Summer – King Baldwin IV (the Leper) sends messengers to Saladin with proposals of a peace treaty. Because of a terrible drought, the whole of Syria is faced with famine. Saladin agrees to a two-years' truce. Raymond of Tripoli denounces the truce, but is compelled to accept after an Ayyubid fleet raids the port of Tartus.
June 20 – Battle of Uji: Mochihito and Minamoto no Yorimasa went into hiding in the By?d?-in Temple. There, they seek help from the warrior monks to join the battle but are defeated and killed by the Taira forces.
Chinese and Japanese astronomers observe what has come to be understood as supernovaSN 1181. One of only eight supernovae in the Milky Way observed in recorded history. It appears in the Cassiopeia and is visible in the night sky for about 185 days. The radio source 3C58 was thought to be the remnant from this event, but opinion is shifting towards the recently discovered nebula Pa 30 (ref : Arxiv 2105.12384).
April – Massacre of the Latins: The Roman Catholic (called "Latin") inhabitants of Constantinople massacre the Venetian, Genoan, and other Latin officials and traders who rule as agents of Empress Maria of Antioch. She is the mother and regent of 12-year-old Emperor Alexios II. In August, Andronikos Komnenos, a cousin of Maria's late husband, Emperor Manuel I (Komnenos), raises an army and enters the city, representing himself as the 'protector' of Alexios. He is proclaimed as co-emperor under the name Andronikos I, and has Maria imprisoned and later condemned to be strangled - forcing a signature from Alexios to put his mother to death.
September – Alexios II is murdered after a 3-year reign at Constantinople. The 64-year-old Andronikos I is proclaimed emperor of the Byzantine Empire before the crowd on the terrace of the Church of Christ of the Chalke. He marries Alexios' widow, the 11-year-old Agnes of France, and makes in November a treaty with Venice in which he promised a yearly indemnity as compensation for Venetian losses during the Massacre of the Latins.
August – Saladin sends an Egyptian fleet to blockade Beirut and leads his forces in the Bekaa Valley. The city is strongly fortified and Baldwin IV rushes with his army up from Galilee - only pausing to collect the ships that lay in the harbors of Acre and Tyre. Failing to take Beirut by assault before the Crusaders arrived, Saladin breaks of the siege and withdraws.
November – Al-Nasir, caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, is shocked by the war between fellow-Muslims and tries to negotiate a peace. Saladin, thwarted by the strong fortifications of Mosul, retreats to Sinjar. He marches to conquer Diarbekir, the richest and the greatest fortress of the Jazira Region (with the finest library in Islam).
December – Baldwin IV raids through the Hauran and reaches Bosra, while Raymond of Tripoli recaptures Habis Jaldak. A few days later, Baldwin sets out with a Crusader force to Damascus and encamped at Dareiya in the suburbs. He decides not to attack the city and retires laden with booty, to spend Christmas at Tyre.
Spring – King Philip II (Augustus) confiscates all the lands and buildings of the Jews and expels them from Paris. The measures are profitable in the short-term - the ransoms alone bringing in 15,000 marks and enriching Christians at the expense of Jews. Ninety-nine Jews are burned alive in Brie-Comte-Robert.
June – July – Almohad forces reconquer the Alentejo (except for Évora), and besiege Lisbon on land and blockade the port with their navy. A Portuguese soldier manages to swim to the largest ship of the fleet and to sink it. This ship was so tall, it would have allowed the Muslims to easily reach the walls of the city. The next day, the Almohads have to retreat, taking with them a number of civilian captives.
May – Berber forces under Ali Banu Ghaniya seize by surprise the Almohad cities of Algiers, Béjaïa and Constantine. While he is away from his base in Mallorca, one of his brothers, Muhammad, takes control of the island and calls in the Almohads, who intend to capture Mallorca for themselves. Banu Ghaniya arrives just in time, to defeat the Almohads and recaptures the island.
Saladin agrees to a 4-year truce due to severe drought and famine, which has struck Palestine. The treaty is signed by Count Raymond of Tripoli and important nobles from Jerusalem. Commerce is renewed between the Crusader States and their Muslim neighbors. A flow of corn from the east save the Crusaders and the population from starvation.
April – King Henry II knights his son and heir, the 18-year-old John of England and sends him to Ireland, accompanied by 300 knights and a team of administrators, to enforce English control. He treats the local Irish rulers with contempt, by making fun of their unfashionable long beards. Failing to make allies amongst the Anglo-Norman settlers, the English army is unable to subdue the Irish fighters in unfamiliar conditions and the expedition soon becomes a complete disaster. By the end of the year, John returns to England in defeat. Nonetheless, Henry gets him named 'King of Ireland' by Pope Urban III and procures a golden crown with peacock feathers.
