From top left, clockwise: Englishmen and sailor
concludes his inaugural and embarks on his second voyage, leaving a trail of significant milestones along its way such as the discovery of
, and becoming the first humans to witness
as pictured; The
United States Declaration of Independence
was unanimously signed and adopted by the
Second Continental Congress
, announcing the colonies' intention to separate from
Company rule in India
establishes governance over India for the first time at
, giving way for
, and eventually
Western imperialism in Asia
gas was isolated from air by Scottish scientist
was sung for the first time as a hymn in
at 1773; Chemist
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
made several breakthroughs in
by discovering five chemical elements, namely
Boston Tea Party
protest precipitates anti-British sentiment in the
, and subsequently the
American Revolutionary War
lead to now-
's first occupation of
; initiating Russia's influence over Crimea that has since persisted today.
1770s (pronounced "seventeen-seventies") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1770, and ended on December 31, 1779. A period full of discoveries, breakthroughs happened in all walks of life, as what emerged at this period brought life to most innovations we know today.
From nations such as the
United States, birthed through hardships such as the American Revolutionary War and altercations akin to the Boston Tea Party, spheres of influence such as the Russian Empire's sphere from its victorious Crimean claims at the Russo-Turkish War, the Industrial Revolution, and populism, their influence remains omnipresent to this day.
New lands south of the
Equator were discovered and settled by Europeans like James Cook, expanding the horizons of a New World to new reaches such as Australia and French Polynesia. Deepened philosophical studies led to the publication of works such as Adam Smith's " ", whose concepts influence much of modern socio-economic thought, and sowed the seeds to the global incumbent The Wealth of Nations neoliberal world order. Studies on chemistry and politics deepen to forge the Age of Reason for centuries to come.
January 1 – The foundation of Fort George, Bombay is laid by Colonel Keating, principal engineer, on the site of the former Dongri Fort.
February 1 – Thomas Jefferson's home at Shadwell, Virginia is destroyed by fire, along with most of his books. 
February 14 – Scottish explorer James Bruce arrives at Gondar, capital of Abyssinia (now Ethiopia) and is received by the Emperor Tekle Haymanot II and Ras Mikael Sehul. 
February 22 – Christopher Seider, an 11-year-old boy in Boston at the British Province of Massachusetts Bay, is shot and killed by a colonial official, Ebenezer Richardson. The funeral sets off anti-British protests that lead to the massacre days later. 
March 5 – Boston Massacre: Eleven American men are shot (five fatally) by British troops, in an event that helps start the American Revolutionary War five years later.
March 21 – King Prithvi Narayan Shah shifts to the newly constructed Basantapur Palace in the capital Kathmandu as the first King of Unified Kingdom of Nepal March 26 – First voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain James Cook and his crew aboard HMS complete the circumnavigation of Endeavour New Zealand.
April 12 – The Townshend Acts were repealed by Britain's Parliament by the efforts of Prime Minister Frederick North, with the exception of the increased duties on imported tea. The American colonists, in turn, stopped their embargo on British imports. 
April 18 ( April 19 by Cook's log) 18:00 – First voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain  James Cook and his crew become the first recorded Europeans to encounter the eastern coastline of the Australian continent. Land was sighted at Point Hicks, and named after Lieutenant Hicks who first observed landform at 6am.
April 20 – Battle of Aspindza: Georgian king Erekle II defeats the Ottoman forces, despite being abandoned by an ally, Russian General Totleben.
April 29 – First voyage of James Cook: Captain Cook drops anchor on HMS in a wide bay, about 16 km (10 mi) south of the present city of Endeavour Sydney, Australia. Because the young botanist on board the ship, Joseph Banks, discovers 30,000 specimens of plant life in the area, 1,600 of them unknown to European science, Cook names the place Botany Bay on May 7.
May 7 – Fourteen-year-old Marie Antoinette arrives at the French court.
May 16 – Marie Antoinette marries Louis-Auguste (who later becomes King Louis XVI of France).
May 20 – A stampede, at a celebration of the newly wedded Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste in Paris, kills more than a hundred people. 
June 3 –
June 9 – Falklands Crisis (1770): Some 1,600 Spanish marines, sent by the Spanish governor of Buenos Aires in five frigates, seize Port Egmont in the Falkland Islands. The small British force present promptly surrenders.  June 11 – First voyage of James Cook: HMS grounds on the Endeavour Great Barrier Reef.
January 5 – The Great Kalmyk ( Torghut) Migration is led by Ubashi Khan, from the east bank of the Lower Volga River back to the homeland of Dzungaria, at this time under Qing Dynasty rule.
January 9 – Emperor Go-Momozono accedes to the throne of Japan, following his aunt's abdication.
February 12 – Upon the death of Adolf Frederick, he is succeeded as King of Sweden by his son Gustav III. At the time, however, Gustav is unaware of this, since he is abroad in Paris. The news of his father's death reaches him about a month later.
March – War of the Regulation: North Carolina Governor William Tryon raises a militia, to put down the long-running uprising of backcountry militias against North Carolina's colonial government.
March 12 – The North Carolina General Assembly establishes Wake County (named for Margaret Wake, the wife of North Carolina Royal Governor William Tryon) from portions of Cumberland, Johnston and Orange counties. Bloomsbury (later known as Wake Courthouse) is made the informal county seat. March 15 – The Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers first meets in London, the world's oldest engineering society.  
April 4 – The first quarantines are started in Moscow and Saint Petersburg to fight the bubonic plague. Over the next 12 months, more than 52,000 people die from the plague in Moscow alone. 
May – Three battles of Sarbakusa: An alliance of three of the most powerful aristocrats of Ethiopia (Goshu of Amhara, Wand Bewossen, and Fasil of Damot) defeats Ras Mikael Sehul and Emperor Tekle Haymanot I, taking control of Ethiopia.
May 11 – War of the Regulation: North Carolina Governor William Tryon marches his military out of Hillsborough, to come to the aid of General Hugh Waddell's beleaguered forces. Tryon's army stops at Alamance Creek, 5 miles (8.0 km) away from the Regulator army.
May 16 – War of the Regulation – Battle of Alamance: Regulators reject an appeal by Governor Tryon to peacefully disperse. Governor Tryon's forces crush the rebellion, causing many Regulators to move to frontier areas outside of North Carolina.
May 23 – Battle of Lanckorona: A force of 4,000 Russians under Alexander Suvorov defeat a Polish formation of 1,300 men. June 11 -- The Society of Gentlemen Supporters of the Bill of Rights meets in the London Tavern and changes its platform from to a comprehensive program for British parliamentary reform in advance of the next election. 
July 12 – The first voyage of James Cook around the world ends as HMS returns to England after almost three years. Endeavour
July 13 – Russo-Turkish War (1768-74): Russian forces occupy the Crimea, under Prince Vasily Dolgorukov. 
July 17 – Bloody Falls massacre: Chipewyan chief Matonabbee, traveling as the guide to Samuel Hearne on his Arctic overland journey, massacres a group of unsuspecting Inuit.
August 8 – The first recorded town cricket match is played, at Horsham, England. 
September 8 – In California, Fathers Pedro Cambon and Angel Somera found Mission Vieja, later called, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, in what is now San Gabriel, California. September 15– 17 – The Moscow plague riot results from an outbreak of bubonic plague, which kills 57,000.
October 9 – The Dutch merchant ship sinks off the coast of Finland; Captain Raymund Lourens and his crew escape unharmed. Vrouw Maria
October 17 – The opera by Ascanio in Alba Wolfgang Mozart, age 15, premieres in Milan.
November 16 – During the night the River Tyne, England, floods, destroying many bridges and killing several people; the replacement main bridge at Newcastle upon Tyne will not be completed until 1781.
December 3 – The cause of action in Sommersett's Case, which eventually leads to the end of slavery in Great Britain, begins when escaped slave James Sommersett is found imprisoned on the ship Ann and Mary.  December 31 – Men, women and children of the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes begin a 23-day encampment at Mobile, part of the British colony of West Florida, at the invitation of British Southern Indian superintendent John Stuart, as their leaders negotiate a treaty. 
The territory of
Baden-Baden is inherited by Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, reunifying the territories of Baden. The trade monopoly with
Iceland is transferred to the Danish crown. The North Carolina General Assembly passes an act establishing the town of
Martinsborough, named for Royal Governor Josiah Martin, on the land of Richard Evans, which will serve as the seat of Pitt County. Construction of the
Putuo Zongcheng Temple complex in Chengde, China is completed during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor.
Limoges porcelain manufacture is established in France. Slovene literature: István Küzmics, the Hungarian Slovene writer and evangelical pastor, publishes (in Halle) the , a translation of the Nouvi Zákon New Testament into the Prekmurje Slovene language, with discrete South Slavic artwork.
April 8 – Massachusetts legislator Samuel Adams persuades his colleagues to approve his plan for creating a Committee of Correspondence to begin a dialogue with the other American colonies concerning mutual problems with the United Kingdom.  
April 13 – Warren Hastings begins his service for the British East India Company as Governor of Bengal, arriving at the company's headquarters at Fort William, outside of Calcutta, and including what are now parts of northeast India and Bangladesh. Hastings serves for two years, then later becomes Governor-General of India. 
May 8 – The Watauga Association Compact is signed in what is now East Tennessee by a group of white settlers led by William Bean, creating the first non-colonial government body in British North America. 
June 9 – : In an act of defiance against the British Gaspee Affair Navigation Acts, American patriots, led by Abraham Whipple, attack and burn the British customs schooner HMS Gaspee off of Rhode Island.
June 10 – The crisis of 1772 is triggered when, following the flight of their partner Alexander Fordyce to France, the London banking house of Neal, James, Fordyce and Down (which has been speculating in East India Company stock) suspends payment. The resultant panic causes other banks, particularly in Scotland, to fail, extends to Amsterdam and the Thirteen Colonies of British North America, and threatens the East India Company with bankruptcy. June 22 – Somersett's Case: Lord Mansfield, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, delivers the decision that leads to the end of slavery in England. 
January 1 – The hymn that becomes known as , at this time titled "1 Chronicles 17:16-17", is first used to accompany a sermon led by curate Amazing Grace John Newton in the town of Olney, Buckinghamshire, England.
January 12 – The first museum in the American colonies is established in Charleston, South Carolina; in 1915, it is formally incorporated as the Charleston Museum. 
January 17 – Second voyage of James Cook: Captain Cook in HMS becomes the first European explorer to cross the Resolution Antarctic Circle. 
January 18 – The first opera performance in the Swedish language, Thetis and Phelée, performed by Carl Stenborg and Elisabeth Olin in Bollhuset in Stockholm, Sweden, marks the establishment of the Royal Swedish Opera.
February 8 – The Grand Council of Poland meets in Warsaw, summoned by a circular letter from King Stanis?aw August Poniatowski to respond to the Kingdom's threatened partition between three foreign powers. 
February 27 – The construction of Christ Church (Alexandria, Virginia), known for being the house of worship for George Washington and the visiting site for subsequent U.S. presidents, is completed. 
March 9– 19 – Second voyage of James Cook: Tobias Furneaux in HMS explores the coast of Adventure Van Diemen's Land.  March 15 – The popular (and enduring) comedy , by Irish playwright She Stoops to Conquer Oliver Goldsmith, is performed for the first time, premiering at London's Covent Garden Theatre. 
October 12 - America's first insane asylum opens, for Persons of Insane and Disordered Minds, in Williamsburg, Virginia.
October 13 - French astronomer Charles Messier discovers the , an Whirlpool Galaxy interacting, grand design spiral galaxy located at a distance of approximately 23 million light-years, in the constellation . Canes Venatici
October 14 - The Komisja Edukacji Narodowej ( Polish for Commission for the Education of the People), formed in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, is considered to be the world's first ministry of education.
November 10 - Four ships-- the Dartmouth, the Eleanor, the Beaver and the William-- depart Britain for America, carrying the first Indian tea to be subject to the newly enacted taxes. The William is lost in a storm; the Dartmouth is the first ship to reach Boston, docking on November 28.  December 16 - Boston Tea Party: A group of American colonists, dressed as Mohawk Indians, steal aboard ships of the East India Company and dump their cargo of tea into Boston Harbor, in protest against British tax policies. 
Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774: Russian forces fail to take Silistria.
Emelian Pugachev starts Pugachev's Rebellion in Russia, attacking and occupying Samara.
John Harrison's wins the Longitude prize, for his invention of the marine chronometer. 
Hilaire Rouelle discovers urea.
Istanbul Technical University is established (under the name of Royal School of Naval Engineering) as the world's first comprehensive institution of higher learning dedicated to engineering education.
Marsala wine first shipped to England.  In
China, written work begins on the , the largest literary compilation of books in China's history (surpassing the Siku Quanshu Yongle Encyclopedia of the 15th Century). Upon completion in 1782, the books are bound in 36,381 volumes (?) with more than 79,000 chapters (?), comprising about 2.3 million pages, and approximately 800 million Chinese characters.
Scottish judge James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, begins publication of Of the Origin and Progress of Language, a contribution to evolutionary ideas of the Enlightenment. Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock publishes the last five cantos of his epic poem Der Messias in Hamburg.
January 21 - Mustafa III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, dies and is succeeded by his brother Abdul Hamid I. 
February 3 - The Privy Council of Great Britain, as advisors to King George III, votes for the King's abolition of free land grants of North American lands. Henceforward, land is to be sold at auction to the highest bidder. 
February 6 - France's Parliament votes a sentence of civil degradation, depriving Pierre Beaumarchais of all rights and duties of citizenship. 
February 7 - The volunteer fire company of Trenton, New Jersey, predecessor to the paid Trenton Fire Department created in 1892, is founded. In 1905, at 131 years, it claims to be the oldest continuously serving department in the U.S. 
February 24 - The Province of Massachusetts Bay House of Representatives votes, 92 to 8, to impeach Superior Court Chief Justice Peter Oliver, but Provincial Governor Thomas Hutchinson refuses to allow the trial to proceed. 
March 10 - The Boston Journal makes the first reference to the " Stars and Stripes" flag to symbolize the American colonies, reporting that "The American ensign now sparkles a door which shall shortly flame from the skies."  March 31 - Intolerable Acts: The British Parliament passes the Boston Port Act, closing the port of Boston, Massachusetts as punishment for the Boston Tea Party. 
April 17 - The first avowedly Unitarian congregation, Essex Street Chapel, is founded in London by Theophilus Lindsey.
April 19 - The premiere of by Iphigénie en Aulide Christoph Willibald Gluck sparked a huge controversy, almost a war, such as has not been seen in Paris since the Querelle des Bouffons.
May 10 - Louis XVI becomes King of France, following the death of his grandfather, Louis XV. 
May 17 - The colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations issues the first call for an "Intercolonial Congress" that eventually is set up as the Continental Congress. 
May 19 - Shakers Ann Lee and eight followers sail from Liverpool, England for colonial America.
June 2 - Intolerable Acts: A new Quartering Act, requiring American colonists to provide better housing for British soldiers upon demand, is passed. 
June 16- 17 - English explorer James Cook becomes the first European to sight (and name) Palmerston Island in the South Pacific Ocean.
June 20 (June 9 O.S.) - Russo-Turkish War (1768-1774): Battle of Kozludzha - The Imperial Russian Army, led by Alexander Suvorov, routs numerically superior Ottoman Empire forces. June 22 - The Parliament of Great Britain passes the Quebec Act, setting out rules of governance for the colony of Quebec in British North America, enlarging its territory as far south as Ohio and granting freedom of religion for Roman Catholics. 
July 21 - Russia and the Ottoman Empire sign the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca with Russian victory, ending six years of war. The treaty gives Russia the right to intervene in Ottoman politics, to protect its Christian subjects.
August 1 - The element oxygen is discovered for the third (and last) time - the second quantitatively, following the somewhat earlier work of Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1771-1772) by Joseph Priestley, who publishes the fact in 1775, and so names the element (and usually gets all the credit, because his work was published first).
August 6 - Ann Lee and the Shakers arrive in America and settle in New York. 
September 1 - Powder Alarm: Thomas Gage, royal governor of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, orders British soldiers to remove gunpowder from a magazine, causing Patriots to prepare for war.
September 4 - English explorer James Cook becomes the first European to sight (and name) the island of New Caledonia in Melanesia.
September 5 - The First Continental Congress assembles in Philadelphia. 
September 15 - Yemelyan Pugachev, leader of Pugachev's Rebellion against Russia by the Yaik Cossacks, is betrayed by his own men after returning to Yaitsk (now Oral, Kazakhstan). 
September 21 - George Mason and George Washington found the Fairfax County Militia Association, a military unit independent of British control. September 29 - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's semi-autobiographical epistolary novel ( The Sorrows of Young Werther Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (written January-March) is published anonymously in Leipzig, Germany; it is influential in the movement and Sturm und Drang Romanticism.
October 14 - The Continental Congress in America adopts the first "Declaration of Rights", with 10 principles. 
October 20 - Theater performances in the American colonies halt on recommendation of the Continental Congress that the member colonies "discountenance and discourage all horse racing and all kinds of gaming, cock fighting, exhibitions of shows, plays, and other expensive diversions and entertainments." 
October 21 - The word Liberty is first displayed on a flag raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts, in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
October 25 - The Edenton Tea Party takes place in North Carolina, marking the first major gathering of women in support of the American cause.
October 26 - The first Continental Congress adjourns in Philadelphia.
November 4 - The Maryland Jockey Club follows a recommendation of the Continental Congress and cancels its race schedule. The decision sets a precedent for other jockey clubs in the colonies, and no major races are held until the end of the American Revolution. 
November 10 - 1774 British general election: Voting for the House of Commons concludes in Great Britain, and Lord North retains the office of Prime Minister as his Tory coalition wins 343 of the 558 seats. Henry Seymour Conway's Whig Party wins the other 215 seats.
November 15 - The government of the Republic of Venice allows adventurer and ladies' man Giacomo Casanova to return home after a 17-year absence. 
November 20 - Daniel Boone retires from the Virginia colonial militia in order to devote his full time to establishing a settlement in Kentucky. 
November 25 - Salawat Yulayev, the leader of the Bashkirs rebellion against the Russian government, is captured, bringing an end to the insurrection. 
November 26 - English chemist Joseph Priestley becomes the first person to discover and identify sulfur dioxide. 
November 27 - Spanish Navy Captain Domingo de Bonechea arrives at Tahiti in the ship Aguila and tries unsuccessfully to claim it for Spain and to convert the Tahitians to the Roman Catholic faith. 
Parliament adjourns in Great Britain, but declines to authorize any action against the rebellious American colonies, despite an address the day before by
King George III and Prime Minister North.  Thomas Paine, a native of England, arrives in America at the age 37 and soon becomes an influential advocate for the colonies' independence. 
December 1 - A boycott called by the Continental Congress goes into effect, as participating merchants and supporters cease the importation or consumption of products from Great Britain, Ireland or the British West Indies. 
December 6 - Archduchess Maria Theresa, the ruler of Austria, Hungary and Croatia, signs the General School Ordinance providing for education for both males and females and setting compulsory education for children aged six through 12. 
December 9 - The two month long Siege of Melilla begins as armies led by the Sultan of Morocco, Mohammed ben Abdallah, attack the North African Spanish colony of Melilla (which remains a part of Spain into the 21st century).  December 23 - King Louis XVI of France issues a declaration that, for the first time, protects "the free commerce of meat during Lent" to support the needs of "the poor whose infirmity requires them to eat meat." 
