Get %C9%AD essential facts below. View Videos or join the %C9%AD discussion. Add %C9%AD to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Voiced retroflex lateral approximant
IPA Number156
Entity (decimal)ɭ
Unicode (hex)U+026D
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-123)
Audio sample

The voiced retroflex lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l`.

The retroflex lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart // in Iaai and Toda.[1] In both of these languages it also contrasts with more anterior /l?, l/, which are dental in Iaai and alveolar in Toda.[1]


Features of the voiced retroflex lateral approximant:


In the following transcriptions, diacritics may be used to distinguish between apical [] and laminal [].

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Bashkir ?? 'wind' Apical retroflex lateral; occurs in front vowel contexts.
Enindhilyagwa marluwiya [ma?uwija] 'emu'
Faroese árla [a] 'early' Allophone of /l/ after /?/. See Faroese phonology
French Standard[2] belle jambe [b b] 'beautiful leg' Allophone of /l/ before /f/ and /?/ for some speakers.[2] See French phonology
Gujarati ?? [n] 'tap' Represented by a ⟨?⟩. Pronounced as //.[3]
Kannada ['e?:u] 'sesame' Represented by a ⟨?
Khanty Eastern dialects ? [pu?] 'bit'
Some northern dialects
Korean ? / sol [so?] 'pine' Represented by a ⟨?⟩. May also be pronounced as /l/.
Malayalam 'Malayali people' Represented by the letter ⟨?⟩. Sub apical retroflex. Never word-initial and long and short forms are contrastive word-medially[4][5]
Mapudungun[6] mara ['m] 'hare' Possible realization of /?/; may be or instead.[6]
Marathi [ba:?] 'baby/child' Represented by a ⟨?⟩. Pronounced as //. See Marathi phonology.
Miyako Irabu dialect
[p?:ma] 'daytime' Allophone of /?/ used everywhere except syllable-initially.
Norwegian Eastern and central dialects farlig ['f?:?i] 'dangerous' See Norwegian phonology
Odia ?? [p?] 'fruit' Represented by a ⟨?⟩. Pronounced as //.[3]
Rajasthani ?? [p] 'fruit' Represented by a .
Punjabi Gurmukhi [te?] 'dew' Represented by a ⟨⟩ and ⟨⟩. Font support may be required to see the letter in Shahmukhi.
Shahmukhi ?
Sanskrit Vedic ? [g?ru] 'the mythological bird who Is the vahana of Lord Vishnu' Represented by a ⟨?⟩. Pronounced as //.This consonant was present in Vedic Sanskrit but had become ? in classical Sanskrit. See Vedic Sanskrit and Sanskrit phonology.
Swedish sorl 'murmur' (noun) See Swedish phonology
Tamil[7] [ä:?] 'person' Represented by a ⟨⟩. See Tamil phonology
Telugu [ni:?:u] 'water' Represented by a ⟨?

See also



  • Jiang, Haowen (April 2010), Malayalam: a Grammatical Sketch and a Text, Department of Linguistics, Rice University
  • Keane, Elinor (2004), "Tamil", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (1): 111-116, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001549
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Sadowsky, Scott; Painequeo, Héctor; Salamanca, Gastón; Avelino, Heriberto (2013), "Mapudungun", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (1): 87-96, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000369
  • Shimoji, Michinori (December 2008), "Phonology", A Grammar of Irabu, a Southern Ryukyuan Language, The Australian National University
  • Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes