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Hook
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute?
grave`
double grave ?
circumflex^
caron, há?ek?
breve?
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ?
retroflex hook  ?
hook above, d?u h?i ?
horn ?
iota subscript ͅ 
macron?
ogonek, nosin??
perispomene ͂ 
overring?
underring?
rough breathing?
smooth breathing?
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe'
bar
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen?
prime?
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ?
titlo ?
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara? ? ? ?
avagraha? ? ? ? ? ?
chandrabindu? ? ?
nuqta?
virama? ? ? ? ? ?
visarga? ? ? ?
Gurmukh? diacritics
Khmer diacritics
Thai diacritics
IPA diacritics
Japanese kana diacritics
dakuten ?
handakuten ?
Syriac diacritics
Related
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Latin
?
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? ? ?
? ?
? ? ? ?
? ? ?
? ? ?
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? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?
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Cyrillic
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
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In typesetting, the hook or tail is a diacritic mark attached to letters in many alphabets. In shape it looks like a hook and it can be attached below as a descender, on top as an ascender and sometimes to the side. The orientation of the hook can change its meaning: when it is below and curls to the left it can be interpreted as a palatal hook, and when it curls to the right is called hook tail or tail and can be interpreted as a retroflex hook. It should not be mistaken with the hook above, a diacritical mark used in Vietnamese, or the rhotic hook, used in the International Phonetic Alphabet.

Different types of hook diacritics

Letters with hook

It could be argued that the hook was used to derive the letter J from the letter I, or the letter Eng (?) from the letter N. However, these letters are usually not identified as being formed with the hook.

Most letters with hook are used in the International Phonetic Alphabet, and many languages use them (along with capitals) representing the same sounds.

The hook often attaches to the top part of the letter, curling to the left or to the right, finishing the ascender if present. It may then be referred to as a crook, in some languages like French[1] more commonly than in English that is less successful in mitigating the semantic overload of the hook term.

If the hook attaches to the bottom part of the letter, it is often called a palatal hook if it curls to the left, or a retroflex hook if it curls to the right.

Latin alphabet
Letters Name Hook position
? A with retroflex hook bottom
? Script a or alpha with retroflex hook bottom
? ? B with hook top
? ? B with flourish left
? B with palatal hook bottom
? ? C with hook top
? ? C with palatal hook bottom
? ? D with hook top
? ? African d or d with tail bottom
? D with hook and tail top and bottom
? D with palatal hook bottom
? E with flourish left
? E with retroflex hook bottom
? Schwa with hook right
? Schwa with retroflex hook bottom
? Open e or epsilon with retroflex hook bottom
? Reversed open e or epsilon with hook right
? Reversed open e or epsilon with retroflex hook bottom
? ? F with hook bottom
? F with palatal hook bottom
? ? G with hook top
? Small capital g with hook top
? G with palatal hook right
? Script g with crossed-tail bottom
? ? ? H with hook top
? H with palatal hook bottom right
? Heng with hook top
? Turned h with fishhook top
? Turned h with fishhook and tail top and bottom
? I with retroflex hook bottom
? ? ? J with crossed-tail bottom
? Dotless j with stroke and hook top
? ? K with hook top
? K with palatal hook bottom
? ? L with palatal hook bottom
? ? L with retroflex hook bottom
? L with retroflex hook and belt bottom
? ? ? M with hook bottom
? M with palatal hook bottom
? M with crossed-tail bottom
? ? ? N with left hook bottom left
? N with palatal hook bottom right
? ? N with retroflex hook bottom right
? N with crossed-tail bottom
? Eng with crossed-tail bottom
? Open o with retroflex hook bottom
? ? P with hook top
? P with palatal hook right
? ? P with flourish left middle
? ? P with squirrel tail left top
? Q with hook top
? ? Small q with hook tail bottom
? ? R with tail bottom left
? R with palatal hook bottom
? Turned r with tail top
? ? Turned r with hook bottom
? R with crossed-tail bottom
? Double r with crossed-tail bottom
? S with palatal hook bottom right
? ? ? S with retroflex hook bottom left
? ? S with swash tail bottom right
? Esh with palatal hook right
? Esh with retroflex hook bottom
? ? T with hook top
? ? T with palatal hook bottom
? ? T with retroflex hook bottom
? ? U with left hook top left
? U with retroflex hook bottom
? V with palatal hook bottom
? V with right hook top
? ? ? Script v or v with hook top
? ? W with hook top right
? X with palatal hook bottom right
? ? Y with hook top right
? ? Z with hook bottom
? ? Z with palatal hook bottom
? ? Z with retroflex hook bottom
? ? Z with swash tail bottom
? Ezh with retroflex hook bottom
? Ezh with tail bottom
? ? Cuatrillo tail bottom
? ? Cuatrillo hook bottom
Cyrillic alphabet
? ? Ghe with stroke and hook bottom
? ? Short i with tail bottom right
? ? Ka with hook bottom right
? ? El with hook bottom right
? ? El with tail bottom right
? ? Em with tail bottom right
? ? En with hook bottom right
? ? En with left hook bottom left
? ? En with tail bottom right
? ? Ha with hook bottom right

Unicode

Unicode has the combining diacritics  ̡  COMBINING PALATALIZED HOOK BELOW (HTML ̡) and  ̢  COMBINING RETROFLEX HOOK BELOW (HTML ̢) but these are not recommended to be used with letters, and should be used to illustrate the hooks themselves. Instead Unicode recommends the use of characters that already include the hook.

The ˞ MODIFIER LETTER RHOTIC HOOK (HTML ˞) is used to mark an r-colored vowel.

See also

References

  1. ^ As in the non-standard French translation of the UCS ListeNoms.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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