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1730s decade ran from January 1, 1730, to December 31, 1739.
April 8 – Congregation Shearith Israel, the first synagogue in New York City, is dedicated.
May 9 (April 28 O.S.) – The coronation of Anna of Russia as Empress of Russia takes place in Saint Petersburg.
May 15 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, retires from his role in the government of Great Britain, leaving Robert Walpole as sole and undisputed leader of the Cabinet (i.e., prime minister). In the new Walpole ministry, Sir William Strickland, 4th Baronet, becomes Secretary at War, and Henry Pelham is Paymaster of the Forces; Spencer Compton, 1st Earl of Wilmington briefly becomes Lord Privy Seal.
June 1 – Enslaved woman Sally Basset is put on trial for murder in Bermuda; she will eventually be convicted and burned at the stake.
June 19 – At the urging of Sir William Gooch, the Virginia House of Burgesses passes the Virginia Tobacco Inspection Act to regulate the quality of tobacco in Virginia, 46 to 5.   June 27 – French explorer Alphonse de Pontevez, commanding the frigate Le Lys, claims an Indian Ocean atoll for France and names it after himself as the Alphonse Atoll. The next day, he claims and names the St. François Atoll.
July 8 – 1730 Valparaíso earthquake: An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.1 strikes Valparaíso, in modern-day Chile but at this time in the Viceroyalty of Peru.
July 12 – The papal conclave selects Cardinal Lorenzo Corsini over Cardinal Pietro Marcellino Corradini as the successor to Pope Benedict XIII. Corsini becomes Pope Clement XII as the 246th pope.
August 4 – Maria Madlener becomes the last person to be executed after the Galgeninsel witch trials in Bavaria, and is beheaded by sword.
August 5 – Prince Frederick of Prussia, the eldest son of King Frederick William and a high-ranking officer, attempts to flee to England after deserting the Prussian Army and is captured along with his fellow officer Hans Hermann von Katte. Katte is executed, and Crown Prince Frederick is imprisoned at Küstrin (modern-day Kostrzyn nad Odr? in Poland) for a year before being forgiven by his father. Prince Frederick later succeeds his father as King and will be remembered as Frederick the Great. 
August 12 – General Nader Khan of Persia captures Tabriz from the Ottoman Empire, bringing an end to the Western Persia Campaign, the first major action in the Ottoman-Persian War (1730-1735). Tabriz becomes a permanent part of Iran. Nader leaves the city four days later to begin the Herat Campaign of 1731.
August 25 – French Protestant Marie Durand is imprisoned in the Tower of Constance at Aigues-Mortes for her defiance of the Roman Catholic government, and is kept captive for the next 38 years. During her incarceration, she continues to resist converting to Catholicism as a condition of release. She is finally set free on April 14, 1768 and lives 8 more years.
September 1 – A volcano erupts on Lanzarote, the easternmost of the Canary Islands and threatens the Spanish inhabitants. On Gran Canaria, the regent of the islands reports to Madrid that the flames are visible even from 130 miles (210 km) away.  September 17 – Mahmud I (d. 1754) succeeds Ahmed III (ruled since 1703) as Ottoman Emperor.
October 23 – A fire at Ashburnham House in Westminster destroys 114 irreplaceable manuscripts (including a manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle) and damages 98 others (among them the manuscript of ). Dr. Beowulf Richard Bentley, the King's librarian and the House's owner, saves the only copy of the , carrying it under one arm as he leaps from a window. Dr. Bentley's ten year labor in translating the Codex Alexandrinus Greek Testament is ruined by the blaze. The remaining 844 manuscripts later form the heart of the collections of the British Library.  
December 21 – The Maharaja Chhatrasal, monarch of Bundelkhand in India (part of the modern-day states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh) dies at the age of 82. His kingdom is divided into four parts, with one part going to Baji Rao I of the Marathas. The other three going to his three sons: Harde Sah gets the Panna State, Jagat Rai gets the Jaitpur State and Bharti Chand gets the Jaso State. December 29 – Jacques Grimaldi, the husband of the reigning monarch of Monaco, Louise Hippolyte, succeeds to the throne after Louise's death from smallpox. Jacques I rules until his own death in 1751. The House of Grimaldi has ruled the European principality since 1297, and Prince Albert II, great-great-great-great-great-great-great-grandson of Jacques, will take the throne in 2005.
October 7 – French Army Lieutenant General Florent-Jean de Vallière is tasked by King Louis XV to improve France's method of forging cannons.
October 16 – Russia approves the second Kamchatka expedition of Danish-born cartographer Vitus Bering, and the Admiralty orders him to sail east and try to claim uncharted lands in North America.
November 29 – The magnitude 6.6 Irpinia earthquake causes 1,940 deaths in the former Kingdom of Naples.
December 5 – 139 members of the Parliament of Paris, exiled by order of King Louis XV, secure their recall. 
December 7 – The original Theatre Royal, Covent Garden, London (the modern-day Royal Opera House) is opened. December 19 – Benjamin Franklin, in the Pennsylvania Gazette, first advertises the publication of , purportedly written by "Richard Saunders", a pen name used by Franklin. Poor Richard's Almanack The book goes on sale on December 28.  The annual publication will continue until 1758. 
April 22 – Voting begins for the British House of Commons in some parliamentary constituencies. In that voting dates vary, the election continues until June 6.
April 25 – Easter occurs on the latest possible date (the next time is in 1886).
May 15 – Prince Charles of Spain (later King Charles III) becomes the new King of Naples and Sicily, five days after his arrival in Naples.
