the Social Democratic Party

2 June 2007 - 26 November 2016
DeputyZlatko Komadina
Gordan Maras
Milanka Opa?i?
Rajko Ostoji?
Ivica Ra?an
?eljka Antunovi? (acting)
Davor Bernardi?
Personal details
Born (1966-10-30) 30 October 1966 (age 54)
Zagreb, SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia
Political party
Spouse(s)
Sanja Musi?
(m. 1994)
Children2
Parents
  • Stipe Milanovi?
  • ?ur?ica Matasi?
Alma mater
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website

Zoran Milanovi? (pronounced [z?ran mil?:no?it?] ;[2] born 30 October 1966) is a Croatian politician who has served as President of Croatia since 19 February 2020. Prior to assuming the presidency, he was Prime Minister from 2011 to 2016, and president of the Social Democratic Party from 2007 to 2016.

After graduating from the Zagreb Faculty of Law, Milanovi? started working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He served as an advisor at the Croatian Mission to the European Union and NATO in Brussels from 1996 to 1999. During the same year he joined the Social Democratic Party. In 1998 he earned his master's degree in European Union law at the Flemish University in Brussels and was an assistant to the Foreign minister of Croatia for political multilateral affairs in 2003. In June 2007 he was elected president of the SDP, following the death of the long-time party leader and former prime minister Ivica Ra?an. Under Milanovi?'s leadership the party finished in second place in the 2007 parliamentary election and was unable to form a governing majority. Despite losing the election, he was reelected party leader in 2008. In 2011 Milanovi? initiated the formation of the Kukuriku Coalition, uniting four centre to centre-left political parties. The coalition won an absolute majority in the 2011 parliamentary election, with the SDP itself becoming the largest party in Parliament. Milanovi? thus became Prime Minister on 23 December 2011, after the Parliament approved his cabinet.

The beginning of his prime ministership was marked by efforts to finalise the ratification process of Croatia's entry into the European Union and by the holding of a membership referendum. His cabinet introduced changes to the tax code, passed a fiscalisation law and started several large infrastructure projects. After the increase in the value of the Swiss franc, the government announced that all Swiss franc loans would be converted into euros. Milanovi? supported the expansion of same-sex couples' rights and introduced the Life Partnership Act. After the inconclusive 2015 election and more than two months of negotiations on forming a government, he was ultimately succeeded as prime minister by the nonpartisan technocrat Tihomir Ore?kovi? in January 2016. After Ore?kovi?'s government fell, Milanovi? led the four-party People's Coalition in the subsequent snap parliamentary election in September 2016. In the election, his coalition suffered a surprise defeat to the centre-right Croatian Democratic Union and Milanovi? announced his withdrawal from politics. He then entered the consulting business and worked as an advisor to Albanian prime minister Edi Rama.

On 17 June 2019, Milanovi? announced that he would be running for the office of president in the 2019-20 election as the candidate of the Social Democratic Party; he was officially nominated on 6 July 2019. He thereafter proceeded to receive the most votes (29.55%) in the first round of the election on 22 December 2019, ahead of incumbent president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? (26.65%) and to be elected as the fifth President of Croatia in the runoff on 5 January 2020, with 52.66% of the vote. He became the first presidential candidate in Croatian history to receive more votes than an incumbent officeholder in the first round of an election, the second person in Croatia to defeat an incumbent running for reelection and the first (post-independence) prime minister of Croatia to be elected head of state.

Personal life

His father, Stipe Milanovi? (1937-2019), was an economist, and his mother, ?ur?ica "Gina" (née Matasi?) Milanovi?, was a teacher of English and German.[3] He stated that his family roots are from Livno, Bosnia and Herzegovina.[4]

His paternal family hails from the Sinj environs.[5] His paternal grandfather and a paternal great-uncle, Ante and Ivan Milanovi?, respectively, from Glavice joined the Partisans in 1942, taking part later in the liberation of Trieste, while his maternal grandfather, Stjepan Matasi?, from an affluent family, was, Milanovi? revealed in 2016, an Ustasha,[5][6] member of the paramilitary corps established by the Nazi-collaborationist government of the Independent State of Croatia.

Zoran's father was a member of the KPJ.[5] Milanovi? was baptized secretly by his maternal grandmother, Marija Matasi?, at the Church of St. Peter and Paul, and given the baptismal name Marijan.[3] He was brought up in the neighbourhoods of Kne?ija, and after 1970 in Trnje, a communist quarter.[3] He had a brother, Kre?imir, who died in 2019. Milanovi? attended the Center for Management and Judiciary from 1981.[3][7]

Milanovi? was into sports, football, basketball and boxing. He declared as a leftist.[3] In 1985, he entered the University of Zagreb to study law, then finished his military service, and returned to study in 1986.[3] Apart from Croatian, he speaks English, French and Russian.[]

After college, Milanovi? became an intern at the Zagreb Commercial Court, and in 1993 for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, working under future political rival Ivo Sanader. A year later, he joined an OSCE peacekeeping mission in the Nagorno-Karabakh region, disputed between Azerbaijan and local Armenian rebels.[8]

In 1994, he married Sanja Musi?, with whom he has two sons: Ante Jakov and Marko.[9][10]

Party president

In 1999, he joined the Social Democratic Party (SDP) as he had not yet been an official member. Following SDP's win in the 2000 elections, he was given responsibility for liaison with NATO, three years later he became assistant to Foreign Minister Tonino Picula. He left his post after the 2003 elections when the conservative Croatian Democratic Union came to power.

As an SDP member, in 2004 he renounced his position as an assistant minister of foreign affairs and became a member of the newly founded SDP's Executive Committee as well as the International Secretary in charge of contacts with other political parties. Two years later, he briefly became party spokesman, standing in for absent Gordana Grbi?. In early September 2006 he became SDP's coordinator for the 4th constituency in the 2007 elections.

An extraordinary Party convention was held in Zagreb on 2 June 2007, due to 11 April resignation of the first Party President and Croatia's former Prime Minister Ivica Ra?an. Milanovi? entered the contest, despite being considered an "outsider", because of his shorter term in the party, running against ?eljka Antunovi? (acting Party President since Ra?an's resignation), Milan Bandi? and Tonino Picula. On 29 September 2007, during the campaign for party president, he publicly promised to resign and never to seek presidency of the party again, if party didn't win more seats that HDZ in next elections.[11]

In the first round he led with 592, well ahead of his nearest rival, ?eljka Antunovi?.[12] He won the second round, thereby becoming president of the party.[13]

2007 Parliament election

The 2007 parliamentary election turned out to be the closest election since independence with SDP winning 56 seats, only 10 mandates short of HDZ's 66. 5 seats that HDZ had won were from the eleventh district reserved for citizens living abroad, which was one of the main campaign issues of SDP which sought to decrease electoral significance of the so-called diaspora voters. The resulting close race left both sides in a position to form a government, provided they gather 77 of the 153 representatives. After the election, Sanader seemed to be in a better position to form a cabinet which caused Milanovi? to make himself the candidate for Prime Minister over the less popular Ljubo Jur?i?, without first consulting the party's Main Committee. However, the Social Democrats remained in the Opposition, since Ivo Sanader managed to form a majority coalition.[]

After losing the hotly contested general elections, Milanovi? did not resign as party president, despite promising before the election that he would, should the party lose.[11] In the 2007 election, despite the loss, SDP emerged with the largest parliamentary caucus in their history and achieved their best result yet. Milanovi? seemed to be in a good position to remain party president and announced he would run for a first full term as party president. In the 2008 leadership election he faced Davorko Vidovi? and Dragan Kova?evi?, but emerged as the winner with almost 80 percent of the delegate vote.[]

First term as Leader of the Opposition (2007-2011)

Logo of the manifesto of the Kukuriku coalition for the 2011 elections

With 56 seats won SDP emerged from the 2007 election as the second largest party in Parliament and the largest party that is not a part of the governing majority. This made Milanovi? the unofficial Leader of the Opposition. Milanovi? was very critical of the Sanader administration, especially concerning their handling of the economy and the fight against corruption.

In September 2008, Milanovi? made a highly publicized visit to Bleiburg to commemorate the repatriations.[clarification needed][14] This made him the second leader of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia to visit the site, the first being Ivica Ra?an.