American Revolution begins this year, with the first military engagement being the April 19 Battles of Lexington and Concord on the day after Paul Revere's now-legendary ride. The Second Continental Congress takes various steps toward organizing an American government, appointing George Washington commander-in-chief (June 14), Benjamin Franklin postmaster general (July 26) and creating a Continental Navy (October 13) and a Marine force (November 10) as landing troops for it, but as yet the 13 colonies have not declared independence, and both the British (June 12) and American (July 15) governments make laws. On July 6, Congress issues the Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms and on August 23, King George III of Great Britain declares the American colonies in rebellion, announcing it to Parliament on November 10. On June 17, two months into the colonial siege of Boston, at the Battle of Bunker Hill, just north of Boston, British forces are victorious, but only after suffering severe casualties and after Colonial forces run out of ammunition, Fort Ticonderoga is taken by American forces in New York Colony's northern frontier, and American forces unsuccessfully invade Canada, with an attack on Montreal defeated by British forces on November 13 and an attack on Quebec repulsed December 31.
Human knowledge and mastery over nature advances when
James Watt builds a successful prototype of a steam engine, and a scientific expedition continues as Captain James Cook claims the South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands in the south Atlantic Ocean for Britain. Nature's power over humanity is dramatically demonstrated when the Independence Hurricane (August 29 – September 13) devastates the east coast of North America, killing 4,173, and when, on the western side of the North American continent, Tseax Cone erupts in the future British Columbia, as well as when a smallpox epidemic begins in New England. Smallpox was then cured by Edward Jenner.
January – The
Habsburg Monarchy forces the Ottoman Empire to cede Bukovina to its rule.
January 5 – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart finishes a Sonata for Keyboard in C.
January 17 – Second voyage of James Cook: Captain James Cook takes possession of South Georgia for the Kingdom of Great Britain.
February 9 – American Revolution: The Parliament of Great Britain declares the Province of Massachusetts Bay to be in rebellion.
February 15 – Pope Pius VI succeeds Pope Clement XIV as the 250th pope.
February 26 – The British East India Company factory on Balambangan Island is destroyed by Moro pirates. 
March 6 – Raghunathrao, Peshwa of the Maratha Empire in India, signs the Treaty of Surat with the British Governor-General Warren Hastings in Bombay ceding the territories of Salsette and Bassein to the British East India Company along with part of the revenues from Surat and Bharuch districts in return for military assistance. This leads to the First Anglo-Maratha War fought between the British and the Marathas, ending with the Treaty of Salbai in 1782.
March 17 – Catherine the Great of Russia issues a manifesto prohibiting freed serfs from being returned to serfdom. 
March 23 – American Revolution: Patrick Henry, a delegate to the Second Virginia Convention after the Virginia House of Burgesses was disbanded by the Royal Governor, delivers his " Give me Liberty, or give me Death!" speech at St. John's Church in Richmond, Virginia.
April 18 – American Revolution: Paul Revere and William Dawes, instructed by Dr. Joseph Warren, ride from Boston to Lexington to warn John Hancock and Sam Adams that British forces are coming to take them prisoner and to seize colonial weapons and ammunition in Concord.
April 19 – American Revolution: Hostility between Britain and its American colonies explodes into bloodshed at the Battles of Lexington and Concord igniting the  American Revolution.
May 17 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress bans trade with Canada.
June 11 – Battle of Machias, the first naval engagement of the American Revolutionary War.
June 12 – American Revolution:
June 14 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress names George Washington as commander of the Continental Army.
June 16 – Post of Chief Engineer of the Continental Army created.
June 17 – American Revolution: Two months into the colonial siege of Boston, British open fire on Breed's Hill on Charles Town Peninsula. After 3 charges, the British take the hill in the misnamed Battle of Bunker Hill. June 19 – Post of Commanding General was created by the Continental Congress.
July 3 – American Revolution: George Washington takes command of the 17,000-man Continental Army at Cambridge.
July 5 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress sends the Olive Branch Petition, hoping for a reconciliation.
July 6 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress issues Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, which contains the words: "Our cause is just. Our union is perfect... being with one mind resolved to die freemen rather than to live slaves...".
July 26 – The Second Continental Congress appoints Benjamin Franklin to be the first Postmaster General of what later becomes the United States Post Office Department.
July 30 – Second voyage of James Cook: HMS anchors off the south coast of England, Resolution Captain Cook having completed the first east-about global circumnavigation.
August 18 – Tucson is founded.
August 21 – American Revolution – Siege of Fort St. Jean: American rebels launch an invasion of Canada.
August 23 – American Revolution: Refusing to even look at the Olive Branch Petition, King George issues a Proclamation of Rebellion against the American colonies.
August 29 – September 12 – The Independence Hurricane from South Carolina to Nova Scotia kills 4,170, mostly fishermen and sailors.
September 25 – American Revolution: Siege of Fort St. Jean – Battle of Longue-Pointe: Thirteen Colonies revolutionary forces under Maj. Ethan Allen attack Montreal in Quebec, commanded by British General Guy Carleton. Allen's forces are defeated, and Allen himself is captured and held on British ships until he is later released. October – The
Sayre Plotters attempt to kidnap George III of the United Kingdom.
October 13 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress orders the establishment of the Continental Navy (later the United States Navy).
October 26 – American Revolution: George III announces to Parliament that the American colonies are in an uprising and must be dealt with accordingly. November – American Revolution: Colonel
Richard Richardson's South Carolina revolutionaries march through Ninety-Six District in what becomes known as the Snow Campaign, effectively ending all major support for the Loyalist cause in the backcountry of South Carolina.
November 10 – American Revolution: The Continental Congress passes a resolution creating the Continental Marines to serve as landing troops for the recently created Continental Navy (the Marines are disbanded at end of the war in April 1783 but reformed on July 11, 1798 as the United States Marine Corps).
November 13 – American Revolution – Battle of Montreal: American forces under Brigadier General Richard Montgomery capture Montreal. British General Guy Carleton escapes to Quebec.
November 17 – John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore offers freedom to slaves who join the loyalist army, thus losing the support of most planters, who see slaves as their vital livelihood. November 17 – The city of
Kuopio, Finland (belonging to Sweden at this time) is founded by King Gustav III of Sweden.
December 5 – American Revolution: Henry Knox begins his journey to Cambridge, Massachusetts with the artillery that has been captured from Fort Ticonderoga. December 31 – American Revolution: Battle of Quebec: British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold at Quebec.
May 1 – Adam Weishaupt founds the in Illuminati Ingolstadt, Bavaria.
May 4 – Rhode Island becomes the first American colony to renounce allegiance to King George III of Great Britain.
May 15– 26 – American Revolution – Battle of the Cedars: British forces skirmish with the American Continental Army around Les Cèdres, Quebec.
June 6 – A fire destroys major parts of the town of Askersund, Sweden. 
June 7 – American Revolution – Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposes to the Second Continental Congress (meeting in Philadelphia) that "these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states."
June 8 – American Revolution – Battle of Trois-Rivières: The invading American Continental Army is driven back at Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
June 11 – American Revolution – The Continental Congress appoints a Committee of Five to draft a Declaration of Independence.
June 12 – American Revolution – The (by Virginia Declaration of Rights George Mason) is adopted by the Virginia Convention of Delegates.
June 15 – American Revolution – Delaware Separation Day: The Delaware General Assembly votes to suspend government under the British Crown.
June 17 – Lt. José Joaquín Moraga leads a band of colonists from Monterey Presidio, landing on June 29 and, with Father Francisco Palóu, constructing the Mission San Francisco de Asís ("Mission Dolores") of the new Presidio of San Francisco, the oldest surviving building in the modern-day city.
June 28 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Sullivan's Island: South Carolina militia repel a British attack on Charleston. June 29 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet: The American Continental Navy successfully challenges the British Royal Navy blockade off New Jersey.
July 2 – American Revolution – The final U.S. Declaration of Independence (with minor revisions) is written. The Continental Congress passes the Lee Resolution.
July 4 – American Revolution – United States Declaration of Independence: The Continental Congress ratifies the declaration by the United States of its independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain. 
July 8 – American Revolution – The Liberty Bell rings in Philadelphia, for the first public reading of the Declaration of Independence.
July 9 – American Revolution – An angry mob in New York City topples the equestrian statue of George III of Great Britain in Bowling Green.
July 12 – Captain James Cook sets off from Plymouth, England, in HMS on his Resolution third voyage, to the Pacific Ocean and Arctic, which will be fatal.
July 21 – Mozart's (the "Haffner") is first performed in Serenade No. 7 Salzburg, Austria.
July 29 – Francisco Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, Francisco Atanasio Domínguez, and eight other Spaniards set out from Santa Fe, on an eighteen-hundred mile trek through the American Southwest. They are the first Europeans to explore the vast region between the Rockies and the Sierras. 
August 2 – Most of the American colonies ratify the Declaration of Independence.
August 15 – American Revolution – The first Hessian troops land on Staten Island, to join British forces.
August 27 – American Revolution – Battle of Long Island: Washington's troops are routed in Brooklyn by the British, under William Howe. August – The guild organisation is founded in Paris. Marchandes de modes
November 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Fort Washington: Hessian forces under Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen capture Fort Washington (Manhattan) from the American Continental Army. The captain of the American navy ship fires a salute to the Dutch flag on Fort Oranje, and Andrew Doria Johannes de Graaff answers with 11 gun shots. 
November 20 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Fort Lee: The invasion of New Jersey, by British and Hessian forces, leads to the subsequent general retreat of the American Continental Army.
December 5 – The Phi Beta Kappa Society is founded at the College of William & Mary in Virginia.
December 6 – The General Assembly of Virginia votes to create Kentucky County as the portion of the colony's Fincastle County that is located west of the Cumberland Mountains. In 1792, the county will become the 15th state of the United States as the  Commonwealth of Kentucky. The rest of Fincastle County, between the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Appalachians is divided into the first county to be named after George Washington ( Washington County, Virginia) in the south along the border with the North Carolina colony, and Montgomery County in the north. The divisions take effect on December 31. 
December 7 – American Revolutionary War – The Marquis de Lafayette attempts to enter the American military as a major general.
December 12 – The second Continental Congress ends after a session that began on May 10, 1775, and continued for 582 days. 
December 19 – American Revolution – Thomas Paine, living with Washington's troops, publishes the first in the series of pamphlets on in The American Crisis , opening with the stirring phrase, "These are the times that try men's souls." The Pennsylvania Journal December 21 – American Revolution – The Royal Colony of North Carolina reorganizes into the State of North Carolina after adopting its own constitution. Richard Caswell becomes the first governor of the newly formed state.
January 2 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of the Assunpink Creek: American general George Washington's army repulses a British attack by Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis, in a second battle at Trenton, New Jersey.
January 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Princeton: American general George Washington's army defeats British troops.
January 12 – Mission Santa Clara de Asís is founded in what becomes Santa Clara, California.
January 15 – Vermont declares its independence from New York, becoming the Vermont Republic, an independent country, a status it retains until it joins the United States as the 14th state in 1791.
January 20 – The Continental Congress approves a resolution "that an authentic copy, with names of the signers of the Declaration of independence, be sent to each of the United States. 
February 5 – Under the 1st Constitution of Georgia, 8 counties are chartered: Burke, Camden, Chatham, Effingham, Glynn, Liberty, Richmond, and Wilkes. This dissolves the existing parishes of St. George, St. Mary's, St. Thomas, St. Phillip, Christ Church, St. David, St. Matthews, St. Andrew, St. James, St. Johns, and St. Paul. 
February 24 – King Joseph I of Portugal dies, and is succeeded by his brother and son-in-law Peter III of Portugal, and his daughter Maria I of Portugal.
March 4 – The Fourth Continental Congress, with John Hancock as President, begins a 199 day session in Philadelphia, lasting until September 18.  March 29– 30 – Third voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain Cook discovers Mangaia and Atiu in the Cook Islands. 
April 1 – Friedrich Maximilian Klinger's play is premiered by the Sturm und Drang Seyler Theatre Company in Leipzig, giving its name to the whole movement in Sturm und Drang German literature.
April 13 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Bound Brook: A British and Hessian force led by Charles Cornwallis surprises a Continental Army outpost in New Jersey, commanded by Major General Benjamin Lincoln.
April 27 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Ridgefield: The British Army defeats Patriot militias, galvanizing resistance in the Connecticut Colony.
May 8 – Richard Brinsley Sheridan's comedy of manners, , is first performed at the The School for Scandal Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London. 
May 16 – Lachlan McIntosh and Button Gwinnett shoot each other during a duel near Savannah, Georgia. Gwinnett, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence, dies three days later. June 13 – American Revolution: The Marquis de Lafayette lands near Georgetown, South Carolina, to help the Continental Congress train its army.
July 8 – The 1777 Constitution of Vermont is signed, officially abolishing slavery.
July 6 – American Revolutionary War – Siege of Fort Ticonderoga: After a bombardment by British artillery under General John Burgoyne, American forces retreat from Fort Ticonderoga, New York.
July 7 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Hubbardton: British forces capture over 200 of the American rearguard, from Fort Ticonderoga.
August 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Oriskany: Loyalists gain a tactical victory over Patriots; Iroquois fight on both sides.
August 16 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Bennington: British and Brunswicker forces are decisively defeated by American troops at Walloomsac, New York.
August 22 – American Revolutionary War – The Siege of Fort Stanwix is ended by withdrawal of British forces, following a ruse by Benedict Arnold to persuade them that a much larger force is arriving.
September 3 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Cooch's Bridge: British and Hessian forces defeat an American militia, in a minor skirmish in New Castle County, Delaware.