May 25 – Spanish forces under the command of José Carrillo de Albornoz, 1st Duke of Montemar, defeat the Austrian forces, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples at the Battle of Bitonto.
May 27 – French and Swiss troops suppress the slave insurrection in the Danish West Indies on the island of Saint John (now part of the U.S. Virgin Islands) after six months and restore control of the plantations to the Danish owners. 
June 6 – With the conclusion of the British general election, the Whigs, led by Prime Minister Robert Walpole, lose 85 seats but retain their majority.
June 17 – French troops take Philippsburg, but the Duke of Berwick is killed.
June 21 – In Montreal, New France, a black slave known by the French name of Marie-Joseph Angélique is tortured then hanged by the French authorities for allegedly setting a fire that destroyed part of the city. June 30 – War of the Polish Succession: Russian troops take Gda?sk ( German: Danzig), which had been besieged since February 1734, after the failure of a French expedition to relieve the city.
October 23 – Jamaica's Governor John Ayscough declares martial law to fight the slave rebellion that began in 1733, then drafts 600 men into the colonial army to march into the Blue Mountains. 
October 31 – Chief Tomochichi of the Yamacraw band of the Muscogee Nation ends a successful four and a half month visit to Great Britain, along with Georgia Governor James Oglethorpe and other Yamacraw Indians, after having signed the cession of the area of modern day Savannah, Georgia to the Georgia Company. On June 16, he and the Muscogee delegation (Senauki, Toonahowi, Hillispilli, Umpichi, Apokutchi, Santachi and Stimaletchi) had been welcomed as guests of King George II. The group departs on HMS Aldborough after completing the visit by the largest delegation of Native Americans since 1616. 
November 5 – The Dzików Confederation is created in Poland. December 24 – A fire destroys the Royal Alcázar of Madrid, the residence of the Spanish royal family, along with more than 400 valuable paintings, 100 sculptures and thousands of documents.
October 3 – An agreement between the European powers brings a ceasefire in the War of the Polish Succession, one week short of the second anniversary of the war. With France and Spain on the side of the reigning monarch, Stanis?aw Leszczy?ski, and Prussia, Russia, and Austria supporting Augustus III, a preliminary peace is signed allowing Stanislaw to reign in Warsaw and Augustus to reign in Krakow, and is ratified in 1738.
October 14 – John Wesley and his brother Charles set sail from England for Savannah in the Province of Georgia in British America; on the voyage they first encounter members of the Moravian Church.
October 18 – In China, Qianlong succeeds his father, Yongzheng, as Emperor and begins a 60-year-long reign within the Qing dynasty.
November 25 – The largest bell in the world, the 22 feet (6.7 m) diameter Tsar Kolokol, is successfully cast in Moscow within the Kremlin. 
November 30 – The Netherlands becomes the first government to announce a prohibition against citizens joining the Freemasons. 
December 6 – The second successful appendectomy is performed by naturalised British surgeon Claudius Aymand at St George's Hospital in London (the first was in 1731).  December 19 – At the age of 8 years old, Prince Luis of Spain becomes the youngest Roman Catholic Cardinal in history, after being named by Pope Clement XII.
April 14 – The Porteous Riots erupt in Edinburgh (Scotland), after the execution of smuggler Andrew Wilson, when town guard Captain John Porteous orders his men to fire at the crowd. Porteous is arrested later.
April 14 – German adventurer Theodor Stephan Freiherr von Neuhoff is crowned King Theodore of Corsica, 25 days after his arrival on Corsica on March 20. His reign ends on November 5 when he flees the island. 
April 19 – A fire in Stony Stratford, England, consumes 53 houses. 
April – The Genbun era begins in Japan. The era of Ky?h? Reforms ends.
May 8 – Frederick, Prince of Wales, marries Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
May 22 – King George II of Great Britain departs for Europe as part of his duties as Elector of Hanover; his wife, Caroline, Queen Consort rules on his behalf as the Regent for the last time until his return on January 14, 1736. 
May 26 – Battle of Ackia: British and Chickasaw Native Americans defeat French troops.
June 8 – Leonhard Euler writes to James Stirling describing the Euler-Maclaurin formula, providing a connection between integrals and sums.
June 19 – A French Academy of Sciences expedition, led by Pierre Louis Maupertuis, with Anders Celsius, begins work on measuring a meridian arc in Meänmaa, Finland.  June 24 – Witchcraft Act of 1735 in Great Britain comes into effect, criminalizing claimants accusing people of practising witchcraft or of possessing magical powers, intended to end legal witch trials in the early modern period in the country. 
October 3 – French scientist Charles Marie de La Condamine and a team of surveyors begin the first measurements at the Equator to determine the exact meridian arc measurement of distance between points separated by one degree of longitude in order to make a precise calculation of the Earth's circumference. The initial measurements, made in what is now  Ecuador, last until November 3.
November 5 – King Theodore of Corsica flees the island after a reign of seven months and the kingdom reverts to French control. 
November 13 – Word of the discovery of silver, south of what is now the U.S.-Mexican border, reaches Sonora Governor Juan Bautista Anza and soon leads to prospectors coming to Nogales to find more silver. Late in October, a Yaqui Indian prospector, Antonio Siraumea, had discovered  large slabs of silver ("Las planchas de plata"), and at the Estancia Arizona, a ranch owned by Captain Bernardo de Urrea. The region, and later the U.S. territory, and state of Arizona are named for Urrea's ranch.
