1200s (decade)
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1200s Decade

The 1200s began on January 1, 1200, and ended on December 31, 1209.

Events

1200


By place

Europe
England
Levant
Asia
  • Temüjin (or Genghis Khan) manages to unite about half the feuding Mongol clans under his leadership. He delegates authority based on skill and loyalty, rather than tribal affiliation or family. The main rivals of the Mongol confederation are the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south and the Jin Dynasty (or Great Jin) to the east.[5]

By topic

Education
  • The University of Paris receives its charter, from Philip II. He issues a diploma "for the security of the scholars of Paris", which affirms that students are subject only to ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

1201

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
England
  • King John (Lackland) puts an embargo on wheat exported to Flanders, in an attempt to force an allegiance between the states. He also puts a levy of a fifteenth on the value of cargo exported to France and disallows the export of wool to France without a special license. The levies are enforced in each port by at least six men - including one churchman and one knight. John affirms that judgments made by the court of Westminster are as valid as those made "before the king himself or his chief justice".[11]

By topic

Religion

1202

By place

Fourth Crusade
  • April–May – The bulk of the Crusader army gathers at Venice - although with far smaller numbers than expected: about 12,000 men (4-5,000 knights and 8,000 soldiers) instead of 33,500 men. Several contingents decide to make their own way to the Holy Land by different routes. A Crusader fleet sail from Flanders, carrying supplies for the Counts Baldwin IX and his brother Henry of Flanders, winters in Marseilles, but is slowed by adverse weather. Later it sails on to the Middle East, along with other contingents from southern France. [12]
  • Summer – The Crusader army, encamped on the island of San Niccolo di Lido between the Venetian Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea, is threatened by Doge Enrico Dandolo to keep them interned unless full payment is made as agreed (see 1201). As the Crusaders wait on the Lido for men to arrive, they also use up food supplies that Venice has agreed to supply. Dandolo faces a financial catastrophe, who has halted its commerce for a year's time, to prepare the expedition. The Crusader lords can offer Dandolo only 51,000 silver marks.[13]
  • September 8 – Enrico Dandolo takes the cross and agrees to lead a Venetian force, which, in an outburst of Crusading enthusiasm, reaches some 21,000 men - the largest contingent of the Fourth Crusade. He proclaims the debts will be wiped, if the Crusaders take the 'rebel' Dalmatian city of Zadar, who has pledged its loyalty to Emeric, king of Hungary and Croatia. The Zadar proposal causes disquiet in the Crusader ranks - but it upset also Pope Innocent III threatening to excommunicate those who attack Zadar.[14]
  • September – Prince Alexios Angelos sends representatives from Verona to the Crusader leaders in Venice, he promises to submit the Greek Orthodox Church to papal obedience and to provide the Crusade with 200,000 silver marks, together with provisions for a year. Alexios also will contribute 10,000 mounted soldiers to the expedition. In return he wants the Crusade to overthrow his uncle, the Byzantine emperor Alexios III (Angelos).[15]
  • November 1024Siege of Zadar: The Crusaders under Boniface of Montferrat besiege and conquer Zadar in Dalmatia. Despite letters from Innocent III forbidding such an action, and threatening excommunication. The leading citizens of Zadar hang banners of crosses along the outer walls, professing their Catholic faith. Nevertheless, the Crusaders breached and sacked the city, killing many.[16]
  • Winter – Innocent III excommunicates the Crusader army, along with the Venetians, which winters at Zadar. Many Crusaders, including some senior men, either abandon the Fourth Crusade or make their own way to the Holy Land. However, the majority remains in Zadar, where the army receives some welcome reinforcements. During the winter, negotiations continue with Alexios Angelos.[17]
Europe
Middle East