September 11 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Brandywine: The British gain a major victory in Chester County, Pennsylvania.
September 19 – American Revolutionary War – First Battle of Saratoga ( Battle of Freeman's Farm): Patriot forces withstand a British attack at Saratoga, New York.
September 26 – American Revolutionary War – British troops occupy Philadelphia; members of the Continental Congress flee to Lancaster, Pennsylvania where they meet and hold a one day session as the Fifth Congress before fleeing again. 
September 30 – American Revolutionary War – The Sixth Continental Congress opens its session at York, Pennsylvania, and continues for 272 days until June 27, 1778. 
October 4 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe.
October 6 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery: British troops capture Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery (Hudson River), and are able to dismantle the Hudson River Chain.
October 7 – American Revolutionary War – Second Battle of Saratoga ( Battle of Bemis Heights): British General John Burgoyne is defeated by American troops.
October 17 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Saratoga: British General John Burgoyne surrenders to the American troops.
November 15 – American Revolution: After 16 months of debate, the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation, in the temporary American capital at York, Pennsylvania.
November 17 – American Revolution: The Articles of Confederation are submitted to the states for ratification.
November 29 – San Jose, California is founded. It is the first in Spanish pueblo Alta California.
December 18 – The United States celebrates its first Thanksgiving, marking October's victory by the American rebels over British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga.
December 19 – American Revolutionary War – George Washington's Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
December 24 – Third voyage of James Cook: English explorer Captain Cook locates Kiritimati (Christmas Island). December 30 – Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria dies and is succeeded by his distant cousin Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria.
April 7 – Former British Prime Minister William Pitt, delivers his last speech to Parliament, and speaks to the House of Lords "passionately but incoherently against the granting of independence" to the American colonies, but collapses during the debate, and dies five weeks later. 
April 12 – King George III appoints the five-member Carlisle Peace Commission to present peace terms to negotiate an end to the rebellion of Britain's 13 American colonies. 
April 30 – The 1,800 feet (550 m) long Hudson River Chain, designed to prevent British ships from moving up the river toward West Point, New York is stretched across the river and anchored by an engineering team under the direction of Captain Thomas Machin. 
May 12 – Heinrich XI, Prince Reuss of Greiz is elevated to Prince of the Principality of Reuss-Greiz by Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor - it is during Heinrich XI's rule in 1778, that the first appearance of the national colors of modern Germany are present on a flag that closely resembles the modern Flag of Germany, to occur anywhere within what today comprises Germany.
May 30 – Benedict Arnold signs the U.S. Oath of Allegiance at Valley Forge. 
June 24 – A total solar eclipse takes place across parts of North America, from Texas to Virginia.
June 28 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Monmouth: George Washington's Continental Army battles British general Sir Henry Clinton's army to a draw, near Monmouth County, New Jersey. June – The Anglo-French War (1778-83) begins.
July 3 – American Revolutionary War – The Battle of Wyoming takes place near Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, ending in a terrible defeat for the local colonists. 
July 4 – American Revolutionary War – George Rogers Clark takes Kaskaskia.
July 10 – Louis XVI of France declares war on the Kingdom of Great Britain.
July 27 – American Revolutionary War – First Battle of Ushant – British and French fleets fight to a standoff.
August 3 – The La Scala Opera House opens in Milan, with the première of Antonio Salieri's . Europa riconosciuta
August 26 – Triglav, at 2,864 metres (9,396 ft) above sea level the highest peak of Slovenia, is ascended for the first time by four men: Luka Koro?ec, Matev? Kos, ?tefan Ro?i?, and Lovrenc Willomitzer, on Sigmund Zois' initiative.
August 29 – American Revolutionary War – The tactically inconclusive Battle of Rhode Island takes place, after which the Continental Army abandons its position on Aquidneck Island.
September – The , providing punishment for Massachusetts Banishment Act Loyalists, is passed.
September 7 – American Revolutionary War – Invasion of Dominica: The French capture the British fort there, before the latter is aware that France has entered the war in the Franco-American alliance.
September 17 – The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed, the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe (the Lenape or Delaware). September 19 – The Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States.
October 12 – The Continental Congress advises the 13 member states to suppress "theatrical entertainments, horse-racing, gaming, and such other diversions as are productive of idleness, dissipation, and general depravity of principles and manners." 
January 11 – British troops surrender to the Marathas in Wadgaon, India, and are forced to return all territories acquired since 1773. January 11 –
Ching-Thang Khomba is crowned King of Manipur.
January 22 – American Revolutionary War – Claudius Smith is hanged at Goshen, Orange County, New York for supposed acts of terrorism upon the people of the surrounding communities.
January 29 – After a second petition for partition from its residents, the North Carolina General Assembly abolishes Bute County, North Carolina (established 1764) by dividing it and naming the northern portion Warren County (for Revolutionary War hero Joseph Warren), the southern portion Franklin County (for Benjamin Franklin). The General Assembly also establishes Warrenton (also named for Joseph Warren) to be the seat of Warren County, and Louisburg (named for Louis XVI of France) to be the seat of Franklin County.
February 12 – Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Bouligny arrives with Malagueño colonists at Bayou Teche, to establish the city of New Iberia, Louisiana.
February 14 – Captain James Cook is killed on the Sandwich Islands, on his third voyage. March 10 – The Treaty of Aynal?kavak is signed between Ottoman Turkey and the Russian Empire, regarding the Crimean Khanate.
July 16 – American Revolutionary War – United States forces, led by General Anthony Wayne, capture Stony Point, New York from British troops. July 16 –
Declaratory Rescript of the Illyrian Nation issued in order to regulate organization of Eastern Orthodox Church in Habsburg Monarchy.
July 20 – Tekle Giyorgis I begins the first of his five reigns as Emperor of Ethiopia.
July 22 – Battle of Minisink: The Goshen Militia is destroyed by Joseph Brant's forces.
July 24 – American Revolutionary War – American forces, led by Commodore Dudley Saltonstall, launch the Penobscot Expedition in what is now Castine, Maine, resulting in the worst naval defeat in U.S. history (until Pearl Harbor).
July – The Great Siege of Gibraltar (fourteenth and last military siege) begins. This is an action by French and Spanish forces to wrest control of Gibraltar from the established British garrison. The garrison, led by George Augustus Eliott (later 1st Baron Heathfield of Gibraltar), survives all attacks and a blockade of supplies.
September 14– 15 – American Revolutionary War – Little Beard's Town, a loyalist stronghold, is burnt by the Sullivan Expedition.
September 23 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Flamborough Head – The American ship , commanded by Bonhomme Richard John Paul Jones, engages the British ship HMS . The Serapis Bonhomme Richard sinks, but the Americans board the Serapis and other vessels, and are victorious. September 28 – Samuel Huntington is elected as the seventh President of the Continental Congress 
Industrial Revolution in England:
A joint Spanish-Portuguese survey of the Amazon basin begins to determine the boundary between the colonial possessions in South America; it continues until 1795.