December 7 – Benjamin Franklin builds the first volunteer fire company in Philadelphia. December 26 – Andrew Michael Ramsay gives an oration, in which he relates the heritage and internationalism of Freemasonry to that of the Crusades.
January 5 – Spain and the Holy Roman Empire sign instruments of cession at Pontremoli in the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in Italy, with the Empire receiving control of Tuscany and the Grand Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, in return for Don Carlos of Spain being recognized as King of Naples and King of Sicily. 
January 9 – The Empires of Austria and Russia enter into a secret military alliance that leads to Austria's disastrous entry into the Russo-Turkish War. 
January 18 – In Manila, a peace treaty is signed between Spain's Governor-General of the Philippines, Fernándo Valdés y Tamon, and the Sultan Azim ud-Din I of Sulu, recognizing Azim's authority over the islands of the Sulu Archipelago.  
February 20 – France's Foreign Minister, Germain Louis Chauvelin, is dismissed by King Louis XV's Chief Minister, Cardinal André-Hercule de Fleury
February 27 – French scientists Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau and Georges-Louis Leclerc de Buffon publish the first study correlating past weather conditions with an examination of tree rings. 
March 16 – In Paris, representatives of Spain and Portugal sign an armistice bringing an end to the Spanish-Portuguese War over the area now occupied by the nation of Uruguay and the area now occupied by the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil. The news does not reach the fighting parties until five months later.  March 28 – The Battle of Delhi takes place between the Maratha Empire and the Mughals.
April 5 – French Jesuit priest Jean-François Régis is canonized as Saint Regis by the Roman Catholic Church under the reign of Pope Clement XII.
April 22 –
In Afghanistan, Persian shah
Nader Shah begins the 11-month Siege of Kandahar against the Pashtun Emir of Afghanistan, Hussain Hotak. The surviving Afghanis surrender on March 24, 1738.  Lots are first advertised for sale in the new town of Richmond, Virginia, by the placement of a notice by William Byrd in the Virginia Gazette. According to the paper, "... on the North Side of James River, near the Uppermost Landing, and a little below the Falls, is lately laid off by Major Mayo, a Town, called Richmond, with Streets 65 Feet wide, in a pleasant and healthy Situation, and well supply'd with Springs of good Water. It lies near the Publick Warehouse at Shoccoe's, and in the midst of great Quantities of Grain, and all kind of Provisions. The Lots will be granted in Fee Simple, on Condition only of building a House in Three Years Time, of 24 by 16 Feet, fronting within 5 Feet of the Street. The Lots to be rated according to the Convenience of their Situation, and to be sold after this April General Court, by me, William Byrd." 
May 28 – The planet Venus passes in front of Mercury. The event is witnessed during the evening hours, by the amateur astronomer John Bevis, at the Royal Greenwich Observatory. As of 2006, it is still the only such planet/planet occultation that has been directly observed.
June 21 – In Britain, the Theatrical Licensing Act requires plays to be submitted to the Lord Chamberlain for censorship. June 30 – Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739: Russian forces under Field Marshal Munnich storm the Ottoman fortress of Ochakov, and take prisoner 4,000 Turks.
July 9 – The direct male line of the Medici family becomes extinct, with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.
July 12 – Austria enters the Russo-Turkish War as an ally of Russia against the Ottoman Empire. 
July 17 – The British ship Catherine founders in a storm off of Nova Scotia's Cape Sable Island during its voyage from Ireland to Boston, killing 98 of the 201 people on board.
August 4 – Austria's army is defeated by the Ottoman Army and Bosnian defenders in the Battle of Banja Luka.
August 15 – The Portuguese frigate Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem arrives at Maldonado (now in Uruguay) as Captain Duarte Pereira brings the news that the Spanish-Portuguese War ended by an agreement signed on March 16. 
September 1 – The oldest existing English language newspaper in the world, , is founded in The News Letter Belfast, Ireland. September 20 – Runner Edward Marshall completes his journey in the Walking Purchase, forcing the cession of 1,200,000 acres (4,900 km 2) of Lenape-Delaware tribal land to the Pennsylvania Colony.
October 7 – At least 300,000 people are killed when a tropical cyclone strikes the Bay of Bengal in India and modern-day Bangladesh. The storm sends 12 metres (39 ft) high waves over the Sundarbans delta, and overflows the Hooghly River. 
October 11 – The first national stage in Sweden opens, when Carl Gyllenborg's play Den svenska sprätthöken is performed in the Swedish language, by the first native actors, on the stage of in Bollhuset Stockholm. 
October 16 – An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 9.3 occurs off the shore of Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula. Tsunamis up to 60 metres (200 ft) high follow in the Pacific ocean. 
November 4 – The , the oldest working Teatro di San Carlo opera house in Europe, is inaugurated in Naples, Italy.
December 24 – General Baji Rao I of the Maratha Empire in India defeats the armies of the rulers of Hyderabad, Oudh, Bhopal and Jaipur in the Battle of Bhopal. December – John Wesley leaves Savannah, Georgia, and returns to England.
April 15 – , an Italian Serse opera by George Frideric Handel, premieres in London.
April 18 – Spain's Royal Academy of History ( ) is established by decree of King Real Academia de la Historia Philip V of Spain. 
April 28 – Pope Clement XII issues the papal bull , prohibiting Roman Catholics from being members of In eminenti apostolatus Masonic socieities. 
May 24 – John Wesley, newly returned from America, experiences a spiritual rebirth at a Moravian Church meeting in Aldersgate, in the City of London, essentially launching the Methodist movement; the day is celebrated annually by Methodists as Aldersgate Day (his younger brother Charles had a similar experience three days earlier).