By topic

Literature
Religion

1203

By place

Fourth Crusade
  • April 20 – The Crusader army evacuates Zadar, and sets sail to Corfu; Boniface of Montferrat and Doge Enrico Dandolo stay behind to await Prince Alexios Angelos. After a brief pause at Durrës (modern Albania), the fleet reaches Corfu. Meanwhile, news of its approach (through spies) have reached Emperor Alexios III (Angelos) at Constantinople. He gives order to strengthen the city walls and the fortifications.[25]
  • May–June – The Crusader fleet rounds Greece and stops at Negroponte (modern-day Halkis), where the local authorities submit to Alexios Angelos. Encouraged by this, the Crusader leaders sent him and several ships to extend his authority over the neighboring island of Andros. Mid-June, the Crusader fleet sails from Greece to Abydos, where it enters the Dardanelles.[26]
  • June 23 – The Crusader fleet comes within sight of Constantinople and enters the Bosporus. The Byzantine capital is defended by a garrison of 15,000 soldiers (including 5,000 men of the Varangian Guard), and a fleet of 20 galleys. On June 26, the Byzantine troops skirmish with the Crusader forces who attack, without success, the cities of Chalcedon and Chrysopolis.[27][28]
  • July 2 – Crusader leaders sail close to the city's walls in order to display the young Alexios Angelos, where they call upon the Byzantines to rise up in his favour. After rowing back and forth for a while, receiving insults and missiles, the attempt is abandoned. The Crusader leadership decided to land an invasion force north of Galata - using prevailing currents and winds.[29]
  • July 5 – The Crusader fleet disembarks their horse transports and barreled down upon the Byzantine defenders in a full cavalry charge. The Byzantines flee after brief combat and retreat to the Tower of Galata, where they fortify themselves. After a bitter struggle, the Crusaders capture the tower and break the floating chain, and allow their fleet to enter the Golden Horn.[30]
  • Siege of Constantinople: The Crusaders led by Boniface of Montferrat capture Constantinople, in support of the deposed Emperor Isaac II and his son Alexios Angelos. This marks the main outcome of the Fourth Crusade.
    • July 11 – The Crusaders take positions opposite the Palace of Blachernae on the northwest corner of the city. Their first attempts are repulsed, but on July 17 the Venetians take a section of the wall of about 25 towers, while the Varangian Guard holds off the Crusaders on the land wall, inflicting heavy casualties. The Venetians set fire to the buildings inside the Golden Horn walls, and then abandon the occupied fortifications.[31]
    • July 1718 – Alexios III tries to counterattack from the Gate of St. Romanus but retreats without a fight. Embarrassed, he preferred to escape and abandon his subjects, fleeing with the imperial treasure to Develtos (a fortified town on the Gulf of Burgas) in Thrace. Meanwhile, the Byzantine aristocracy restores the ex-emperor Isaac II to the imperial throne. On August 1, Alexios Angelos is crowned co-emperor as Alexios IV.[32]
  • August – Alexios IV announces new taxes and enraged the Orthodox Church by confiscating large quantities of Byzantine icons, many centuries old, and melt them down to produce enough silver to pay the massive debt to the Venetians. A riot breaks out in Constantinople - during which the Byzantine populace loots and burns the homes of Italian residents in the city.[33]
  • August 31 – The Venetians rally a rabble of soldiers and storm through the walls, attacking the Mitation Mosque which results in extensive fires in Constantinople. Finally, they are fought off by the Byzantines and Muslims standing side by side. It becomes one of the most extensive urban conflagrations in European History and renders some 100,000 people homeless.[34]
  • August–October – Alexios IV leads a Crusader expedition (some 6,000 men) to extend his central-government control, against the fugitive Alexios III in Thrace. Meanwhile, a Crusader fleet operates in the Sea of Marmara in support of the Thracian campaign. The Crusaders seize several towns, including Adrianople, while Alexios escapes and withdraws to Macedonia.[35]
Europe
Levant
  • Summer – On orders of Al-Adil I, sultan of Egypt, Muslim ships attack Crusader vessels off Cyprus. Ships from Acre retaliate this action, by capturing six Muslim ships off Acre. King Aimery of Jerusalem declares the truce void between Al-Aldil and the Crusaders, and raids Muslim territory in northern Palestine. Al-Adil responds by taking his army to the outskirts of Acre - but does not launch an assault and retires afterward. A plague breaks out in Acre and half the newly arrived Crusader army dies.[36]
Japan

By topic

Economy
  • First evidence that the Temple in London is extending loans to John (Lackland). The sums remain small, but are often used for critical operations, such as the ransoming of the king's soldiers captured by the French.[37]
Religion