The 2009 local elections were held on 17 and 31 May and resulted with the Social Democrats making considerable gains in certain traditionally HDZ-leaning cities and constituencies, such as Dubrovnik, ?ibenik, Trogir and Vukovar, as well as retaining such major traditionally SDP-leaning cities as Zagreb and Rijeka.[15]

Milanovi? with Ivan Jakov?i?, Radimir ?a?i? and Silvano Hrelja announcing the formation of the Kukuriku coalition on 15 July 2011.

On 1 July 2009, Ivo Sanader announced he was resigning the Premiership and leaving his deputy Jadranka Kosor as Prime Minister. Parliament approved her and the new Cabinet which made Kosor the first woman ever to be appointed Prime Minister.[16] Since late 2008, the SDP had been leading the polls, however by a narrow margin. After the sudden resignation of Sanader HDZ plummeted in the polls to their lowest level since 1999 when corruption scandals were rocking the party establishment.[17] Milanovi? insisted the resignation of the Prime Minister means that an early general election was necessary. The governing majority refused to dissolve Parliament and insisted that the Kosor cabinet would finish the remainder of its term.

In 2008 the country's accession to the European Union was deadlocked with the Slovenian blockade over a border dispute. Sanader and his Slovenian counterpart Borut Pahor were unable to settle their differences in the following months which meant Croatian's accession to the European Union was in a standstill. There was much speculation, since Sanader hadn't given a reason for his departure, whether the Slovenian blockade was the cause for his resignation. In the following months Kosor and Pahor met several times, trying to resolve the border dispute. The negotiations resulted in an agreement which led to the continuation of negotiations for the Croatian accession to the European Union. The solution was an Arbitration Agreement[18] which was signed in Stockholm on 4 November 2009, by both countries' Prime Ministers and the Swedish Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt.[19] The agreement required a two-thirds majority in Parliament for it to be approved. Milanovi? and most SDP MPs voted in favor of the agreement, however he criticized the Government and especially its former and present leaders, Sanader and Kosor, for wasting precious time since the arrangement with Slovenia could have been made a year earlier and Croatia wouldn't have waited so long to continue with the accession process.[20]

The financial crisis of 2007-2008 hit most European countries hard, as well as Croatia. The crisis continued throughout the following years. Industry shed tens of thousands of jobs, and unemployment soared. Consumer spending reduced drastically compared to record 2007 levels, causing widespread problems in the trade as well as transport industries. The continuing declining standard resulted in a quick fall in both the Prime Minister's as well as government's support. Milanovi? was very critical of the Government's supposed slow response and inadequate measures that did little to revive the economy. The recession and high unemployment continued throughout 2011 resulting in many anti-government protests around the country.[21]

2011 Parliament election

On 28 October MPs voted to dissolve Parliament.[22]President of the Republic Ivo Josipovi? agreed to a dissolution of Sabor on Monday, 31 October and scheduled the election, as previously suspected, for Sunday, 4 December 2011.[23] The 2011 parliamentary election saw SDP joining three other left-wing parties to create the media-dubbed Kukuriku coalition with Milanovi? at the helm. Kukuriku won the election with an absolute majority of 81 seats. The election was the first in which rival HDZ was not the leading individual party in Parliament.[24]

Prime Minister (2011-2016)

Zoran Milanovi? in the Croatian Parliament on 23 December 2011
Milanovi?'s approval rating since becoming Prime Minister, conducted by Ipsos Puls

Milanovi? presented his cabinet to the Parliament on 23 December, 19 days after the election. The discussion resulted with 89 members, 81 Kukuriku and 8 national minority MPs, voting in favour of the Milanovi? cabinet.[25] The transition to power occurred the following evening when Jadranka Kosor welcomed Milanovi? to the government's official meeting place, Banski dvori, opposite the Sabor building on St. Mark's Square and handed him the necessary papers and documents.[26]

Taking office at the age of 45, Milanovi? became one of the youngest prime ministers since Croatia's independence.[27] In addition, his cabinet also became the youngest, with an average minister's age of 48.[28] Cabinet members came from three out of four parties of the winning coalition, leaving only the single-issue Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU) without representation.[29] Milanovi? was reelected as president of the SDP in the 2012 leadership election as the only candidate.[30]

Domestic policy

The Milanovi? administration started its mandate by introducing several liberal reforms. During 2012 a Law on medically assisted fertilization was enacted, Health education was introduced in all elementary and high schools, and Milanovi? announced further expansion of rights for same-sex couples.[31][32] During the 2011 elections the Kukuriku coalition promised to publish the registry of veterans of the Croatian War of Independence, which was done in December 2012.[33]

In the Trial of Gotovina et al, following an initial guilty verdict in April 2011, Ante Gotovina and Mladen Marka? were ultimately acquitted in November 2012. Milanovi? called the ruling "an important moment for Croatia", adding that "A huge weight has been lifted off my shoulders. I say thank you to them for surviving so long for the sake of Croatia."[34]

In September 2013 anti-Cyrillic protests started against the introduction of bilingual signs with Serbian Cyrillic alphabet in Vukovar. Milanovi? condemned them as "chauvinist violence", saying he will not take down signs in Cyrillic in Vukovar as the "rule of law must prevail".[35]

On 1 December 2013, a constitutional referendum was held in Croatia, its third referendum since becoming independent. The referendum, organized by the citizen initiative For the family, proposed an amendment that would define marriage as a union between a man and a woman, thus creating a constitutional prohibition against same-sex marriage. Milanovi? opposed the proposal and told HRT that he would vote against it.[36] The government advised citizens to vote against it, but the referendum passed with 65% votes in favour, however, with voter turnout at only 38%. Milanovi? was unhappy that the referendum had taken place at all, saying, "I think it did not make us any better, smarter or prettier."[37] He also said that the referendum does not change the existing definition of marriage according to Croatian laws. He further announced the upcoming enactment of the Law on Partnership, which will enable same-sex persons to form a lifetime partnership union, which would share the same rights as that of marriage proper, apart from the right of adoption.[38] On 12 December 2013 the Government passed the proposed Bill,[39] and the Parliament passed the Life Partnership Act in July 2014.[40]

A bad economic situation weakened the originally strong public support for the Milanovi? government, which was demonstrated in the 2013 local elections.[41] In the first European Parliament elections in Croatia in 2013, SDP won 32% of the votes and five MEPs, one less than HDZ, the largest opposition party. The following year SDP won 29.9% in the 2014 European Parliament elections and four MEPs.[42] Milanovi? and his party gave support to Ivo Josipovi? in the presidential elections, which were won by Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi? from the HDZ. Josipovi? later formed his own party, Forward Croatia-Progressive Alliance, instead of returning to the SDP.[43]

Croatian war veterans started a protest in Zagreb in October 2014, calling for the resignation of Predrag Mati?, war veterans minister, and a new constitutional law guaranteeing their rights. Milanovi? rejected their demands, saying that there is no reason to sack the minister and that he would not submit to ultimatums:[44]

My government has not, even by thought, act or omission, brought the human dignity of the Croatian defenders and the eternal significance of the Homeland War into question.[44]

The protest continued throughout 2015. In May 2015 it escalated when hundreds of veterans scuffled with the police in front of the government building. Milanovi? said that his government has not curbed their rights and that he is ready for talks, but will not be blackmailed. He accused the opposition party HDZ for manipulating with the veterans. Tomislav Karamarko, the president of HDZ, rejected the accusation.[45] Milanovi? met with the representatives of the protesting veterans in June, but the protest continued.[46]

On 4 August 2015, on the insistence of Milanovi? and the Defence Minister Ante Kotromanovi?, a military parade of the Croatian Armed Forces was held in Zagreb in honour of the Victory Day, celebrating the 20th anniversary of Operation Storm. Milanovi? thanked everyone who sacrificed their lives for Croatia's freedom. He also expressed his gratitude to Franjo Tu?man, first Croatian president, who led Croatia during the war.[47]

Croatia had every right to do everything that it could to stay alive and integral, it had the right not to get expelled from its home, it had the right not to serve as human shield to those who destroyed cities and burned down villages. Croatia today is not celebrating the war, it is not celebrating anyone's suffering or persecution, let this be clear to everyone who still don't understand. Croatia had done everything it could to avoid the war, it had offered peaceful solutions. And it was rejected. Croatia today celebrates freedom and peace and with a pure heart it celebrates victory, a turning point which put an end to an ugly, imposed and particularly caddish war

Economy

Milanovi? government approval ratings, conducted by Ipsos Puls

The Milanovi? administration adopted a number of reforms in taxation in order to cope with the difficult economic situation. It raised the standard Value-added tax from 23% to 25% and introduced new VAT rates for goods and services that were not previously taxed. It also cut social insurance contributions and public-sector wages.[29][48] In October the Financial Operations and Pre-Bankruptcy Settlements Act was passed, which allowed firms that were unable to pay their bills to stay open during the bankruptcy proceedings and restructure their debts.[49] Because of opposition by its coalition partner, HNS, property tax has not been expanded.[50]

The government succeeded in reducing the budget deficit to 5.3% in 2012,[51] but GDP contracted by 2.2% and public debt reached 69.2%.[52][53] Milanovi?'s time in office has been marked by several cuts to Croatia's credit rating. On 14 December 2012 S&P cut the country's long term rating to BB+ and the short term rating to B.[54] On 1 February 2013, Moody's cut Croatia's credit rating from Baa3 to Ba1.[54]

Several major construction projects started in 2012, including a new passenger terminal on the Zagreb International Airport and a third block of the coal-fired Plomin Power Station. However, some projects have been suspended, including the Ombla hydroelectric power plant.[55] The government said that construction of the Pelje?ac Bridge was to start in spring 2016.[56] Milanovi? expressed his support for further oil and gas exploration and exploitation in the Adriatic Sea,[57] which is opposed by the opposition parties and environmental organizations.[58]

In November 2012 Minister of Economy and Deputy Prime Minister Radimir ?a?i? resigned and was replaced by Ivan Vrdoljak. In 2013 a new fiscalization law was introduced to control gray economy and minimize tax avoidance.[59] The government put focus on the shipbuilding industry and privatized state-owned shipyards by May 2013.[60] In order to service public debt, the government presented a project of monetization of Croatian highways in 2013 which would bring around 2.5 billion euros. Trade unions and civic associations rejected the proposal and called for a retraction of the decision.[61] A civic initiative called "We Are Not Giving Our Highways" gathered signatures for a highway referendum. Although the constitutional court ruled that a referendum on the subject was unconstitutional, the government announced that it was withdrawing the decision. Instead of the initial plan to lease the country's highways to foreign investors, the government will instead offer shares in them to Croatian citizens and pension funds.[62]

The Pension Insurance Act of January 2014 raised the statutory retirement age from 65 to 67 and early retirement age from 60 to 62.[63] The unemployment rate peaked in February 2014 at 22.7%,[64] but has since been steadily declining and reached its lowest rate in two years in August.[65] In May 2014 Milanovi? sacked the finance minister, Slavko Lini?, over a property deal that he said had hurt the state budget and appointed Boris Lalovac on his place.[66] Changes in Personal Income Tax were introduced in 2015, the non-taxable part of income was raised, which resulted in a net salary increase for around one million people.[67]

In January 2015 the government decided to freeze exchange rates for Swiss francs for a year, after a rise in the franc that caused increasingly expensive loans for borrowers in that currency.[68] In August 2015 Milanovi? announced that Swiss franc loans will be converted into euro-denominated ones.[69]

GDP decreased in 2013 (-0.9%) and 2014 (-0,4%), but in the 4th quarter of 2014 real GDP growth reached 0.3% for the first time since 2011.[52] It was announced on 28 August 2015 that the economy had grown by 1.2% for a third consecutive quarter which marked Croatia's exit from a six-year economic recession.[70] The budget deficit decreased in 2015 to 3.2% of GDP, down from 5.5% in 2014, and public debt was at 86.7% of GDP, the lowest debt growth rate since the introduction of the ESA 2010 methodology.[71]

Foreign policy

Milanovi? and U.S. Army Gen. Martin Dempsey meet in Zagreb, 2014
Milanovi? at the Summit of Prime Ministers of the Central and Eastern Europe in Bucharest in 2013

Milanovi?'s foreign policy was initially concentrated on the accession of Croatia to the European Union. On 22 January 2012, an EU accession referendum was held, with 66.25% voting in favour and 33.13% against. About 47% of eligible voters took part in the referendum.[29] On 11 March 2013, Milanovi? signed the Memorandum of Agreement with Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Jan?a, regarding the issue of Ljubljanska Banka, which closed down in 1991 without reimbursing its Croatian depositors. Croatia agreed to suspend a lawsuit against the bank and its successor, while Slovenia pledged to ratify Croatia's EU Accession Treaty.[72] Slovenia ratified Croatia's accession bid on 2 April 2013.[73] After all 27 member states signed the EU accession treaty, on 1 July 2013, Croatia joined the European Union, becoming the 28th member state.[74]

On 27 February 2012 Milanovi? visited Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was his first travel to a foreign country since he became prime minister.[75] On the following day he visited ?iroki Brijeg and Mostar, where he met with members of the Croatian National Assembly, a political organisation of the Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Milanovi? said that all he is asking for Croats in that country is a fair deal and added that Croatia will support the Accession of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the European Union.[76]

Due to the ongoing civil war in Syria, in February 2012 Milanovi? called on Croatian companies working in Syria to withdraw from the country.[77] On 18 January 2013 Croatian Foreign Ministry declared that Croatia, as well as the entire European Union, recognizes the National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces as the only "legitimate representatives of the aspirations of the Syrian people".[78][79] In February 2013 Milanovi? announced that Croatia is withdrawing its troops from the Golan Heights that are participating in the UN's peacekeeping mission after it was reported that Croatia sold their old weapons to the Syrian opposition.[80]

When demonstrations and riots started in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2014, Milanovi? visited Mostar, a city with a Croat majority, where the seat of HDZ BiH was damaged in the riots. Sarajevo criticized his move, saying he should have visited the capital first. Milanovi? later called the protest quasi-civic on ethnic and religious vertical.[81] The Croatian Government refused to accept indictments from Sarajevo labeled as political due to unacceptable claims about the character of the Croat-Bosniak War.[82]

On 22 July 2015 a major scandal occurred during the arbitration procedure of the Croatian-Slovenian border dispute, when it was discovered that the Slovenian representative has been lobbying other judges to rule in Slovenia's favor. Three days later Milanovi? announced the withdrawal of Croatia from arbitration after a meeting with the leaders of parliamentary groups.[83]

European migrant crisis

Beginning on 16 September 2015, migrants and refugees from the Middle East, South Asia and Africa began entering Croatia from Serbia in large numbers[84] after the construction of the Hungary-Serbia barrier. On 17 September Croatia closed its border with Serbia.[85] After initial efforts to register all migrant entrances into Croatia, registration ceased on 18 September and migrants began to be transported toward Slovenia and Hungary. By 23 September 2015 over 40.000 had entered Croatia from Serbia, with main acceptance centers set up in Opatovac and Zagreb,[86] while migrants were also held in Beli Manastir, Ila?a, Tovarnik, Je?evo and Sisak.[87] Milanovi? criticized Serbia for sending migrants only towards the Croatian border, while sparing Hungary and Romania[88] and stated that his country "will not become a migrant hotspot".[89] Tensions escalated between Serbia and Croatia and on 24 September Serbia banned imports from Croatia to protest against Croatia's decision to close the border to cargo, while Croatia responded by banning all Serbian-registered vehicles from entering the country.[90] On 25 September Croatia lifted the blockade on its border and Serbia lifted its ban on imports from Croatia, but Milanovi? said that he is ready to block the border again if necessary.[91] With winter approaching a new, more permanent refugee acceptance center was built in Slavonski Brod in late 2015.

2015 Parliament election

Milanovi? with other members of the Croatia is Growing coalition on 8 September 2015

For the 2015 parliamentary election the Kukuriku Coalition changed its name to Croatia is Growing. It consists of three out of four original members: the Social Democratic Party, Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats (HNS-LD), Croatian Party of Pensioners (HSU), as well as three new ones: Croatian Labourists - Labour Party, Authentic Croatian Peasant Party (A-HSS) and Zagorje Party. Istrian Democratic Assembly left the coalition. The campaign of the Coalition, led by Milanovi?, was based on rhetoric against austerity measures and emphasizing the government's policies during its mandate.[92]

After 76 days of negotiations, the Patriotic Coalition and the Bridge of Independent Lists party formed the 13th Croatian Government with Tihomir Ore?kovi? as the new Prime Minister. Milanovi? formally handed over office to Ore?kovi? in the late hours of 22 January 2016, after a lengthy parliamentary debate on the new government's program and the subsequent vote of confidence.

Second term as Leader of the Opposition (2016)

On 2 April 2016, elections were held for the party's leadership. Milanovi?'s opposing candidate was Zlatko Komadina, the prefect of Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, who advocated for a "much more social democratic" SDP.[93] Milanovi? was again re-elected president of SDP for the next four years.[94]

2016 Parliament election

Milanovi? with other members of the People's Coalition in Zabok, where they signed a coalition agreement on 16 July 2016

In July 2016, SDP, HNS-LD and HSU formed the People's Coalition (Croatian: Narodna koalicija) for the 2016 parliamentary election. They were joined by the Croatian Peasant Party (HSS), while the Croatian Labourists left the coalition.[95]

Leaked taped conversations from a meeting with representatives of veterans association, published on 24 and 25 August 2016 by Jutarnji list, in which Milanovi? made controversial statements against the neighboring countries of Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, have caused criticism.[96][97] While commenting on Serbia's accession to the EU and their law on universal jurisdiction for war crimes prosecution on the whole territory of former Yugoslavia, Milanovi? stated that the Serbian government was acting arrogantly, and that he was willing to not only block Serbia's EU accession negotiations, but also to adopt a special law which would allow Croatia to prosecute Serbian citizens who committed crimes in Kosovo, adding that "Serbs want to be rulers of the Balkans, but are actually a handful of misery".[98] While commenting on Bosnia and Herzegovina, Milanovi? stated that he wasn't "thrilled with the situation there" and complained that "there was no one he could talk to in Sarajevo", adding that he would like for Bosnia and Herzegovina to enter the EU even without all the preconditions being met, since "it's a country without law and order".[99] In addition, he stated that he did not care about Za dom spremni salute but urged veterans not to use it because it is harmful to Croatia.[100] Milanovi?'s rhetoric during the 2016 electoral campaign was described by some observers as populist.[101][102]

The HDZ won a majority of seats in the parliament and formed a governing majority with Most, with HDZ leader Andrej Plenkovi? becoming the new Prime Minister. Milanovi? announced that he would not run for another term as SDP president.[103] On 26 November he was succeeded by Davor Bernardi? as the president of SDP.[104]

Break from politics

After leaving politics, Milanovi? entered the consulting business and founded a consulting firm called EuroAlba Advisory.[105] Since 2017, he was an advisor to Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama,[106] and president of the Diplomatic Council of the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy.[107]

2019 presidential campaign

On 17 June 2019, Milanovi? confirmed that he will be running in the country's upcoming presidential election as SDP's candidate, with the campaign slogan "A president with character".[108] While announcing his candidacy, Milanovi? said that he wanted to be the "president of a modern, progressive, inquisitive and open Croatia".[109] The SDP main committee, as well as the HSS presidency, gave support to Milanovi?'s bid for president.[110][111] He was subsequently endorsed by several centre-left and centrist parties, including the HSU, PGS, NS-R, Democrats, IDS, HL, SU, Glas, MDS, SNAGA, and ZS.[112][113]

The first round of the election took place on 22 December 2019, with Milanovi? winning a plurality of 29.55% of the vote, ahead of Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?, who received 26.65% of the vote.[114]Miroslav ?koro, who was running as an independent candidate, narrowly failed to reach the run-off election, managing to attract the support of 24.45% of voters.[114] Therefore, this election marked the first time in Croatian history that the incumbent president did not receive the highest number of votes in the first round. Furthermore, Milanovi? attained both the lowest number of votes (562,779) and the lowest percentage of the vote of any winning candidate in the first round of a presidential election.[] Milanovi? received a plurality of the vote in Croatia's three largest cities: 33.02% in Zagreb, 30.79% in Split and 41.87% in Rijeka, and finished second (25.61%) in the fourth largest city, Osijek, which was won by ?koro (33.33%).[115]