Transcluded articles: 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779
February 21 – Georges Mouton, Marshal of France (d. 1838)
March 2 – Louis-Gabriel Suchet, Marshal of France (d. 1826)
March 20 – Friedrich Hölderlin, German writer (d. 1843)
April 3 – Theodoros Kolokotronis, Greek general (d. 1843)
April 7 – William Wordsworth, English poet (d. 1850)
April 8 – John Campbell, Australian public servant, politician (d. 1830)
April 11 – George Canning, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1827)
April 25 – Georg Sverdrup, Norwegian philologist (d. 1850)
April 30 – David Thompson, English-Canadian explorer (d. 1857)
May 10 – Louis-Nicolas Davout, Marshal of France (d. 1823)
May 15 – Ezekiel Hart, Canadian entrepreneur, politician (d. 1843)
May 27 – Ignaz Döllinger, German anatomist, physiologist (d. 1841)
May 29 – Charles Adams, second son of President John Adams (1735-1826) (d. 1800) June 1 – Friedrich Laun, German author (d. 1849)
June 3 – Manuel Belgrano, Argentine politician, general in the Independence War (d. 1820)
June 4 – Eleonora Charlotta d'Albedyhll, Swedish countess, poet and salon holder (d. 1835)
June 7 – Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1828)
June 20 – Moses Waddel, American educator/ minister and bestselling author (d. 1840)
August 1 – William Clark, American explorer, Governor of Missouri Territory, and Superintendent of Indian Affairs (d. 1838)
August 3 – King Frederick William III of Prussia (d. 1840) August 18 – Dorothea von Rodde-Schlözer, German scholar (d. 1825)
February 14 – Hanne Tott, Danish circus artist, circus manager (d. 1826)
March 16 – Antoine-Jean Gros, French painter (d. 1835)
March 20 – Heinrich Clauren, German author (d. 1854)
March 25 – Germanos III of Old Patras, Greek Metropolitan Bishop of Patras (d. 1826)
April 3 - Hans Nielsen Hauge, Norwegian revivalist, entrepreneur (d. 1824)
April 13 – Richard Trevithick, English inventor (d. 1833)
April 18 – Karl Philipp, Prince of Schwarzenberg, Austrian field marshal (d. 1820)
April 27 – Jean Rapp, French general (d. 1821)
May 1 – Cajsa Wahllund, Finnish restaurateur (d. 1843) May 11 – Laskarina Bouboulina, Greek independence heroine (d. 1825)
June 5 – Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover (d. 1851)
June 24 – Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, French-American chemist, industrialist (d. 1834)
August 15 – Sir Walter Scott, Scottish novelist, poet (d. 1832)
September 5 – Archduke Charles of Austria, Austrian general, statesman (d. 1847)
September 11 – Mungo Park, Scottish explorer (d. 1806)
September 17 – Johann August Apel, German writer, jurist (d. 1816)
September 23 – Emperor K?kaku of Japan (d. 1840)
October 9 – Frederick William, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel (d. 1815)
October 23 – Jean-Andoche Junot, French general (d. 1813)
November 14 – Xavier Bichat, French anatomist and pathologist (d. 1802)
December 14 – Regina von Siebold, German physician and obstetrician (d. 1849)
December 27 – William Johnson, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1834) Unknown – William Lloyd, Welsh Anglican priest turned schoolteacher and Methodist preacher (d. 1841)
January 20 – Angélique Brûlon, French soldier, first female Knight of the French Legion of Honour (d. 1859)
January 30 – Godfrey Higgins, British archaeologist (d. 1833)
February 24 – William H. Crawford, American politician, judge (d. 1834)
March 10 – Friedrich von Schlegel, German poet (d. 1829)
March 15 – József Ficzkó, Burgenland Croatian writer (d. 1843)
April 4 – Nachman of Breslov, Hasidic rabbi and founder of the Breslov Hasidic movement (d. 1810)
April 5 – Domenico Puccini, Italian composer (d. 1815)
April 7 – Charles Fourier, French philosopher (d. 1837) 
April 18 – David Ricardo, British economist (d. 1823)
April 30 – Karl Gustav Himly, German surgeon, ophthalmologist (d. 1837)
May 2 – Novalis, German poet (d. 1801)
May 20 – William Congreve, British rocket pioneer (d. 1828)
May 22 – Ram Mohan Roy, Hindu religious and social reformer (d. 1833)
June 7 – Aurora Liljenroth, Swedish scholar (d. 1836)
July 11 – John Rodgers, American naval officer (d. 1838)
August 2 – Louis Antoine, Duke of Enghien (d. 1804) August 15 – Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, German inventor (d. 1838)
October 21 – Samuel Taylor Coleridge, English poet and philosopher (d. 1834)
October 25 – Géraud Duroc, French general (d. 1813)
November 5 – Pierre Roch Jurien de La Gravière, French admiral (d. 1849)
November 8 – William Wirt, 9th United States Attorney General (d. 1834)
November 18 – Louis Ferdinand of Prussia, German prince (d. 1806)
date unknown – Tuanku Imam Bonjol, Indonesian religious and military leader (d. 1864) approximate date
Charlotte Dacre, English Gothic novelist (d. 1825) Lalon, Bengali philosopher, Baul saint, mystic, songwriter, social reformer and thinker (d. 1890)
February 9 – William Henry Harrison, American military leader and 9th President of the United States (d. 1841)
March 14 – John Holmes, American politician (d. 1843)
March 16 – Juan Ramón Balcarce, Argentine military leader and politician (d. 1836)
March 26 – Nathaniel Bowditch, American mathematician (d. 1838)
April 4 – Étienne Maurice Gérard, Prime Minister and Marshal of France (d. 1852)
April 14 – Jean-Baptiste de Villèle, Prime Minister of France (d. 1854)
April 24 – Edmund Cartwright, English inventor, Fellow of the Royal Society (d. 1823)
May 2 – Henrik Steffens, Norwegian philosopher (d. 1845) May 3 – Giuseppe Acerbi, Italian explorer (d. 1846)
May 15 – Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, Austrian statesman (d. 1859)
May 19 – Arthur Aikin, English chemist and mineralogist (d. 1854)
May 31 – Ludwig Tieck, German writer (d. 1853)
June 13 – Thomas Young, English scientist (d. 1829)
July 23 – Thomas Brisbane, Scottish astronomer, Governor of New South Wales (d. 1860)
August 12 – Karl Faber, German historian (d. 1853)
August 22 – Aimé Bonpland, French explorer, botanist (d. 1858) September 17 – Jonathan Alder, American settler (d. 1849)
October 4 – Harriet Auber, English poet, hymnist (d. 1862)
