Saul?s miestas (The City of the Sun)
|Municipality||?iauliai city municipality|
|Capital of||?iauliai County |
?iauliai city municipality
?iauliai district municipality
|Granted city rights||1589|
|Elderships||Medelynas eldership, R?kyva eldership|
|o City municipality||81.13 km2 (31.32 sq mi)|
|Elevation||151 m (495 ft)|
|o City municipality||101,511|
|o Density||1,300/km2 (3,200/sq mi)|
|o Metro||141,784including ?iauliai district municipality|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|Area code(s)||(+370) 41|
?iauliai (pronounced [?'l] ; Samogitian: ?iaul?; German: Schaulen, pronounced ['?al?n] ) is the fourth largest city in Lithuania, with a population of 107,086. From 1994 to 2010 it was the capital of ?iauliai County.
?iauliai is referred to by various names in different languages: Samogitian ?iaul?, Latvian Saule (historic) and ?au?i (modern), German (outdated) Schaulen, Polish Szawle, Russian (Shavli - historic) and ? (Shyaulyai - modern), Yiddish (Shavel).
The city was first mentioned in written sources as Soule in Livonian Order chronicles describing the Battle of Saule. Thus the city's founding date is now considered to be 22 September 1236, the same date when the battle took place, not far from ?iauliai. At first, it developed as a defence post against the raids by the Teutonic and Livonian Orders. After the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, the raids stopped and ?iauliai started to develop as an agricultural settlement. In 1445, a wooden church was built. It was replaced in 1625 with the brick church which can be seen in the city center today.
?iauliai was granted Magdeburg city rights in the 16th century when it also became an administrative centre of the area. However, in the 16th to 18th centuries the city was devastated by The Deluge and epidemics of the Bubonic plague.
The credit for the city's rebirth goes to Antoni Tyzenhaus (1733-1785) who after a violent revolt of peasants of the Crown properties in Northern Lithuania (so-called in Polish: Powstanie Szawelskie, 1769), started the radical economic and urban reforms. He decided to rebuild the city according to the Classicism ideas: at first houses were built randomly in a radial shape, but Tyzenhaus decided to build the city in an orderly rectangular grid. ?iauliai grew to become a well-developed city, with several prominent brick buildings. In 1791 Stanis?aw August Poniatowski, king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, confirmed once again that ?iauliai's city rights and granted it a coat of arms which depicted a bear, the symbol of Samogitia, the Eye of Providence, and a red bull, the symbol of the Poniatowski family. The modern coat of arms has been modelled after this version.
After the Partitions of Poland, ?iauliai received a new coat of arms. The city grew and became an important educational and cultural centre. Also, infrastructure was rapidly developing: in 1836-1858 a road connecting Riga and Tilsit was built, in 1871 a railroad connecting Liep?ja with Romny was built. ?iauliai, being in a crossroad of important merchant routes, started to develop as an industrial town. Already in 1897, it was the third-largest city in Lithuania with a population of about 16,000. The demographics changed also: 56.4% of the inhabitants were Jewish in 1909. ?iauliai was known for its leather industry. Chaim Frenkel owned the biggest leather factory in the Russian Empire.
During World War I, about 85% of the buildings were burned down and the city centre was destroyed. After the war and re-establishment of Lithuania, the importance of ?iauliai grew. Before Klaip?da was attached to Lithuania, the city was second after Kaunas by population size. By 1929 the city centre was rebuilt. Modern utilities were also included: streets were lighted, they had public transportation, telephone and telegraph lines, water supply network and sewer.
The first years of independence were difficult because the industrial city lost its markets in Russia. It needed to find new clients in Western Europe. In 1932 a railroad to Klaip?da was built and it connected the city to the Western markets. In 1938, the city produced about 85% of Lithuania's leather, 60% of footwear, 75% of flax fibre, 35% of candies. Culture also flourished as many new periodicals were printed, new schools and universities opened, a library, theatre, museum, and normal school were opened.