1204

1205

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
England
Levant
Africa

By topic

Religion

1206

By place

Byzantine Empire
Asia
  • Temüjin assembles at a Kurultai, a council of Mongol chiefs, the tribes under his rule and is elected as their leader. He is given the title of "Genghis Khan" of the Mongol people - founding the Mongol Empire. Genghis takes immediate steps to underpin his military command, starting with a fundamental reordering of tribal loyalties. United under one nomadic nation, under one banner and one authority.[68]
  • Muqali (or Mukhali), a Mongol general in service of Genghis Khan, is rewarded with the command of the left-wing of the newly reorganized Mongol army and takes control over the eastern Mingghans.[69]
  • March 15 – Sultan Muhammad of Ghor is murdered and succeeded by Qutb al-Din Aibak, his deputy in India, who founds the Mamluk Dynasty, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.[70]
Europe
England
  • June – King John (Lackland) lands an expeditionary army at La Rochelle to defend his interests in Aquitaine, which is his from the inheritance from his mother, Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Meanwhile, French forces led by King Philip II (Augustus) move south to meet John. The year's campaign ends in a stalemate and a two-year truce is made between the two rulers.[71]

By topic

Art and Culture
Education
Religion
  • A peasant named Thurkhill in England claims that Saint Julian took him on a tour of Purgatory. Thurkhill includes realistic touches of descriptions of Purgatory's torture chambers. This is also believed by Roger of Wendover, one of his society's leading historians.[73]
  • December – The monks of Canterbury want their own sub-prior Reginald for the post of archbishop, while John (Lackland) chooses John de Gray. Pope Innocent III appoints Stephen Langton. Finaly, the monks accept the Pope's decision and vote for Langton.
Technic
  • The Arab engineer Ismail al-Jazari describes many mechanical inventions in his book (title translated to English) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.

1207

By place

Byzantine Empire
Europe
England
  • King John (Lackland) introduces the first income tax. One-thirteenth of income from rents, and moveable property has to be paid. Collected locally by sheriffs and administered by the Exchequer. The tax is unpopular with the English nobility and especially in the churches and monasteries. The tax does raise a lot of money for John, doubling his annual income for the year.
  • May 24 – John (Lackland) still refusing to accept Stephen Langton as archbishop, Innocent III threatens to place England under an Interdict. In response, John confiscates church property. Many of the English bishops of the great churches in the country flee abroad to the Continent.
  • November – Leeds, a market town in West Yorkshire, receives its first charter (approximate date).
Asia

By topic

Economy
  • The first documentary evidence of forced loans in Venice. This technique becomes the staple of public finance in Europe, until the 16th century.[77]
Religion

1208

By place

Asia
  • April 15 – A fire breaks out in the Song Chinese capital city of Hangzhou, raging for four days and nights, destroying 58,097 houses over an area of more than 3 miles (4.8 km), killing 59 people, and an unrecorded number of other people, who are trampled while attempting to flee. The government provides temporary lodging for 5,345 people, in nearby Buddhist and Taoist monasteries. The collective victims of the disaster are given 160,000 strings of cash, along with 400 tons of rice. Some of the government officials who lost their homes take up residence in rented boathouses, on the nearby West Lake.
Europe
England
  • March 24 – Innocent III places England under an interdict, as punishment for King John (Lackland), for refusing to accept Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. During the interdict, religious services as marriages, burials, or baptisms cannot be performed.[82] John confiscates church property of clergy who are unwilling to conduct services. Many bishops in the country flee abroad to the Continent.[83]

By topic

Literature
Religion

1209

By area

Asia
Europe

By topic

Education
Markets
  • Philippe Auguste of France grants a "conduit" to merchants going to the Champagne fairs, guaranteeing the safety of their travel, as any attempt made against them is now to be considered as a crime of lese-majesty. The decision increases again the appeal of the fairs, to merchants from Italy and the Low Countries.[86]
  • The banking firm known as the Gran Tavola is formed; most of the partners are members of the Bonsignori Family. [87]
Religion

Significant people

Pratheesh

Births

1200

1201

1202

1203

1204

1205

1206

1207

1208

1209

Deaths

1200

1201

1202

1203

1204

1205

1206

1207

1208

1209


References

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