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? in upper- and lowercase

The grapheme (Latin C with caron, also known as há?ek in Czech, mäk?e? in Slovak, kva?ica in Croatian, and stre?ica in Slovene) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar affricate consonant [t] like the English ch in the word chocolate. It is represented in Unicode as U+010C (uppercase ?) and U+010D (lowercase ?).


The symbol originates with the 15th century Czech alphabet as introduced by the reforms of Jan Hus. In 1830, it was adopted into Gaj's Latin alphabet, which is used in Serbo-Croatian. It is also used in Macedonian, Slovak, Slovenian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Pomak, and Berber alphabets.[1]


In Berber, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, Sorbian, Skolt Sami, and Lakota alphabets, it is the fourth letter of the alphabet. In Czech, Northern Sami alphabet, Belarusian, and the Baltic languages Lithuanian and Latvian, the letter is in fifth place. In Slovak it is sixth letter of the alphabet. It is also used in Pashto (equivalent to ?), romanization of Syriac and Saanich.

It is equivalent to ? in Cyrillic and can be used in Ukrainian, Belarusian, Russian, and Bulgarian romanisations. It features more permanently in the Latin alphabets or transliterations of Serbo-Croatian and Macedonian. The letter ? can also be substituted by Ç in the transliterations of Turkic languages, either using the Latin script or the Cyrillic script.

/?/ is also used in Americanist phonetic notation.

? is the similar to the Sanskrit ? (a palatal sound, although IAST uses the letter c to denote it)


Representation in software follows the same rules as the há?ek.


Character information
Preview Č č
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 268 U+010C 269 U+010D
UTF-8 196 140 C4 8C 196 141 C4 8D
Numeric character reference Č Č č č
Named character reference Č č

U+010C (uppercase ?--use Alt 268 for input) and U+010D (lowercase ?--use Alt 269 for input) create this character. The combining character U+030C can be placed together with either c or C to generally achieve the same visual result.


In text the control sequence \v{c} will work. In math mode, $\check{c}$ also works.

See also


  1. ^ "?". Croatian Encyclopedia (in Croatian). Zagreb: Miroslav Krle?a Institute of Lexicography. Retrieved 2015.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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