May 25 – The military phase of Cresap's War between the British North American Provinces of Maryland and Pennsylvania is ended when King George II of Great Britain negotiates a cease-fire.
June 24 – British inventor Lewis Paul receives a patent for roller cotton-spinning machinery.  June 27 – The Spanish Empire's Council of the Indies votes, 6 to 4, to re-establish the Viceroyalty of New Granada, incorporating modern-day Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Panama.  King Philip V issues the order on August 20, 1738.
July 9 – The first group purporting to represent an all-England cricket team, consisting of 11 players from various parts of England, comes to Kent and loses to the renowned Kent team, led by Lord John Sackville. 
July 12 – The British East India Company signs a treaty with the Maratha Empire to gain the right of free trade within the territory. 
July 22 – The Ottoman Empire retakes Belgrade from Austria's Habsburg Monarchy after winning the Battle of Grocka. 
August 20 – The Viceroyalty of New Granada, incorporating modern-day Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela is re-established by the royal of King cedula Philip V of Spain, 16 years after it had been dissolved, and adds the territory of Panama as well. 
September 9 – The Stono Rebellion, a slave rebellion, erupts near Charleston, South Carolina. September 18 – The Treaty of Belgrade brings the Austro-Russian-Turkish War (1735-39) to an end.
April 16 – Henry Clinton, British general (d. 1795)
April 26 – John Moore, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1805)
May 13 – Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1782)
May 28 – Maria Angela Ardinghelli, Italian scientific translator (d. 1825)
June 21 – Motoori Norinaga, Japanese philologist, scholar of the kokugaku school (d. 1801)
June 30 – Lokenath Brahmachari, Indian saint, yogi and mystic (d. 1890)
July 10 – Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, French Freemason (d. 1824)
July 26 – Charles Messier, French astronomer (d. 1817)
August 1 – Frederick Hervey, 4th Earl of Bristol, English Anglican prelate (d. 1803)
August 27 – Johann Georg Hamann, German philosopher (d. 1788)
September 7 – Elisabetta de Gambarini, English composer (d. 1765)
September 17 – Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, Prussian army officer (d. 1794)
November 23 – William Moultrie, American general (d. 1805)
December 14 – James Bruce, Scottish explorer (d. 1794)
December 25 – Philip Mazzei, Italian physician, friend of Thomas Jefferson (d. 1816)
December 30 – William Hamilton, British diplomat, antiquary (d. 1803) date unknown
January – Abbas III, Shah of Persia (d. 1740)
January 17 – Stanis?aw August Poniatowski, last King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (d. 1798)
January 20 – Richard Henry Lee, 12th President of the Continental Congress (d. 1794)
January 24 – Pierre de Beaumarchais, French writer (d. 1799)
February – Charles Churchill, English poet (d. 1764)
February 6 – Charles Lee, general of the Continental Army (d. 1782)
March 1 – William Cushing, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1810)
March 31 – Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer (d. 1809)
April 5 – Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French painter (d. 1806)
April 8 – David Rittenhouse, American astronomer, inventor, mathematician, surveyor, scientific instrument craftsman and public official (d. 1796)
April 13 – Frederick North, Lord North, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1792)
April 17 – John Blair Jr., American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1800)
June 21 – Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach, German composer (d. 1795)
September 2 – William Crawford, American soldier and surveyor (d. 1782)
September 26 – José de Córdoba y Ramos, Spanish explorer, naval commander (d. 1815)
September 30 – Jacques Necker, French politician (d. 1804)
October 6 – Nevil Maskelyne, English Astronomer Royal (d. 1811)
October 24 – Cristina Roccati, Italian scholar in physics (d. 1797)
November 4 – Thomas Johnson, American politician and Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1819)
November 9 – Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse, French salon holder (d. 1776)
November 13 – John Dickinson, Governor of Delaware and Pennsylvania (d. 1808)
December 6 – Warren Hastings, British administrator (d. 1818)
December 15 – Carl Gotthard Langhans, German architect (d. 1808)
December 21 – Johann Christian Wiegleb, German chemist (d. 1800)
December 23 – Richard Arkwright, English inventor (d. 1792) date unknown – Francis Marion, American officer (d. 1795)
March 13 – Joseph Priestley, English scientist and minister (d. 1804)
May 4 – Jean-Charles de Borda, French mathematician, physicist, political scientist, and sailor (d. 1799)
July 27 – Jeremiah Dixon, English surveyor and astronomer (d. 1779)
September 5 – Christoph Martin Wieland, German poet and writer (d. 1813)
September 18 – George Read, American lawyer and signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1798)
October 14 – François Sébastien Charles Joseph de Croix, Count of Clerfayt, Austrian field marshal (d. 1798)
October 15 – Lisa Eriksdotter, Finnish visionary
November 16 – Siraj ud-Daulah, the last independent ruler of Bengal of undivided India (d. 1757)
November 20 – Philip Schuyler, general in the American Revolution, United States Senator from New York, father of Angelica Schuyler Church and Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton (d. 1804) undated - Johanna Löfblad, Swedish actor and singer (d. 1811)
January 16 – John A. Treutlen, Governor of Georgia (d. 1782)
January 20 – Robert Morris, Founding Father of the United States (d. 1806)
February 15 – William Stacy, American Revolutionary War officer (d. 1802)
February 27 – Thomas Conway, American Revolutionary War general (d. 1800)
March 1 – Jeanne de Bellem, heroine of the Brabant Revolution
March 19 – Thomas McKean, American lawyer, signer of the Declaration of Independence (d. 1817)
April 17 – Taksin, King of Thailand (d. 1782)
April – Elsa Beata Bunge, Swedish botanist (d. 1819)
May 23 – Franz Mesmer, Austrian physician (d. 1815)
July 25 – Ueda Akinari, Japanese author and scholar (d. 1809)
August 10 – Naungdawgyi, Burmese king (d. 1763)
August 24 – Benjamin Church, first Surgeon General of the United States Army (d. 1763)
September 3 – Joseph Wright, British painter (d. 1797)
September 17 – Elizabeth Canning, English maidservant and kidnappee (d. 1773) October 7 – Sir Ralph Abercromby, British general (d. 1801)
January 1 – Paul Revere, American silversmith and patriot (d. 1818)
January 8 – John Carroll first Roman Catholic Archbishop in the U.S. (d. 1815)
January 9 – John Jervis, 1st Earl of St Vincent, British Royal Navy admiral (d. 1823)
January 27 – Étienne Clavière, French financier and politician (d. 1793)
February 13, Crown Prince Sado (d. 1762)
February 28 – Alexandre-Théophile Vandermonde French musician and chemist (d. 1796)
March 1 – Caroline Thielo, Danish actress (d. 1754)
March 29 – Johann Karl August Musäus German author (d. 1787)
April 13 – Isaac Low, New York delegate to the Continental Congress (d. 1791)
May 1 – Lorenzo Hervás y Panduro Spanish Jesuit philologist (d. 1809)
May 23 – Charles Joseph, Prince de Ligne, (d. 1814)
June 16 – Nicolas Bernard Lépicié, French painter (d. 1784)
June 26 – Joseph Ducreux, French noble, portrait painter, pastelist, miniaturist, and engraver (d. 1802)
July 4 – Jacoba van den Brande, Dutch culture personality (d. 1794)
July 10 – Ulrika Pasch, Swedish painter (d. 1796)
September 5 – Johann Christian Bach, German composer (d. 1782)
September 20 – James Keir, Scottish geologist, chemist, and industrialist (d. 1820)
September 28 – Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1811)
October 1 – Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 3rd Duke of Grafton (d. 1811)
October 9 – Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick (d. 1806) October 21 – Richard Gough, English antiquary (d. 1809)
January 19 – James Watt, Scottish inventor (d. 1819)
January 25 – Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Italian-born mathematician (d. 1813)
February 3 – Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Austrian musician (d. 1809)
February 29 – Ann Lee, English-born American religious leader (d. 1784)
March 20 - Rama I, First King of Siam (d. 1809)
May 8 – Caterina Dolfin, Italian (Venetian) poet (d. 1793)
May 10 – George Steevens, English literary critic (d. 1800)
May 29 – Patrick Henry, American patriot (d. 1799)
June 3 – Sir John Acton, 6th Baronet, Prime Minister of Naples (d. 1811) June 7 – Fermín Lasuén, Spanish missionary (d. 1803)
January 29 – Thomas Paine, British-born American patriot and pamphleteer (d. 1809)
March 23 – Arthur St. Clair, American soldier and politician (d. 1818)
April 27 – Edward Gibbon, English historian and politician (d. 1794)
May 2 – William Petty, 2nd Earl of Shelburne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1805)
June 20 – Tokugawa Ieharu, Japanese sh?gun (d. 1786)
August 5 – Johann Friedrich Struensee, Danish royal physician (d. 1772)
August 14 – Charles Hutton, English mathematician (d. 1823)
August 29 – John Hunter, second governor of New South Wales (d. 1821)
September 9 – Luigi Galvani, Italian physician and physicist (d. 1798)
September 14 – Michael Haydn, Austrian composer (d. 1806)
September 15 – Miklós Küzmics, Hungarian Slovenes writer, Catholic priest (d. 1804)
September 19 – Charles Carroll of Carrollton, only Roman Catholic signer of the American Declaration of Independence (d. 1832)
December 26 – Prince Josias of Coburg, Austrian general (d. 1815) date unknown –
January 21 – Ethan Allen, American patriot (d. 1789)
February 6 – Pierre-Joseph Desault, French anatomist and surgeon (d. 1795)
April 12 – Padre Francisco Garcés, Spanish missionary (d. 1781)
April 14 – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1809)
May 27 – Nathaniel Gorham, American politician (d. 1796)
May 28 – Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician (d. 1814)
June 4 – King George III of the United Kingdom (d. 1820)
July 3 – John Singleton Copley, American painter (d. 1815)
July 20 – Darejan Dadiani, Georgian queen consort (d. 1807)
July 22 – Anne d'Yves, writer, participant in the Brabant Revolution (d. 1814)
August 13 – Scott Jamieson Dexter, Classical Musician (d. 1814)
August 28 – Etteilla, French occult cartomancer (d. 1791)
September 25 – Nicholas Van Dyke, American lawyer and President of Delaware (d. 1789)
October 11 – Arthur Phillip, British admiral and Governor of New South Wales (d. 1814) October 18 – Andrei Bolotov, Russian agriculturalist and memoirist (d. 1833)
January 25 – Charles François Dumouriez, French general (d. 1823)
February 15 – Alexandre-Théodore Brongniart, French architect (d. 1813)
March 16 – George Clymer, American politician and Founding Father (d. 1813)
March 19 – Charles-François Lebrun, duc de Plaisance, Third Consul of France (d. 1824)
July 26 – George Clinton, 4th Vice President of the United States, American soldier and politician (d. 1812)
August 31 – Johann Augustus Eberhard, German theologian, philosopher (d. 1809)
September 12 – Mary Bosanquet Fletcher, Methodist preacher and philanthropist (d. 1816)
September 17 – John Rutledge, Chief Justice of the United States (d. 1800)
October 11 – Grigory Potemkin, Russian military leader, statesman, nobleman and favourite of Catherine the Great (d. 1791)
November 2 – Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Austrian composer (d. 1799)
November 20 – Jean-François de La Harpe, French critic (d. 1803)
December 14 – Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours, French politician (d. 1817) date unknown
January 7 – Árni Magnússon, Icelandic scholar and manuscript collector (b. 1663)
January 18 – Antonio Vallisneri, Italian scientist (b. 1661)
January 30 – Emperor Peter II of Russia (b. 1715)
February 9 – Johann Georg von Eckhart, German historian (b. 1664)
February 12 – Luca Carlevarijs, Italian painter (b. 1663)
February 21 – Pope Benedict XIII, Italian pontiff (b. 1649)
March 20 – Adrienne Lecouvreur, French actress (b. 1692)
March 22 – Benedetto Pamphili, Italian cardinal, patron of the arts, composer and librettist (b. 1653)
March 23 – Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) (b. 1654)
May 13 – Sir Justinian Isham, 4th Baronet, English landowner and Member of Parliament (b. 1658)
May 30 – Arabella Churchill, English mistress of James II of England (b. 1648)
June 6 – Alain Emmanuel de Coëtlogon, Marshal of France in the reign of Louis XIV and Louis XV (b. 1646)
June 18 – Yinxiang, Qing dynasty prince (b. 1686)
June 19 – Thomas Trevor, 1st Baron Trevor, English judge and politician (b. 1658)
June 21 – Sarah Basset, Bermudian slave, origin of legend
June 28 – Joachim Bouvet, French Jesuit active in China (b. 1656)
July 7 – Olivier Levasseur, French pirate
July 9 – Issachar Berend Lehmann, German-Jewish banker, Court Jew in Hanover (b. 1661)
July 18 – François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy, French soldier (b. 1644)
August 2 – Mathias Steuchius, Swedish archbishop (b. 1644)
August 10 – Sébastien de Brossard, French composer and music theorist (b. 1655)
August 12 – Benedicta Henrietta of the Palatinate, German princess (b. 1652)
August 19 – James Ogilvy, 4th Earl of Findlater, Scottish politician (b. 1664)
September 9 – Charles FitzRoy, 2nd Duke of Cleveland, English courtier (b. 1662)
September 10 – Guichard Joseph Duverney, French anatomist (b. 1648)
September 14 – Sophia Elisabet Brenner, Swedish writer (b. 1659) September 27 – Laurence Eusden, English poet (b. 1688)
January 27 – Bartolomeo Cristofori, Italian maker of musical instruments (b. 1655)
February 10 – George Carpenter, 1st Baron Carpenter, British Army general (b. 1657)
February 15 – Mary of Jesus de León y Delgado, Spanish Dominican lay sister and mystic (b. 1643)
February 22 – Frederik Ruysch, Dutch physician and anatomist (b. 1638)
March 5 – Abd al-Ghani al-Nabulsi, Sufi academic (b. 1641)
March 6 – Johann Melchior Dinglinger, German goldsmith (b. 1664)
March 8 – Ferdinand Brokoff, Czech sculptor (b. 1688)
March 9 – Frances Talbot, Countess of Tyrconnell, English-born courtier and vicereine of Ireland (b. c. 1649)
March 12 – Ernest August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Augustenburg (b. 1660)
March 23 – Augustus William, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1662)
April 24 – Daniel Defoe, English writer (b. c. 1660)
May 1 – Johann Ludwig Bach, German composer (b. 1677)
May 11 – Mary Astell, English feminist writer (b. 1666)
May 17 – Samuel Bradford, English churchman, Whig politician (b. 1652)
June 20 – Ned Ward, English writer, publican (b. 1667)
July 18 – Sir Walter Yonge, 3rd Baronet, English politician (b. 1653)
August 27 – Eudoxia Lopukhina, Russian Tsarina, divorced spouse of Peter the Great of Russia (b. 1669)
December 17 – George Lockhart, Scottish writer, spy and politician, killed in duel (b. 1673)
December 20 – Chhatrasal, Maharaja of Madhya Pradesh (b. 1649)
December 26 – Antoine Houdar de la Motte, French writer (b. 1672) December 29 – Brook Taylor, English mathematician (b. 1685)
January 12 – John Horsley, British archaeologist (b. c. 1685)
January 22 – Louis de Sabran, British theologian (b. 1652)
February 6 – Anne Scott, 1st Duchess of Buccleuch, wealthy Scottish peeress (b. 1651)
February 7 – William Hiseland, English (later British) soldier, reputed supercentenarian (b. 1620)
February 13 – Charles-René d'Hozier, French historian (b. 1640)
February 17 – Louis Marchand, French organist and harpsichordist (b. 1669)
February 18 – Balthasar Permoser, German sculptor (b. 1651)
February 27 – Giacomo Serpotta, Italian artist (b. 1652)
February 28 – André Charles Boulle, French cabinet-maker (b. 1642)
March 20 – Johann Ernst Hanxleden, German philologist (b. 1681)
April 6 – Count Palatine Francis Louis of Neuburg, Hochmeister of the Teutonic Order (b. 1664)
April 28 – Thomas Parker, 1st Earl of Macclesfield (b. 1666)
May 20 – Thomas Boston, Scottish church leader (b. 1676)
May 30 – John King, English churchman (b. 1652)
July 11 – Theodore Eustace, Count Palatine of Sulzbach (b. 1659)
July 15 – Woodes Rogers, English privateer and first Royal Governor of the Bahamas (b. c. 1679)
September 24 – Emperor Reigen of Japan (b. 1654)
October 6 – George Duckett (Calne MP), English politician (b. 1684)
October 12 – Dionisia de Santa María Mitas Talangpaz, Filipino saint (b. 1691)
October 25 – Andrea Brustolon, Italian artist (b. 1662)
October 31 – Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia (b. 1666)
November 10 – Adam Christian Thebesius, German anatomist (b. 1686)
November 20 – Daniel d'Auger de Subercase, French naval officer, governor of Newfoundland (b. 1661)
November 21 – Jan Jansen Bleecker, Mayor of Albany, New York (b. 1641)
November 26 – Charles Sergison, English politician (b. 1655)
December 4 – John Gay, English poet and dramatist (b. 1685)
December 14 – Johann Philipp Förtsch, German opera composer (b. 1652) date unknown
February 1 – King Augustus II the Strong of Poland (b. 1670)
February 2 – Robert Price (judge), British judge and politician (b. 1653)
February 16 – Ulrika Eleonora Stålhammar, Swedish officer (b. 1683)
March 4 – Claude de Forbin, French naval commander (b. 1656)
April 14 – Ippolito Desideri, Italian tibetologist (b. 1684)
April 19 – Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney, mistress of William III of England (b. 1657)
April 30 – Rodrigo Anes de Sá Almeida e Meneses, 1st Marquis of Abrantes, Portuguese diplomat (b. 1676)
May 1 – Nicolas Coustou, French artist (b. 1658)
May 3 – Sir Richard Cox, 1st Baronet, England (b. 1650)
May 10 – Barton Booth, English actor (b. 1681)
May 18 – Georg Böhm, German organist (b. 1661)
June 23 – Johann Jakob Scheuchzer, Swiss scholar (b. 1672)
July 12 – Anne-Thérèse de Marguenat de Courcelles, French salon holder (b. 1647)
August 16 – Matthew Tindal, English deist (b. 1657)
August 24 – Pierre-Étienne Monnot, French artist (b. 1657)
September 12 – François Couperin, French composer (b. 1668)
October 19 – Sir Thomas Molyneux, 1st Baronet, Irish politician (b. 1661)
October 25 – Giovanni Girolamo Saccheri, Italian mathematician (b. 1667)
October 31 – Eberhard Louis, Duke of Württemberg, (b. 1676)
November 11 – Willem Adriaan van der Stel, Dutch colonial administrator (b. 1664) December 2 – Gerard Hoet, Dutch painter (b. 1648)
January 6 – John Dennis, English dramatist, critic (b. 1658)
February 2 – Charles Calvert, Maryland official (b. 1688)
February 9 – Diego de Astorga y Céspedes, Spanish Catholic cardinal (b. 1663)
March 1 – Roger North, English biographer (b. 1653)
March 16 – Andreas Silbermann, German organ builder (b. 1678)
March 21 – Robert Wodrow, Scottish historian (b. 1679)
April 1 – Louis Lully, French composer (b. 1664)
April 11 – Thomas Fantet de Lagny, French mathematician (b. 1660)
April 25 – Johann Konrad Dippel, German alchemist (b. 1673)
May 4 – James Thornhill, English painter (b. 1675 or 1676)
May 15 – Sebastiano Ricci, Italian painter (b. 1659)
May 21 – Philippine Élisabeth d'Orléans, French princess (b. 1714) May 24 – Georg Ernst Stahl, German physician and chemist (b. 1660)
June 12 – James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick, illegitimate son of James II of England and French military commander (b. 1670)
June 15 – Giovanni Ceva, Italian mathematician (b. 1647)
June 17 – Claude Louis Hector de Villars, Marshal of France (b. 1653)
June 21 – Marie-Joseph Angélique, African slave
July 22 – Peter King, 1st Baron King, Lord Chancellor of England (b. c. 1669)
September 8 – Michel Sarrazin, Canadian scientist (b. 1659)
October 12 – Simon Henry Adolph, Count of Lippe-Detmold, ruler of the county of Lippe (b. 1694)
November 14 – Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth, French-born mistress of Charles II of England (b. 1649)
November 21 – Alexis Simon Belle, French portrait painter (b. 1674)
November 23 – Eugene Jean, Count of Soissons, Prince of Savoy (b. 1714)
December 5 – Peter Tillemans, Flemish painter
December 28 – Rob Roy MacGregor, Scottish clan chief (b. 1671) date unknown
January 5 – Carlo Ruzzini, Doge of Venice (b. 1653)
January 12 – John Eccles, British composer (b. 1668)
January 13 – Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg, Queen consort of Sardinia (b. 1706)
January 18 – Maria Clementina Sobieska, Polish noble (b. 1702)
February 27 – John Arbuthnot, British physician and author (b. 1667)
March 25 – Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt, German scientist (b. 1685)
April 8 – Francis II Rákóczi, Hungarian rebel against the Habsburgs (b. 1676)
April 23 – Edward Hawarden, English Catholic theologian (b. 1662)
June 10 – Thomas Hearne, British antiquarian (b. 1678)
June 22 – Pirro Albergati, Italian composer (b. 1663)
July 18 – Johann Krieger, German composer and organist (b. 1651)
July 26 – Jesper Swedberg, Swedish bishop (b. 1653)
July 29 – Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Prussian queen consort (b. 1685)
August 30 – Edward Harley, English politician (b. 1664)
September 18 – Justus van Effen, Dutch author (b. 1684) September 27 – Peter Artedi, Swedish naturalist (drowned) (b. 1705)
January 8 – Jean Leclerc (theologian), Swiss theologian and biblical scholar (b. 1657)
January 17 – Matthäus Daniel Pöppelmann, German architect (b. 1662)
January 31 – Filippo Juvarra, Italian architect (b. 1678)
February 1 – James Stanley, 10th Earl of Derby, English politician (b. 1664)
February 7 – Stephen Gray, English dyer, astronomer, and scientist (b. 1666)
March 16 – Giovanni Battista Pergolesi, Italian composer (b. 1710) March 25 – Nicholas Hawksmoor, British architect (b. c. 1661)
September 16 – Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit, German physicist and inventor (b. 1686)
September 26 – Louise Diane d'Orléans, youngest child of Philippe II, Duke of Orleans (b. 1716)
October 22 – George Clarke, English politician, architect (b. 1661)
November 2 – Louis Antoine de Pardaillan de Gondrin, French duke (b. 1664)
December 10 – António Manoel de Vilhena, Portuguese 66th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1663)
December 12 (burial) – Antonina Houbraken, Dutch draughtswoman (b. 1686)
December 22 – Sir William Robinson, 1st Baronet, British politician (b. 1655)
December 26 – Antonio Caldara, Italian composer (b. 1670) date unknown
January 24 – William Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1657)
January 29 – George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney, British soldier (b. 1666)
February 14 – Charles Talbot, 1st Baron Talbot of Hensol, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1685)
March 12 – Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, regent of the Kingdom of Serbia (1720-1733) (b. 1684)
March 16 – Benjamin Wadsworth, American President of Harvard University (b. 1670)
May 3 – James Johnston (Secretary of State), diplomat, Secretary of State for Scotland (b. 1655)
May 10 – Emperor Nakamikado of Japan (b. 1702)
May 17 – Claude Buffier, French philosopher and historian (b. 1661)
June 6 – Pierre Joseph Garidel, French botanist (b. 1658)
July 26 – Henri-Pons de Thiard de Bissy, French Catholic priest, bishop and cardinal (b. 1657)
July 9 – Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (b. 1671)
July 26 – Johan Cronman, Swedish general (b. 1662)
July 27 – Maria Maddalena Martinengo, Italian nun (b. 1687)
September 27 – John Sidney, 6th Earl of Leicester, English privy councillor (b. 1680)
October 12 – François Catrou, French historian and Jesuit priest (b. 1659)
October 26 – Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena (b. 1655)
November 11 – Claude de Visdelou, French missionary (b. 1656)
November 20 – Caroline of Ansbach, queen of George II of Great Britain (b. 1683) December 11 – John Strype, English historian and biographer (b. 1643)
January 6 – Franz Xaver Murschhauser, German composer and theorist (b. 1663)
January 24 – Samuel Andrew, American Congregational clergyman, educator (b. 1656)
January 27 – Marie Wulf, Danish pietist leader (b. 1685)
January 30 – Benoît de Maillet, French diplomat and natural historian (b. 1656)
February 9 – Béatrice Hiéronyme de Lorraine, Abbess of Remiremont (b. 1662)
February 15 – Matthias Braun, Czech sculptor (b. 1684)
February 27 – Henry Grove, English nonconformist minister (b. 1684)
March 16 – George Bähr, German architect (b. 1666)
March 25 – Turlough O'Carolan, Irish harper and composer (b. 1670)
April 9 – Sir Charles Blois, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1657)
May 1 – Charles Howard, 3rd Earl of Carlisle, English statesman (b. c. 1669)
May 15 – Sir John Chesshyre, English lawyer (b. 1662)
June 5 – Isaac de Beausobre, French Protestant pastor (b. 1659)
June 21 – Charles Townshend, 2nd Viscount Townshend, English politician (b. 1674)
July 8 – Jean-Pierre Nicéron, French encyclopedist (b. 1685) July 28 – Heinrich, Duke of Saxe-Merseburg (b. 1661)
April 7 – Dick Turpin, English highwayman (hanged) (b. 1705)
April 19 – Nicholas Saunderson, English scientist and mathematician (b. 1682)
May 10 – Cosmas Damian Asam, German painter and architect during the late Baroque period (b. 1686)
June 18 – Charles Frederick, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, Swedish nobleman (b. 1700)
June 20 – Edmond Martène, French Benedictine historian and liturgist (b. 1654)
July 24 – Benedetto Marcello, Italian composer (b. 1686)
September 8 – Yuri Troubetzkoy, Governor of Belgorod (b. 1668)
September 12 – Ernest Louis, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt (b. 1667)
September 19 – Anne Marie Louise de La Tour d'Auvergne, French princess (b. 1722)
October 6 – Françoise Charlotte d'Aubigné, French noble (b. 1684)
October 18 – Antônio José da Silva, Brazilian-born dramatist (b. 1705)
November 14 – Juan de Galavís, Spanish Catholic archbishop
November 16 – Harry Grey, 3rd Earl of Stamford, English peer (b. 1685) date unknown – Anne Dodd, English news seller, pamphlet shop proprietor (b. 1685)
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