A run-off election took place between Milanovi? and Grabar-Kitarovi? on 5 January 2020. Milanovi? won by a margin of close to 105,000 votes, thereby becoming the 5th President of Croatia since independence and the second president to have been officially nominated by the Social Democratic Party, after Ivo Josipovi? (2010-2015).[116]

Since his electoral victory, the newly elected president Zoran Milanovi? has made his first public appearance at an official event in Rijeka. There he attended the inaugural ceremony of Rijeka as the European Capital of Culture 2020.[117] He met with the mayor Vojko Obersnel, commended the artists, the day-long programme and the opening ceremony.[118] Milanovi? also praised the founders of punk rock in Rijeka and its 44-year-old tradition, stating that, "By the time when the Paraf were having their first concert, Sid Vicious hadn't been singing in the Sex Pistols yet. These facts are of crucial importance regarding the cultural map of Europe".[119]

Presidency

The inauguration of Zoran Milanovi? as the 5th President of Croatia took place on 18 February 2020. This was the first time that a presidential inauguration ceremony in Croatia was not held at St. Mark's Square in the city center of Zagreb, where Parliament and government buildings are located. Instead, Milanovi? decided to forgo the usual pomp of the ceremony by inviting merely some 40 guests, including state officials, former presidents, his family and members of his campaign team.[120] This was also the first time that party leaders, diplomats and church dignitaries did not attend a presidential inauguration.[121] The ceremony began with the performance of the national anthem by renowned Croatian pop and jazz diva Josipa Lisac, accompanied by pianist Zvjezdan Ru?i?, whose alternative rendition of Croatia's national anthem struck a different tone to the national anthem's usual sombre, bombastic delivery.[122][123][124] This caused a lot of positive comments and negative reactions, which resulted in an unprecedented public debate about the national anthem and artistic freedom.[125][126]

On 24 February 2020, President Milanovi? strongly condemned the burning of an effigy showing a same-sex couple with their child at a festival in Imotski, describing the incident as an "inhumane, totally unacceptable act", demanded an apology from the organizers of the event and stated that they "deserve the strongest condemnation of the public because hatred for others, intolerance and inhumanity are not and will not be a Croatian tradition".[127][128] He also demanded a reaction from the relevant institutions especially as the event was observed by many children who could witness the spreading of hatred and inciting to violence.[127]

Milanovi? made his first trip abroad as president on 27 February 2020 to Oto?ec ob Krki, Slovenia, where he met with President Borut Pahor. The two of them firmly concluded that they will do everything to improve and make the relations between the two countries excellent, pointing out that they had known each other for over 16 years. They also discussed about the border issue between the two countries, Croatian accession to the Schengen Area and about the border controls implemented by the Croatian Government due to the COVID-19 pandemic. President Milanovi? also addressed the European perspective of Montenegro, Albania and North Macedonia.[129]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Milanovi? was elected President under the nomination of the SDP. However, as per article 96 of the Constitution, he was required to resign his party membership prior to taking office.[1]

Citations

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Bibliography

Books

Theses

Articles

  • Denis Kulji?. Prorok prije proroka: Briljantna pri?a o Zoranu Milanovi?u. // START style & news, # 13, Spring 2020, pp. 71-73.

External links

Party political offices
Preceded by
?eljka Antunovi?
Acting
Leader of the Social Democratic Party
2007-2016
Succeeded by
Davor Bernardi?
Political offices
Preceded by
?eljka Antunovi?
Acting
Leader of the Opposition
2007-2011
Succeeded by
Jadranka Kosor
Preceded by
Tomislav Karamarko
Leader of the Opposition
2016
Succeeded by
Davor Bernardi?
Preceded by
Jadranka Kosor
Prime Minister of Croatia
2011-2016
Succeeded by
Tihomir Ore?kovi?
Preceded by
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovi?
President of Croatia
2020-present
Incumbent

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