After the death of the child-king Baldwin V, his mother succeeds him as Sibylla of Jerusalem, and appoints her disfavoured husband Guy de Lusignan king consort. This comes as a shock to Jerusalem's court, who had earlier forced the possible future Queen into promising that should she become so, she would not appoint him the title.
Spring – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) sends a Byzantine expeditionary force under Alexios Branas to suppress the Vlach-Bulgarian Rebellion - but Alexios revolts against Isaac and is proclaimed emperor in Andrianople. He musters troops and advances on Constantinople in an attempt to seize it. However, Alexios is unable to bypass the city defenses and is defeated by the imperial forces led by Conrad of Montferrat, the emperor's brother-in-law. On the battlefield, Alexios is beheaded by Conrad's supporting footsoldiers and the rebel army flees the field.
Spring – The Crusaders under Raynald of Châtillon attack a large Muslim caravan, including members of Saladin's family, journeying from Cairo. Raynald takes the merchants, and their families with all their possessions to his castle of Kerak. Saladin demands the release of the prisoners and compensation for their losses. This is refused by Raynald, who pays no attention to his order.
March 13 – Saladin leaves Damascus with his Muslim forces, and sends letters to neighboring countries, asking for volunteers for a forthcoming jihad ("Holy War"). A week later his younger brother Al-Adil, governor of Egypt, leads his forces out of Cairo towards Syria. Meanwhile, Saladin leaves an army under his 18-year-old son Al-Afdal at Busra, to keep watch on the 'Pilgrim road'.
May 1 – Battle of Cresson: A Muslim reconnaissance force (some 7,000 men) under Muzaffar al-Din Gökböri, defeats a small Crusader army near Nazareth. Only Gerard de Ridefort, commander of the Crusaders, and a handful of knights escape death or capture. The Muslims scattering and killing the Christian foot-soldiers (some 400 men) before pillaging the countryside.
June 26 – Saladin regroups his Muslim forces and marches towards the Jordan River. His army numbers around 30,000 men and is divided into three columns. The following day Saladin encamps on the Golan Heights, in a marshy area near Lake Tiberias. Raiding parties are sent across the Jordan to ravage Christian territory between Nazareth, Tiberias, and Mount Tabor.
June 30 – Saladin sends a contingent to block Tiberias and challenges the Crusaders by moving his main camp closer to Saffuriya - some 10 km west of Lake Tiberias. On July 1, he sends scouts to monitor an alternative road on his northern flank that connects Saffuriya and Tiberias. The following day he attacks Tiberias with a part of his forces, including siege equipment.
July 2–3 – Saladin besieges Tiberias, the defenders, and Countess Eschiva II (wife of Raymond III) retreat to the citadel and sends messengers urging Guy of Lusignan to send help. Meanwhile, Guy and Raymond hold a war council to debate what should be done. Persuaded by Gerard de Ridefort and Raynald of Châtillon, Guy orders to march to the rescue of Tiberias.
July 4 – Battle of Hattin: Saladin defeats the Crusader army (some 20,000 men) under Guy of Lusignan at the Horns of Hattin. Guy is captured along with many nobles and knights, among them, Raynald of Châtillon. The latter is executed by Saladin himself. The Crusader States have no reserves to defend the castles and fortified settlements against Saladin's forces.
July 14 – Conrad of Montferrat, an Italian nobleman, arrives in Tyre which ends the surrender negotiations with Saladin. He finds the remnants of the Crusader army (after the battle of Hattin) and makes the Tyrians swear loyalty to him. Reginald of Sidon and several other nobles give their support, Reginald went to refortify his own castle of Beaufort on the Litani River.
Summer – Saladin begins a campaign that paves the way for further Muslim inroads into Christian territory. Al-Adil invades Palestine with the Egyptian army, and captures the strategic castle of Mirabel (Majdal Yaba). Mid-September Saladin has captured the cities of Acre, Jaffa, Gaza and Ascalon (blockaded by the Egyptian fleet), along with some 50 Crusader castles.
December 17 – Gregory VIII dies after holding the papacy for only 57 days. He is succeeded by Clement III as the 174th pope of Rome.
Spring – King Henry II and Philip II (Augustus) meet at Le Mans, with Archbishop Josias (or Joscius) in attendance. Both kings agree to peace terms, and to contribute to a joint Crusade. It is decided to raise a new tax to pay for the expedition. This tax, known as the Saladin Tithe, is imposed on the people of England and France to raise funds for the Third Crusade.