In 1939, one-fifth of the city's population was Jewish. German soldiers entered ?iauliai on June 26, 1941. The first mass murder of ?iauliai Jews was perpetrated in the Ku?iai forest, about 12 kilometres outside ?iauliai, on June 29, 1941. According to one of the Jewish survivors of ?iauliai, Nesse Godin, some 700 people were shot in nearby woods during the first weeks of occupation after having been forced to dig their own graves. Beginning on July 29, 1941, and continuing throughout the summer, the Germans murdered about 8,000 Jews from ?iauliai and the ?iauliai region in the Ku?iai forest. One hundred twenty-five Jews from Linkuva were also murdered there, along with ethnic Lithuanian and Russian members of the Communist Party and the Communist Youth.
The ?iauliai Ghetto was established in July 1941. There were two Jewish ghetto areas in ?iauliai, one in the Kaukas suburb, and one in Trak?. During World War II, the Jewish population was reduced from 8,000 to 500. Approximately 80% of the buildings were destroyed.
The city was largely rebuilt anew in a typical Soviet fashion during the years of subsequent Soviet occupation.
?iauliai located in eastern part of the northern plateau, Ma, Dubysa and Venta River divide. Distance of 210 kilometres (130 miles) to Vilnius, Kaunas - 142 km (88 mi), Klaip?da - 161 km (100 mi), Riga - 128 km (80 mi), Kaliningrad - 250 km (155 mi). The total city area 81.13 square kilometres (31.32 sq mi), from the green areas 18.87 square kilometres (7.29 sq mi), water - 12.78 square kilometres (4.93 sq mi). Urban land outside perimeter of the administrative 70,317 kilometres (43,693 miles).
Altitude: R?kyvos the lake water level - 129.8 m (425.85 ft) above sea level, Talsos lake level - 103.0 m (337.93 ft) in the city center - 128.4 m (421.26 ft), Salduv?s Hill - 149.7 m (491.14 ft) above sea level.
The total water area - 1,280 ha, 15.7% in urban areas.
The average temperature in January; -3 °C (27 °F) in July; +18 °C (64 °F). The amount of precipitation in a year - 620 mm (24.4 in).
In 1942, the city recorded the lowest Lithuania year mean temperature (+3.6 °C).
|Climate data for ?iauliai (1981-2010 normals)|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.5
|Average high °C (°F)||-0.7
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-3.0
|Average low °C (°F)||-7.9
|Record low °C (°F)||-36.0
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41.7
|Average precipitation days||11.4||8.9||9.2||7.3||8.7||10.7||10.0||10.2||9.6||10.8||11.1||11.9||119.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||37||65||125||176||263||277||261||243||166||100||42||29||1,784|
|Source 1: Météo Climat|
|Source 2: NOAA (extremes and sun)|
In 1795, there were 3,700 people living in ?iauliai, rising to 16,128 by 1897, when it was the third-most populous city in Lithuania after Kaunas. The Jewish population of ?iauliai rose steadily through the second half of the nineteenth century, from 2,565 in 1847 to around 7,000 at century's end. By the outbreak of World War I, 12,000 of the town's inhabitants were Jews, making ?iauliai majority Jewish. A particular Jew called Shauli Bar-On had encouraged the Jews of Europe to come to Lithuania because he saw enormous potential for success. A battlefield during the Great War, ?iauliai saw thousands of its denizens flee, never to return.
In 1923, ?iauliai population's was third to that of Kaunas and Klaip?da.
Beginning in the 19th century, ?iauliai became an industrial centre. During the Russian Empire period, the city had the largest leather factory in the whole empire, owned by Chaim Frenkel. ?iauliai contributed to around 85% of all leather production in Lithuania, 60% of the footwear industry, 75% of the flax fibre industry, and 35% of the sweets industry.
During the Soviet years, the city produced electronics (Nuklonas), mechanical engineering, wood processing, construction industry. Most of the industrial enterprises were concentrated in urban areas.
In 2020, construction of Europe's largest aircraft maintenance and repair centre will begin on the territory of ?iauliai International Airport. The related company will repair Airbus A320, Boeing 737 Classic, Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft and will also provide aircraft administration and parking services. It is planned that the centre will create 1000 new workplaces.
Students in the city (in 2006):
There are 8 gymnasiums, 7 high schools, 16 secondary schools, 7 primary schools, 9 children's non-formal education schools, 29 kindergartens. 21,000 students studied in general education schools in 2006.
The city park to the creation of Anton Tyzenhaus essentially graduated Vladimir Zubov. The 19th-century park was of a rectangular shape and was similar to English-style freely designed parks. For a small fee, citizens were allowed to walk in the park. In 1931, the Park and Alley chestnut was officially donated to the ?iauliai city municipality.
?iauliai has 16 parks, covering an area of 1,177 hectares. Did?dvario province and R?kyvos parks add to the cultural values of the registry.
?iauliai has always been a major intersection. The famous Saul?s battle took place near a trade route from Riga to Bubiai and Taurag?.In 1836-1858 Riga-Tilsit (Sovetsk) highway was built near it. About 1912, first cars appeared on city's streets.
Highways passing through ?iauliai :
In 2006, ?iauliai had 297 km (185 mi) of roads, of which 32% had a gravel surface. The longest streets are Tils street - 9.72 km (6.04 mi) and Vilnius street - 5.67 km (3.52 mi) with 1.28 km (0.80 mi) of it being a pedestrian boulevard.
In 1871, the Liepaja-Romny railway was built. The Til-Riga and ?iauliai-Klaipeda railways were built in 1916 and 1931, respectively. The city has a railway station.
In 1930, an air strip was developed. It was expanded in 1961 during the Soviet period and developed into a large VVS base. It is now a military base for NATO, and home to the ?iauliai International Airport.
The first passenger transport company in ?iauliai was founded in 1940. It was Autotrestas, which had 29 buses. In 1944 a motor firm replaced Autotrestas. In 1947 the first taxi company, ?iauliai cars, appeared. Subsequently, to meet the needs of an increasing population, more busses and Taksomotor? Auto?kis were added in 1955. In 2006, a modern bus station with a trade centre was constructed. The city has 27 city routes, the maximum number is 29.
?iauliai of communication in 1897 could be used not only for mail or telegraph, and telephone. Telephone subscribers in 1923 was 170, while in 1937 - 700 rooms. 1936; the city to install a phone machine.
1957, a television tower, which are equipped with radio and antenna lines. In 1995 launched the construction of cable television lines, 1998 started to install the cable internet, since 2003 - Optical Internet line. In 2008 the city has 14 post offices (central LT-76001).
Since 1924 soccer was played in ?iauliai. By the year 1936 there were 14 soccer teams in the city. Later other sports also started to be played professionally: basketball, handball, rugby, hockey, athletics, cycling, boxing and other sports. On July 25, 2007, in preparation for the 37th European men basketball championship, a modern ?iauliai Arena was opened to the public.
|BC ?iauliai||Basketball||Lithuanian Basketball League (LKL), Baltic Basketball League (BBL), Eurocup||?iauli? arena|
|FK ?iauliai||Football||The A League A Lyga||?iauli? stadionas|
|ABRO- Saul?||Basketball||?iauli? sporto r?mai|
|RK Vairas||Rugby union||Lithuanian Rugby Championship||Zokni? stadionas|
|RK Baltrex||Rugby union||Tal?os stadionas|
|RK ?iauliai||Rugby union||Tal?os stadionas|
According to the population census of 2001, ethnic Lithuanians comprise 93%, Russians - 5%, and the remaining 2% consist of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Jews, Roma, Latvians, Armenians and other ethnic groups. About 94% of the city's population consider Lithuanian their native language, 5% are Russian speakers and the remainder speak Ukrainian, Belarusian, Latvian, Roma, Armenian etc. About 80% of those older than 20 have a command of the Russian language, while only 17% can speak English and 7% - German.
The list of notable people who were born in ?iauliai: