|Gmina||czyca (urban gmina)|
|o Mayor||Pawe? Kulesza|
|o Total||9.0 km2 (3.5 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
czyca (pronounced [w?n'tt?sa]; in full the Royal Town of czyca, Polish: Królewskie Miasto czyca; German: Lentschitza; Hebrew: ?) is a town of 14,362 inhabitants (as of 2016 ) in central Poland. Situated in the ?ód? Voivodeship, it is the county seat of the czyca County.
The town was probably named after a West Slavic (Lechitic) tribe called Leczanie, which inhabited central Poland in the early Middle Ages. Some scholars however claim that the town was named after an Old Polish word g, which means a swampy plain.
In medieval Latin documents, czyca is called Lonsin, Lucic, Lunciz, Lantsiza, Loncizia, Lonsitia and Lunchicia. In the early 12th century, Gallus Anonymus called czyca "Lucic", and in 1154, Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisi named it Nugrada, placing it among other main towns of the Kingdom of Poland, such as Kraków, Sieradz, Gniezno, Wroc?aw and Santok.
czyca lies in the middle of the county, and has the area of 8.95 km2 (3.46 square miles). In the past, the town was the capital of the Land of czyca, which was later turned into czyca Voivodeship. In the Second Polish Republic and in 1945 - 1975, czyca belonged to Lodz Voivodeship. In 1975-1998, it was part of Plock Voivodeship. The geometric centre of Poland is located near czyca.
czyca is one of the oldest Polish cities, mentioned in the 12th century. It was the place of the first recorded meeting of Sejm, the Polish parliament, in 1182. In 1229, during the period of fragmentation of Poland, it became the capital of the Duchy of czyca, which in 1263 was split into two parts - the Duchy of czyca and the Duchy of Sieradz. In the early 14th century, the czyca Voivodeship was created with czyca serving as its capital. This administrative unit of the Kingdom of Poland was part of the larger Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown and existed until the Partitions of Poland in the late 18th century. It was a royal city of the Polish Crown.
czyca, which lies in the centre of Poland, was for centuries one of the most important cities of the country. It received Magdeburg rights before 1267, and in 1331 the Teutonic Knights sacked the city during one of their repeated incursions into Poland. A considerable number of buildings were burned down, including two churches. A few decades later, on the initiative of Casimir the Great, the city was walled and a Royal Castle built to the southeast of the city.
czyca prospered in the period between the mid-14th and mid-17th centuries. The royal castle, built by Casimir the Great, was located on a small hill, protected by a moat with water from the Bzura river. The complex was made from red brick, set on stone foundations. It was protected by a 10-meter high wall, with a tower located in its southwestern corner. Gate tower was placed in the western wall, in the basement was a prison, and in the courtyard there was a two-storey tenement building. Rooms of that building frequently housed meetings of the Royal Council. In 1964, widespread renovation of the complex began. Another building was added at that time, which now houses the Museum of the Land of czyca.
Soon after its completion in the mid-14th century, the castle was named one of royal residences, and the seat of the Starosta of czyca. In 1406, it was burned by the Teutonic Knights, but the complex was rebuilt so quickly that in 1409, King W?adys?aw II Jagieo attended here a meeting of his advisors, discussing the oncoming war with the Knights.
Following the Battle of Grunwald (1410), a number of high-ranking Teutonic prisoners was kept here for ransom. Four sessions of the Sejm (Polish parliament) took place here: in 1420, 1448, 1454 and 1462. In 1420, a Bohemian delegation offered here the Czech crown to Jagieo. In 1433, the Truce of czyca was signed in the city. Furthermore, the castle served as headquarters of King Casimir IV Jagiellon, during the Thirteen Years' War (1454-66). The city's prominence came to an end with the Swedish invasion of Poland when the castle was overrun and most of the city once again destroyed, and it remained in a state of crisis until the Partitions. One of two main routes connecting Warsaw and Dresden ran through the town in the 18th century and Kings Augustus II the Strong and Augustus III of Poland often traveled that route.
During the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II, the Germans executed 29 Poles, including two families on September 9-10, 1939. czyca was then occupied by Nazi Germany and incorporated into the region known as Reichsgau Wartheland as part of the district (kreis) of Lentschütz (Germanized word for 'czyca'). The Germans expelled 330 Poles from the town in December 1939. Further expulsions of Poles were carried out in 1940. Poles were deported to a transit camp in nearby Ozorków, and afterwards young people were deported from the camp to forced labour in Germany, and children and older people were deported to the General Government (German-occupied central Poland), while their homes, shops and workshops were handed over to German colonists as part of the Lebensraum policy. In January 1942 there was a forced labor camp operating in or near the town.
Jews had been an important part of the population of czyca since the late 1400s. At the beginning of the war in 1939, the Jewish population was more than 4000, about 30 percent of the community. The Germans began to terrorize, pillage, and humiliate the Jewish population from the beginning of the occupation. The Germans established a ghetto in late 1939, and later forbade any Jew to leave it on penalty of death. After the ghetto was enclosed, hunger and typhus ravaged the ghetto population. Periodically, hundreds of the community were expelled to other places, while Jews in other locations were brought to czyca. In April 1942, the remaining Jews, about 1700 people, were sent to the Che?mno extermination camp where they were immediately gassed. The local Poles took over their houses and what meager possessions they left behind.
After the war it was reintegrated into the People's Republic of Poland.
czyca is twinned with four cities: