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%C5%9A%C4%81stra Pram%C4%81%E1%B9%87am in Hinduism

In Hinduism, stra pramam refers to the authority of the scriptures (?ruti, Vedas) with regard to pururtha, the objects of human pursuit, namely dharma (right conduct), artha (means of life), k?ma (pleasure) and mok?a (liberation).[1] Together with sm?ti ("that which is remembered, tradition": Dharmastra, Hindu Epics, Puranas), ?c?ra (good custom), and ?tmatui ("what is pleasing to oneself"), it provides pramana (means of knowledge) and sources of dharma, as expressed in Classical Hindu law, philosophy, rituals and customs

The first two are undisputed epistemic sources (prama), where ?ruti holds the ultimate or supreme authority as stra pramam, while there is difference of opinion for ?c?ra and ?tmatui

Etymology

Prama literally means "proof" and is also a concept and field of Indian philosophy. The concept is derived from the Sanskrit roots, pra (), a preposition meaning "outward" or "forth", and m? () which means "measurement". Pram? means "correct notion, true knowledge, basis, foundation, understand", with prama being a further nominalization of the word.[2][3] Thus, the concept Prama implies that which is a "means of acquiring prama or certain, correct, true knowledge".[4]

Shastra commonly refers to a treatise or text on a specific field of knowledge. In early Vedic literature, the word referred to any precept, rule, teaching, ritual instruction or direction.[5] In late and post Vedic literature of Hinduism, Shastra referred to any treatise, book or instrument of teaching, any manual or compendium on any subject in any field of knowledge, including religious.[5] It is often a suffix, added to the subject of the treatise, such as Yoga-Shastra, Nyaya-Shastra, Dharma-Shastra, Koka- or Kama-Shastra,[6] Moksha-Shastra, Artha-Shastra, Alamkara-Shastra (rhetoric), Kavya-Shastra (poetics), Sangita-Shastra (music), Natya-Shastra (theatre & dance) and others.[5][7]

With regard to s?stra pramam is refers to the authority to the Vedic scriptures, as expressed in Bhagavadgita chapter 16, verse 24, where Krishna commands Arjuna to follow the authority of the scriptures:[8][9]

tasm?t stra? pramam te k?ry?k?rya vyavasthitau
jñ?tv? stravidh?noktam karma kartumih?rhasi


Therefore, let the (vedic) scriptures (stra?) be your authority (pramam) in determining what should be done and what should not be done.
Understand the scriptural injunctions and teachings, and then perform your actions in this world accordingly.[10][note 1]

Sruti, smriti, ?c?ra and ?tmatui are also the four sources of dharma in classical Hindu law, as expressed in Bhavishya Purana, Brahmaparva, Adhyaya 7:

veda? sm?ti? sad?c?ra? svasya ca priyam?tmana?
etaccaturvidha? pr?hu? s?ksh?ddharmasya laksha?am


Vedas, smritis, good (approved) tradition and what is agreeable to one's soul (conscience),
the wise have declared to be the four direct evidences of dharma.[11][note 2]

The explanation of that sloka has been given in the digest (nibandha), b?la nibandh?dar?a: there in dharma, vedas are the only chief pram?na. Smritis dissect (analyze) the essence of vedas only. Both of them support Sad?c?ra. ?tmasantui that is favourable to all these is (then) dharma pram?na.[12] [note 3]

?ruti

Shruti (Sanskrit: , IAST: ?ruti, IPA: [t?]) in Sanskrit means "that which is heard" and refers to the body of most authoritative, ancient religious texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism.[13] They are the ultimate epistemic authority or m?la prama (or prathama prama). Manusmriti states that ?rutistu vedo vigneyah (Sanskrit ? ?:, lit. means "Know that Vedas are ?ruti"). Thus, it includes the four Vedas including its four types of embedded texts--the Samhitas, the Br?hma?as, the Ara?yakas and the Upani?ads.[14][15] Bhagavad Gita is also referred as Gitopani?ad, thereby according it the status of Upanishad (i.e. ?ruti), eventhough it is originally part of sm?ti.[16][17][18]

Vedic Sages such as Baudhayana, Parara, Vedavy?sa, Gautama,[note 4] Va?iha,[note 5] ?pastamba,[note 6] Manu,[note 7] and Y?jñavalkya have adhered this view in their works.

The main schools of Indian philosophy that reject the (espistemic authority of) Vedas were regarded as N?stika, i.e. heterodox in the tradition.[21]

Smriti

Smriti (Sanskrit: , IAST: Sm?ti) is considered as the penultimate epistemic authority or dvit?ya prama. Smriti literally means "that which is remembered" and it a body of Hindu texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down, in contrast to ?rutis (the Vedic literature) considered authorless, that were transmitted verbally across the generations and fixed.[14] Smriti is a derivative secondary work and is considered less authoritative than Sruti in Hinduism, except in the Mimamsa school of Hindu philosophy.[13][22][23] The authority of smriti accepted by orthodox schools, is derived from that of shruti, on which it is based.[24][25]

The Smrti literature is a corpus of diverse varied texts.[13] This corpus includes, but is not limited to the six Ved?ngas (the auxiliary sciences in the Vedas), the epics (the Mah?bh?rata and R?m?yana), the Dharmas?tras and Dharmastras (or Smritistras), the Arthasastras, the Pur?nas, the K?vya or poetical literature, extensive Bhasyas (reviews and commentaries on Shrutis and non-Shruti texts), and numerous Nibandhas (digests) covering politics, ethics (Nitisastras),[26] culture, arts and society.[27][28]

Each Smriti text exists in many versions, with many different readings.[14] Smritis were considered fluid and freely rewritten by anyone in ancient and medieval Hindu tradition.[14][22]

The authors of 18 smritis are namely, Atri, Viu, H?r?ta, Au?anas?, ?ngirasa, Yama, ?pastamba, Samvartta, K?ty?yana, B?haspati, Parara, Vy?sa, ?a?kha, Likhita, Dak?a,[note 8] Gautama, t?tapa and Va?iha.[29] Y?jñavalkya gives the list of total 20 by adding two more Smritis, namely, Y?jñavalkya and Manu.[30][31][note 9] Parara whose name appears in this list, enumerates also twenty authors, but instead of Samvartta, B?haspati, and Vy?sa, he gives the names of Ka?yapa, Bh?gu and Prachetas.

Puras

?pastamba and Vyasa considers the puras as antepenultimate epistemic authority or t?t?ya prama. In ?pastambasm?ti, it has been mentioned as[note 10]

yat adam hi vede?u tat draavya? sm?tau kila
ubh?bhy yat adastu tat pure?u pa?hyate


Whenever there is no reference in vedas then sm?tis are to be referred.
In case references are absent in the both, then puras are to be consulted.[note 11]

Vy?sasm?ti (verse 1.5) state that

?rutism?tipurokta dharmayogy?stu netare

The sayings of Vedas, sm?tis and puranas are deemed to be dharma and not others.[note 12]

?c?ra

?c?ra (Sanskrit: ?), also sich?ra or sad?chara, is a concept used in the context of Classical Hindu law that refers to the customary laws or community norms of a particular social group.[34] These community norms are delineated and put into practice by people who have earned the respect of those within each individual group, such as a community leader or elder. Although in Dharmastra the ideal person who defines the ?c?ra of a particular place is dictated as one who knows the Vedas or is "learned", in actual practice this role is often deferred to group leaders along with Vedic scholars.[35] ?c?ra is theologically important in classical Hindu law because it is considered, along with the Vedas (?ruti), and Smriti (traditional texts such as the Dharmastra literature), to be one of the sources of dharma.[36] Particular regional ?c?ra is believed to be canonized in Dharmastra texts; however scholars differ on the source for the actual accounts found within these texts.[37]

The Anusana-parva of the Mahabharatastates:

dharma? jijñ?sam?n?n prama? prathama? ?ruti?
dvit?ya? dharmastra? tu t?t?yo lokasangraha?


Those who have the 'desire to know dharma' (dharma jijñ?sa), the first prama is ?ruti.
The second prama are the dharmastras (i.e. the dharma part of sm?ti). The third reference is as per the custom of the people.[note 13]

To Parara[note 14], Manu, Y?jñavalkya, Va?iha and Baudhayana, the virtuous conduct of ?ias (virtous learned men) and practice of good men, Sad?chara is the antepenultimate epistemic authority or t?t?ya prama after ?rutis and Sm?tis.[38] Va?ihasm?ti verse 1.4 quotes, tadalabhe ?ich?rah pramam, i.e. only if the relevant references are absent in those both, then ?ia ?ch?ra can be considered as Antepenultimate prama. According to the sage Va?iha, ?ruti and Sm?ti are more important sources than others.[39] The Padma Purana also prescribes as similar view.[note 15]

While citing ?igama[note 16] (lit. that which has come down from ?ias) as the antepenultimate authority after Vedas and smirtis by Baudhayana in his smriti (verse 1.5), the ?ias are defined thus:-Sistas (indeed are those) who are free from envy (vigatamatsar), free from pride (nirahank?r), contented with a store of grain sufficient for ten days (kumbh?dh?ny), free from covetousness (alolup), and free from hypocrisy (damba), arrogance (darpa), greed (lobha), perplexity (confusion) and anger (krodha).[41]

Kumarila Bhatta, prominent M?ms? scholar from early medieval India states in his Tantravartika:

If the practices of good men (Sad?ch?ra) are not in conflict with what is taught in the veda and sm?ti, such practices can be regarded as authoritative in matters relating to dharma, but when there is the least thing repugnant to the teaching of the Veda, then, as there would be a conflict of authorities, the practices cannot be regarded as any authority at all.[42]

Atmatusti

Atmatusti is usually translated into English as being "what is pleasing to oneself."[43] The first three sources of law are rooted in the vedas, whereas atmatusti is not. It is because of this that atmatusti, as a fourth source (i.e. caturtha prama), is not recognized by most scholars due to the lack of legitimacy. Only Manu and Y?jñavalkya refer to atmatusti as the fourth source of dharma within the Hindu Law tradition. Textual accounts of Manu's and Yajnavalkya's placement of atmatusti as a fourth source of dharma can be found in The Law Code of Manu 2.6 and The Law Code of Yajnavalkya 1.7. Also, atmatusti does not share the same authority as sruti, smriti, and acara. Atmatusti differs significantly from the other three sources of dharma in that it is not based on an "authority exterior to man"; in other words, an individual is able to create their own authority for any issue not covered under sruti, smriti, and acara.[44]

?tmatui is also known as H?day?nujña (free will) is mentioned also by Manu, Y?jñavalkya and Vishnu distinctly mention this as a or source of moral and religion knowledge.[45] Y?jñavalkya goes further step adding good intent (samyaksa?kalpa) as additional fifth source of Dharma:

?ruti? sm?ti? sad?c?ra? svasya ca priyam ?tmana?
samyaksa?kalpaja? k?mo dharmam?la? ida? sm?tam


The source of dharma is declared to be fivefold: 1) ?ruti?; 2) sm?ti?; sad?c?ra? (right conduct); svasya ca priyam ?tmana? (one's own benefit) and
5) desire born of purposeful intention (samyaksa?kalpaja? k?ma?).[46][note 17]

Later, samyaksa?kalpa (Pali: samm? sa?kappa) was included among the Noble Eightfold Path (?rygam?rga) putforth by Gautama Buddha.[48]

Instances of conflict

Conflict between different epistemic sources, generally termed as virodha. When there is an instance of conflict between the smriti and the ?ruti, the ?ruti shall prevail.[49][note 18] Similarly, Whenever there is conflict between different epistemic sources in general, then as per ?pastamba, it is advised to refer more preceding epistemic sources as they hold more authority. In ?pastambasm?ti, it is mentioned as

?rutism?tipure?u viruddhe?u parasparam
p?rva? p?rva? bal?yam sy?diti ny?yavido vidu?


Whenever there is mutual conflict between vedas, sm?tis and puras, then the ones well-versed in ny?ya suggest that
more preceding epistemic source holds higher weightage (than the later epistemic one)[note 19]

Vedavyasa also holds a similar view in his vy?sasm?ti, verse 1.4

?ruti sm?ti purm virodho yatra dri?yate tatra ?rotam pramstu tayordhvyadhe sm?tirvar?