November – Richard of Poitou, son of Henry II, allies himself with Philip II and pays him homage. He promises to concede his rights to both Normandy and Anjou. Henry is overpowered by Richard's supporters, who chase him from Le Mans to Angers. They force him to accept peace by conceding to all demands, including the recognition of Richard as his successor.
Spring – Siege of Tyre: Muslim forces under Saladin withdraw from Tyre after a 1½-month siege. For the Crusaders the city-port becomes a strategic rallying point for the Christian revival during the Third Crusade.
May 14 – Saladin begins a campaign and marches north but finds Tripoli too strong to be besieged. He decides to take other Crusader fortifications and signs an 8-month truce with Prince Bohemond III of Antioch.
May – Saladin besieges the Hospitaller fortress of Krak des Chevaliers, in Syria. Seeing that the castle is too well defended, he decides instead to march on the Castle of Margat, which he also failed to capture.
August – Emperor Isaac II (Angelos) denies any crusader access and begins to hinder the German forces, who try to cross the Byzantine frontier. Frederick I progressed with force, by capturing Philippopolis and defeats a Byzantine army (some 3,000 men) that attempts to recapture the city. The Germans are delayed for six months in Thrace.
King Sancho I (the Populator) turns his attention towards the Moorish small kingdoms (called taifas) and begins a campaign in southern Portugal. With the help of crusader forces he conquers (during the Reconquista) the town of Silves. He orders the fortification of the city and builds a castle. Sancho styles himself "King of Silves".
September – Guy of Lusignan receives reinforcements of some 12,000 men from Denmark, Germany, England, France, and Flanders. He encircles Acre with a double line of fortified positions. On September 15, Saladin launches a failed attack on Guy's camp.
October 4 – Guy of Lusignan leads the crusader forces to launch a full-on assault on Saladin's camp. With heavy casualties on both sides, neither force gains the upperhand. On October 26, Saladin moves his camp from Acre to Mount Carmel (modern Israel).
October 30 – An Egyptian fleet (some 50 ships) breaks through the crusader blockade at Acre and reinforced the port-city with some 10,000 men, as well as food and weapons.
December – An Egyptian fleet reopens communications with Acre. The rest of the winter passed without major incidents, but the supply situation is poor in the besieged city.
^Das, Deb K. (22 November 2000). "1300 YEARS of Cricket: 700 to 2000 AD". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 2019. Joseph of Exeter, in 1183, gives the first complete description of this co-ed community activity. A ball is thrown at (and hit by) a batter wielding a staff which looks like today's baseball bat...the batter protects a piece of wood, perhaps a log or tree-stump, resting on a gate-like stand(could this be the origin of the term "stumps" in modern cricket?)...fielders are positioned all around, squires in front of the "wicket" and serfs behind...... This sport has clearly been going on for some time, and Joseph of Exeter calls it a "merrye" weekend recreation.
^Edbury, Peter W. (1978). "The 'Cartulaire de Manosque': a Grant to the Templars in Latin Syria and a Charter of King Hugh I of Cyprus1". Historical Research. 51 (124): 174-181. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.1978.tb01877.x. ISSN1468-2281. Joscius was already arch-bishop of Tyre in October 1186, and he died at an unknown date between October 1200 and May 1202
^Lakshmipriya, T. (2008). "Conservation and Restoration of the Ta Prohm Temple". In D'Ayala, Dina; Fodde, Enrico (eds.). Structural Analysis of Historic Construction: Preserving Safety and Significance, Two Volume Set: Proceedings of the VI International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historic Construction, SAHC08, 2-4 July 2008, Bath, United Kingdom. Boa Raton, London, New York, Leiden: CRC Press. p. 1491. ISBN9781439828229.
^Welch, David J. (March 1989). "Late Prehistoric and Early Historic Exchange Patterns in the Phimai Region, Thailand". Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 20 (1): 11-26. doi:10.1017/S0022463400019810. ISSN1474-0680. The foundation stela at Ta Prohm (AD 1186) recorded the assignment of 3,140 settlements with nearly 80,000 persons to this shrine,
^Stanley, Lane-Poole (July 1898). "The Fight That Lost Jerusalem". The Cornhill Magazine. 5 (25): 64. The child-king, Baldwin V., was dead, and an intrigue had enthroned Sibylla, a daughter of the royal house of Jerusalem, and she had shared her crown with her husband, Guy of Lusignan
^Riddell, Scott J.; Erlendsson, Egill; Eddudóttir, Sigrún D.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Kristjánsdóttir, Steinunn (2018-10-10). "Pollen, Plague & Protestants: The Medieval Monastery of Þingeyrar (Þingeyraklaustur) in Northern Iceland". Environmental Archaeology. 0: 1-18. doi:10.1080/14614103.2018.1531191. ISSN1461-4103. Kirkjubæjarklaustur (AD 1186-1542)
^Júlíusson, Árni Daníel; Lárusdottir, Birna; Lucas, Gavin; Pálsson, Gísli (2020). "Episcopal Economics". Scandinavian Journal of History. 0: 95-120. doi:10.1080/03468755.2019.1625436. ISSN0346-8755. S2CID214087718. The nunnery of Kirkjubæjarklaustur in Southeast Iceland was, according to received scholarship, one of the oldest monasteries in Iceland, established in 1186
^Choniates, Nicetas (1984). O City of Byzantium, Annals of Niketas Choniat?s, pp. 212-213. Translated by Harry J. Magoulias. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN0-8143-1764-2.
^David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series - 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, p. 57. ISBN1-85532-284-6. According to David Nicolle, Gökböri's force was said to consist of 7,000 men though this is a huge exaggeration, 700 seeming more likely.
^Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, pp. 369-370. ISBN978-0-241-29876-3.
^David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series - 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, p. 61. ISBN1-85532-284-6.
^Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 371. ISBN978-0-241-29876-3.
^David Nicolle (1993). Osprey: Campaign series - 19. Hattin 1187, Saladin's Greatest Victory, pp. 61-62. ISBN1-85532-284-6.
^Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem, p. 375. ISBN978-0-241-29876-3.
^Smail, R. C. (1995). Crusading Warfare, 1097-1193, p. 33 (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN978-0-521-45838-2.
^David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Campaign series - 161. The Third Crusade 1191: Richard the Lionheart, Saladin and the struggle for Jerusalem, p. 16. ISBN978-1-84176-868-7.
^Freed, John (2016). Frederick Barbarossa: The Prince and the Myth, pp. 491-492. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN978-0-300-122763.
^ abKing John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 38
^Treadgold, Warren (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society, p. 658. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN0-8047-2630-2.
^Charles Wendell David, ed. Narratio de Itinere Navali Peregrinorum Hierosolymam Tendentium et Silviam Capientium, A.D. 1189. In Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, p. 81. (Dec., 1939): 591-676.
^Steven Runciman (1990). A History of The Crusades. Vol II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East 1100-1187, p. 403. Penguin Books.
^Gosling, Paul (1991). From Dún Delca to Dundalk: The Topography and Archaeology of a Medieval Frontier Town A.D. c. 1187-1700., p. 237. Journal of the County Louth Archaeological and Historical Society.
^Asen, Daniel (2017-06-01). "Song Ci (1186-1249), "Father of World Legal Medicine": History, Science, and Forensic Culture in Contemporary China". East Asian Science, Technology and Society. 11 (2): 185-207. doi:10.1215/18752160-3812294. ISSN1875-2160. S2CID152121141. Song Ci (1186-1249) was an official of the Southern Song Dynasty best known for authoring the Collected Writings on the Washing Away of Wrongs (Xiyuan jilu), a work often hailed as the world's first systematic treatise on forensic medicine.
^Repp, Richard C. (2003). "Review of From the 'Terror of the World' to the 'Sick Man of Europe': European Images of Ottoman Empire and Society from the Sixteenth Century to the Nineteenth". Journal of Islamic Studies. 14 (2): 234-236. doi:10.1093/jis/14.2.234. ISSN0955-2340. JSTOR26199607.
^Makk, Ferenc (1994). "Lukács". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.). Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [Encyclopedia of the Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 417-420. ISBN963-05-6722-9.
^Eastmond, Antony (1994-09-01). "An Intentional Error? Imperial Art and "Mis"-Interpretation under Andronikos I Komnenos". The Art Bulletin. 76 (3): 502-510. doi:10.1080/00043079.1994.10786600. ISSN0004-3079. In 1183 Andronikos Komnenos became emperor of the Byzantine Empire by strangling his young predecessor, Alexios II.
^Pohl, Benjamin (2014). "Abbas qui et scriptor? The Handwriting of Robert of Torigni and His Scribal Activity as Abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel (1154-1186)". Traditio. 69: 45-86. doi:10.1017/S0362152900001914. ISSN0362-1529.
^Jacoby, Zehava (1979-01-01). "The Tomb of Baldwin V, King of Jerusalem (1185-1186), and the Workshop of the Temple Area". Gesta. 18 (2): 3-14. doi:10.2307/766804. ISSN0016-920X. JSTOR766804. S2CID192568024. Baldwin V, the seventh of the Latin kings of Jerusalem, died in the autumn of 1186 at the age of eight after a rule of about eighteen months