1000000000 (number)
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1000000000 Number
1000000000
CardinalOne billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
OrdinalOne billionth (short scale)
Factorization29 · 59
Greek numeral${\displaystyle {\stackrel {\iota }{\mathrm {M} }}}$
Roman numeralM
Binary1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary21202002000210100013
Octal73465450008
Duodecimal23AA9385412

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In standard form, it is written as 1 × 109. The metric prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G.

One billion years may be called an eon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer common, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for several decades.[4]

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is rarely used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.

Visualization of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

## Sense of scale

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

### Time

• 109 seconds (1 gigasecond) equal 11,574 days, 1 hour, 46 minutes and 40 seconds (approximately 31.7 years, or 31 years, 8 months, 8 days).
• About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
• About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
• About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly years.)
• About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly years.)
• About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
• About 109 decades ago, galaxies began to appear in the early Universe which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is exactly years.)
• The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[6]

### Distance

• 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
• 109 metres (called a gigametre) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
• 109 kilometres (called a terametre) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

### Area

• A billion square inches could make a square about one half mile on a side.
• A bolt of finely woven 1000-TC bed sheet linen with a billion thread crossings would have an area of 40 square metres (48 sq yd), comparable to the floor area of a motel unit.

### Volume

• There are one billion cubic millimetres in a cubic metre, and a billion cubic metres in a cubic kilometre.
• A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
• A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

### Weight

• Any object that weighs one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
• A cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 38.62 metres (126.7 ft) on each side.

### Nature

• A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
• There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[9] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
• In 1804, the world population was one billion.

### Count

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube A, C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube B; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube C. Thus there are A-sized cubes in C; and 1,000,000,000 A-sized cubes in D.

## Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001-9,999,999,999)

### 2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999

• 2,038,074,743 - 100,000,000th prime number
• 2,147,483,647 - 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer.
• 2,147,483,648 - 231
• 2,176,782,336 - 612
• 2,214,502,422 - 6th primary pseudoperfect number.[18]
• 2,357,947,691 - 119
• 2,562,890,625 - 158
• 2,971,215,073 - 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).

### 3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999

• 3,166,815,962 - 26th Pell number.[12]
• 3,192,727,797 - 24th Motzkin number.[11]
• 3,323,236,238 - 31st Wedderburn-Etherington number.[14]
• 3,405,691,582 - hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,405,697,037 - hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming.
• 3,486,784,401 - 320

### 4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999

• 4,294,967,291 - Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer.
• 4,294,967,295 - Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF16), perfect totient number, product of the first five prime Fermat numbers ${\displaystyle F_{0}}$ through ${\displaystyle F_{4}}$.
• 4,294,967,296 - 232
• 4,294,967,297 - ${\displaystyle F_{5}}$, the first composite Fermat number.
• 4,500,000,000 - Approximate age of the Earth in years
• 4,807,526,976 - 48th Fibonacci number.

### 5,000,000,000 to 5,999,999,999

• 5,159,780,352 - 129
• 5,354,228,880 - superior highly composite number, smallest number divisible by all the numbers 1 through 24
• 5,784,634,181 - 13th alternating factorial.[19]

### 7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999

• 7,007,009,909 - smallest number in base 10 to take 100 iterations to form a palindrome[22]
• 7,464,000,000 - Estimated population of the Earth in 2016 according to Worldometers[23]
• 7,645,370,045 - 27th Pell number.[12]
• 7,778,742,049 - 49th Fibonacci number.
• 7,862,958,391 - 32nd Wedderburn-Etherington number.[14]

### 9,000,000,000 to 9,999,999,999

• 9,043,402,501 - 25th Motzkin number.[11]
• 9,814,072,356 - largest square pandigital number, largest pandigital pure power.
• 9,876,543,210 - largest number without repeated digits in base 10.
• 9,999,999,967 - greatest prime number with 10 digits[25]
• 9,999,999,999 - largest 10-digit number

## References

1. ^ "Yard". Investopedia. Retrieved 2017.
2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015. ISBN 9781782830917.
3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide: A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). European Commission. 3 November 2017. p. 32.
4. ^ "How many is a billion?". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 2017.
5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 2017.
6. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". European Space Agency. 2 April 2013.
7. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 2017.
8. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017.
9. ^ Burke, Jeremy (16 June 2015). "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 2017.
10. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003617 (Smallest n-digit prime)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
11. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001006 (Motzkin numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
12. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000129 (Pell numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
13. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000110 (Bell or exponential numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
14. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001190 (Wedderburn-Etherington numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
15. ^ ""World Population prospects - Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
16. ^ ""Overall total population" - World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision" (xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 2019.
17. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003226 (Automorphic numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved .
18. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A054377 (Primary pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
19. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A005165 (Alternating factorials)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
20. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A004490 (Colossally abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
21. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A002201 (Superior highly composite numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
22. ^ "Reversal-Addition Palindrome Test on 7007009909". July 9, 2021.
23. ^ "World Population by Year". January 1, 2017.
24. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000396 (Perfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
25. ^ "Greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 2017.