In cases where conflicts are apparent among veda, smriti and Purana, Veda is the valid authority; and where remaining two (Smriti and Purana) are in conflict, Smriti is the valid authority[50][note 20]

Prasthanatrayi

The Prasthanatrayi (Sanskrit, IAST: Prasth?natray?) are the three canonical texts of Hindu theology having epistemic authority, especially of the Vedanta schools, namely the Upanishads, the Brahma Sutras, and the Bhagavad Gita. Prasthanatrayi can viewed as subset of Hindu epistemic sources. Vedanta is also known as Uttara M?ms? is one of the six (?stika) schools of Hindu philosophy. These six schools are traditionally referred as shad-dar?anas as they give their own points of view on the Hindu scriptures. Ved?nta school is based on Brahma S?tras (Sanskrit: ) of B?dar?yana. Adi Sankara who propagated Advaita has established the concept of Prasthanatrayi, the epistemic references based on stra pramam in Hinduism. Along with Brahma sutras, upanishads are considered from Vedas and Bhagavad gita is chosen from Mahabharata, which is Itihasa (i.e. part of smriti).[52] The same has been accepted by all other acharyas of other vedanta schools such as Ramanuja, Madhwa, etc.

Modern usage and criticism

stra pramam has been used by social reformers for 19th century from Bengal such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar.[53] He was the most prominent campaigner for widow remarriage and was supported in this by many wise and elite gentlemen of the society and the first signatory on his application to the then Governor General was Shri Kasinath Dutta, belonging to the Hatkhola Dutta lineage. He petitioned in legislative council and was responsible for Hindu Widows' Remarriage Act, 1856.[54] In the same century, Similar effort from south India was carried by social reformers such as Kandukuri Veeresalingam pantulu[note 21] and Gurazada Apparao to eradicate social evils.

Baba Saheb Ambedkar has criticized the rigidity of stra pramam in Hinduism in his work Annihilation of Caste by attacking especially on Manusmriti.[55] In order to prevent child marriages among Hindus, The Child Marriage Restraint Act was passed in 1929. stra pramam was considered by Hindu pandits appointed by the age of consent committee to fix the age of marriage of girl child and then it was fixed to be 14 later by Sarda Act.[56]

See also

References

  1. ^ Yajna, a Comprehensive Survey. Gyanshruti, Srividyananda. Yoga Publications Trust. 2007. p. 338. ISBN 9788186336472.
  2. ^ Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  3. ^ John A. Grimes (1996), A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791430675, page 237-238
  4. ^ pramANa Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Koeln University, Germany
  5. ^ a b c Monier Williams, Monier Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, Article on zAstra
  6. ^ Alex Comfort and Charles Fowkes (1993), The Illustrated Koka Shastra: Medieval Indian Writings on Love Based on the Kama Sutra, Simon & Schuster, ISBN 978-0684839813
  7. ^ James Lochtefeld (2002), "Shastra" in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, page 626
  8. ^ Universal Message of the Bhagavad Gita. Swami Ranganathananda. Advaita Ashrama. 2000. p. 599. ISBN 9788175059337.
  9. ^ https://asitis.com/16/24.html
  10. ^ https://www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org/chapter/16/verse/24
  11. ^ http://www.vedagyana.info/maha-puranas-telugu/bhavishya-purana/brahma-parva/?chapter=7
  12. ^ (b?la nibandh?dar?a). ?ch?rya Viswan?thastri. Motilal Banarsidass. 2000. p. 68. ISBN 9788175059337.
  13. ^ a b c James Lochtefeld (2002), "Smrti", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol. 2: N-Z, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 978-0823931798, page 656-657
  14. ^ a b c d Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2-3
  15. ^ A Bhattacharya (2006), Hinduism: Introduction to Scriptures and Theology, ISBN 978-0595384556, pages 8-14
  16. ^ Veena R. Howard (2017). Dharma: The Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh Traditions of India. I.B.Tauris. p. 73. ISBN 9781786732125.
  17. ^ Steven Rosen (2011). The Jedi in the Lotus: Star Wars and the Hindu Tradition. Arktos Media Ltd. p. 73. ISBN 9781907166112.
  18. ^ Graham M. Schweig (2010). Bhagavad Gita: The Beloved Lord's Secret Love Song. Harper Collins. ISBN 9780062065025.
  19. ^ Kedar Nath Tiwari (1998). Classical Indian Ethical Thought: A Philosophical Study of Hindu, Jaina, and Buddhist Morals. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 9788120816084.
  20. ^ Apastamba Dharmas?tram (Sanskrit), Dr. Umeshchandra Pandey, Chaukamba Press (Varanasi), 1969
  21. ^ Gavin D. Flood (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. p. 82. ISBN 9780521438780.
  22. ^ a b Sheldon Pollock (2011), Boundaries, Dynamics and Construction of Traditions in South Asia (Editor: Federico Squarcini), Anthem, ISBN 978-0857284303, pages 41-58
  23. ^ Harold G. Coward; Ronald Neufeldt; Eva K. Neumaier-Dargyay (1988). Readings in Eastern Religions. Wilfrid Laurier University Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-0-88920-955-8.; Quote: "smriti is classified as being based on (and therefore less authoritative than) the directly revealed, shruti, literature.";
    Anantanand Rambachan (1991). Accomplishing the Accomplished. University of Hawaii Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8248-1358-1.;
    Ronald Inden; Jonathan S. Walters; et al. (2000). Querying the Medieval: Texts and the History of Practices in South Asia. Oxford University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-19-512430-9.
  24. ^ René Guénon (2009). The Essential Ren' Gu'non: Metaphysics, Tradition, and the Crisis of Modernity. World Wisdom, Inc. pp. 164-. ISBN 978-1-933316-57-4.
  25. ^ Pollock, Sheldon (2012). "The Revelation of Traditionruti, smrti, and the Sanskrit Discourse of Power". In Squarcini, Federico (ed.). Boundaries, Dynamics And Construction Of Traditions In South Asia. London: Anthem Press. pp. 41-62. doi:10.7135/upo9781843313977.003. ISBN 978-1-84331-397-7.
  26. ^ smRti Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon, Germany
  27. ^ Purushottama Bilimoria (2011), The idea of Hindu law, Journal of Oriental Society of Australia, Vol. 43, pages 103-130
  28. ^ Roy Perrett (1998), Hindu Ethics: A Philosophical Study, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824820855, pages 16-18
  29. ^ "Ada?asm?taya?" (PDF). K?emar?ja ?r?kad?sa. Ve?ka?e?vara Steam Press, Mumbai. 1910.
  30. ^ "The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany". Wm. H. Allen & Company. Parbury, Allen & Co. 1828. p. 156.
  31. ^ "Tattwabodhini Sabha and the Bengal Renaissance". Amiyakumar Sen. Publication Section, Sadharan Brahmo Samajo. 1979. p. 291.
  32. ^ https://www.astrojyoti.com/pdfs/DevanagariFiles/06Yagyavalkya_Smriti.pdf
  33. ^ Kandukuri Vireesalingam (1882). stri punarviv?ha strasangrahamu (PDF). p. 686.
  34. ^ Davis, Jr. Donald R. Chapter One.
  35. ^ Davis, Jr. Donald R. Chapter Seven
  36. ^ Davis, Jr. Donald R. Chapter One
  37. ^ Lariviere, Richard W. 1997. pp. 612.
  38. ^ S. K. Purohit (1994). Ancient Indian legal philosophy: its relevance to contemporary jurisprudential thought. Deep & Deep Publications. p. 34. ISBN 9788171005833.
  39. ^ Rajadharma in Mahabharata: With Special Reference to Shanti-Parva. Priyanka Pandey. DK Print World (P) Ltd. 2019. ISBN 9788124610084.
  40. ^ Guru: The Universal Teacher. Swami B. P. Puri. Simon and Schuster. 2017. ISBN 9781683832454.
  41. ^ a b https://www.astrojyoti.com/pdfs/DevanagariFiles/baudhayana_smriti.pdf
  42. ^ Kedar Nath Tiwari (1998). Classical Indian Ethical Thought: A Philosophical Study of Hindu, Jaina, and Buddhist Morals. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. pp. 17-18. ISBN 9788120816084.
  43. ^ Olivelle, Patrick. 2004. The Law Code of Manu. 2.6.
  44. ^ Lingat 1973, p. 6.
  45. ^ "Journal & Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume 6". Asiatic Society. 1911. p. 300.
  46. ^ Ajay K. Rao (2015). Re-figuring the Ramayana as Theology: A History of Reception in Premodern India. Routledge. ISBN 9781134077427.
  47. ^ http://gretil.sub.uni-goettingen.de/gretil/1_sanskr/6_sastra/4_dharma/smrti/yajn2_pu.htm
  48. ^ Ajahn Brahm. "Word of the Buddha".
  49. ^ Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy. Oliver Leaman. Routledge. 2006. p. 503. ISBN 9781134691159.
  50. ^ Hindu Widow Marriage. Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar (translated by Brian A. Hatcher). Columbia University Press. 2012. p. 67. ISBN 9780231526609.
  51. ^ https://www.astrojyoti.com/pdfs/DevanagariFiles/02Vyasa_Smriti.pdf
  52. ^ Vepa, Kosla. The Dhaarmik Traditions. Indic Studies Foundation.
  53. ^ Hindu Widow Marriage. Ishvarchandra Vidyasagar (translated by Brian A. Hatcher). Columbia University Press. 2012. ISBN 9780231526609.
  54. ^ Chakraborty, Uma (2003). Gendering caste through a feminist lens. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-85604-54-1. Retrieved 2018.
  55. ^ Dr. B. R. Ambedkar, 1936. Anhilation of Caste. p. 54
  56. ^ "The Child Marriage Restraint Act (Act XIX of 1929)" (PDF). A. S. Srinivasa Aiyyar. The Law Publishing Company, Mylapore, Madras. 1930.

Notes

  1. ^ ? ? ? ? ?
  2. ^ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  3. ^ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
  4. ^ Gautama dharmas?tras state that Vedo dharmam?lam tadvid?m ca ?m?tile (lit. means "Vedas are primary source of our moral ideals and beliefs. After vedas, the authority of ?m?ti is accepted in this respect").[19]
  5. ^ Va?iha Dharmas?tra state that ?rutism?ti vihito dharma? (lit. means "Vedas and sm?tis taken together have been regarded as source of dharma (of course, the former given the first preference).
  6. ^ ?pastamba Dharmas?tram state that ved? eva m?laprama? dharm?dharmayo? (Sanskrit ? , lit. means "Vedas alone is primary source (m?laprama? ) for dharma and adharma.").[20]
  7. ^ Manusmriti states that ?rutistu vedo vigneya? (lit. means "Know that Vedas are ?ruti").
  8. ^ ?a?kha, Likhita are brothers, and wrote each a smriti separately, and another jointly, and the three now considered as only one work.
  9. ^ manvatriviuh?r?ta y?jñavalkya gir
    yam?pastambasamvart k?ty?yanab?haspat?
    pararavy?sa?a?khalikhita dak?agautamo
    t?tapova?iha?ca dharma?astrayojak
    (Y?jñavalkyasm?ti (1.4, 1.5))
    (Sanskrit ? [32])
  10. ^ Prominent social reformer Kandukuri Veeresalingam Pantulu has quoted these slokas from ?pastambasm?ti in his Telugu essay on widow remarriage, stri punarviv?ha strasangrahamu.[33]
  11. ^ ? ? ?
  12. ^
  13. ^ ? ? ? ? ?
  14. ^ Pararasm?ti (1.20) mentions that ?rutism?tisad?c?ranir?et?r?ca sarvad? (Sanskrit:? ?lit. means "?ruti, Smr?ti and Sad?c?ra are always the deciders.")
  15. ^ The Padma Purana as quoted in Bhakti-Sandarbhah states ?rutismr?t? mamaiv?jñe yaste ulla?ghya vartate, ?jñ?cched? mama dve madbhakto'pi na vaiava? (Sanskrit: ? ? ? ?lit. means "?ruti and Smr?ti are in truth My commands. Whoever transgresses them, disobeys Me and is a hater of Me. Though a devotee, He is not a votary of Viu.").[40]
  16. ^ upavio dharma? prativedam tasy?nuvy?khy?sy?ma? sm?rto dvit?ya? t?t?ya? ?igama? Baudhayana smriti (1.1 to 1-4)
    (Sanskrit: ? ?).[41]
  17. ^ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?[47]
  18. ^ : ? (?rutism?ti virodhe tu ?rutireva gar?yas?)
  19. ^ ? ? ?
  20. ^ ? ? ? ? ?[51]
  21. ^ In 1882 Telugu essay on widow remarriage, stri punarviv?ha strasangrahamu

Sources

  • Davis, Jr. Donald R. Forthcoming. Spirit of Hindu Law
  • Lingat, Robert (1973), The Classical Law of India, University of California Press

Further reading

  • Domenico Francavilla (2006), The roots of hindu jurisprudence: sources of Dharma and interpretation in M?ms? and Dharmastra

External links


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