October 6 – Louis Philippe I, King of the French (d. 1850)
November 6 – Henry Hunt, British politician (d. 1835)
November 24 – Shadrach Bond, American politician and the first governor of Illinois (d. 1832)
December 9 – Armand Augustin Louis de Caulaincourt, French general, diplomat (d. 1827)
December 17 – Sylvain Charles Valée, Marshal of France (d. 1846)
December 21 – Robert Brown, Scottish botanist (d. 1858)
December 27 – Sir George Cayley, English aviation pioneer (d. 1857)
Unknown – Johann Gottfried Arnold, German cellist (d. 1806)
Unknown – Kyra Frosini, Greek heroine (d. 1800)
Unknown – Isabel Zendal, Spanish nurse Unknown – Anna Moór, Hungarian actress (d. 1841)
February 24 - Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge (d. 1850)
February 26 - William Farquhar, first British Resident and Commandant of colonial Singapore (d. 1839)
March 9 - Mayhew Folger, American whaler, captain of , rediscovered Topaz Pitcairn Islands in 1808 (d. 1828)
March 16 - Captain Matthew Flinders, English explorer (d. 1814)
April 21 - Jean-Baptiste Biot, French physicist, astronomer and mathematician (d. 1862)
April 24 - Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, French physician (d. 1838)
April 28 - Francis Baily, English astronomer (d. 1844)
May 27 - Francis Beaufort, Irish hydrographer (d. 1857)
June 21 - Daniel D. Tompkins, 6th Vice President of the United States (d. 1825)
July 20 - Auguste de Marmont, French marshal (d. 1852)
August 12 - Robert Southey, English poet and biographer (d. 1843)
August 18 - Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, soldier and public administrator (d. 1809)
August 28 - Elizabeth Ann Seton, co-founder of Mount St. Mary's University in the United States, founder of the Sisters of Charity (d. 1821)
September 5 - Caspar David Friedrich, German artist (d. 1840)
September 8 - Anne Catherine Emmerich, German Augustinian Canoness, mystic, Marian visionary, ecstatic and stigmatist (d. 1824)
September 19 - Giuseppe Caspar Mezzofanti, Italian cardinal, linguist (d. 1849)
September 26 - Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman), American nurseryman and Swedenborgian missionary, plants apple tree nurseries in Ohio, Indiana and Illinois (d. 1847)
December 2 - François-André Baudin, French admiral (d. 1842)
December 12 - William Henry, English chemist (d. 1836) date unknown - Sergey Glinka, Russian author, brother of Fyodor Glinka (d. 1847)
January 2 – Henry Tufton, 11th Earl of Thanet, English cricketer (d. 1849)
January 3 – Francis Caulfeild, 2nd Earl of Charlemont, Irish politician (d. 1863)
January 7 – Thomas Amyot, English antiquarian (d. 1850)
January 10 – James Sewall Morsell, United States federal judge (d. 1870)
January 11 – James Matlack (d. 1840)
January 12 – Joseph Gist, United States House of Representatives (d. 1836)
January 13 – Stanis?aw Kostka Zamoyski, Polish noble (d. 1856)
January 15 – Giosuè Sangiovanni, Italian zoologist (d. 1849)
January 20 – André-Marie Ampère, French physicist and mathematician (d. 1836)
January 27 – Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, German philosopher (d. 1854)
January 30 – Walter Savage Landor, English writer and poet (d. 1864)
February 2 - Gurun Princess Hexiao of the Manchu Dynasty (d. 1823)
February 11 – William Hall, American politician (d. 1856)
February 13 – Benjamin Gorham, American politician (d. 1855)
February 14 – William Clift (d. 1849)
February 16 – Zalmon Wildman, United States Representative from Connecticut (d. 1835)
February 18 – Thomas Girtin, English painter and etcher (d. 1802)
February 25 – John Caldwell, businessman and politician in Lower Canada (d. 1842)
February 26 – Adolf Stieler, German cartographer and lawyer (d. 1836)
February 28 – Sophie Tieck (d. 1833)
March 3 – Henry Prittie, 2nd Baron Dunalley, British politician (d. 1854)
March 15 – Juan Bautista Arismendi, Venezuelan patriot and general of the Venezuelan War of Independence (d. 1841)
March 17 – Ninian Edwards, founding political figure of the state of Illinois (d. 1833)
March 19 – Ramsay Richard Reinagle, English painter (d. 1862)
March 23 – William Haseldine Pepys (d. 1856)
March 25 – John Johnston, United States Indian agent (d. 1861)
March 26 – Thomas Monteagle Bayly, eighteenth and nineteenth century politician (d. 1834)
March 27 – Nicolai Abraham Holten, Danish civil servant and director of Øresund Custom House (d. 1850)
March 28 – Johann Heinrich Gossler, Hamburg banker and grand burgher (d. 1842) March 30 – Hieronymus Karl Graf von Colloredo-Mansfeld, Austrian corps commander during the Napoleonic Wars (d. 1822)
April 4 – Dutch Sam, British boxer (d. 1816)
April 5 – Johann Nepomuk Rust, Austrian surgeon (d. 1840)
April 6 – Edward Wynne-Pendarves, English politician (d. 1853)
April 9 – Martim Francisco Ribeiro de Andrada, Brazilian politician, leader in Brazil's independence and government (d. 1844)
April 10 – Carl Wigand Maximilian Jacobi, German psychiatirst (d. 1858)
April 13 – Adolph Henke, German physician (d. 1843)
April 19 – Samuel King, minister (d. 1842)
April 23 – J. M. W. Turner, English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker (d. 1851)
April 27 – Pietro Ostini, Catholic cardinal (d. 1849)
April 29 – Samuel King, Presbyterian minister, a founder of the Cumberland Presbyterian Church (d. 1842)
May 1 – Angélique Mongez, French Neoclassical artist (d. 1855)
May 3 – John Hansen Sørbrøden, Norwegian farmer (d. 1857)
May 8 – George Gwilt the younger, Architect (d. 1856)
May 9 – Jacob Brown, United States general (d. 1828)
May 12 – George Whitmore, British Army general (d. 1862)
May 14 – Micah Brooks, United States general (d. 1857)
May 15 – Enevold Steenblock Høyum, Norwegian military officer who served as a representative at the Norwegian Constitutional Assembly (d. 1830)
May 19 – Antonín Jan Jungmann, Czech physician (d. 1854)
May 21 – Lucien Bonaparte, French statesman (d. 1840)
May 25 – Pelagio Palagi, Italian painter (d. 1860)
May 28 – Thomas Graves, 2nd Baron Graves, British politician (d. 1830)
May 29 – Nathan Cutler, American politician from Maine (d. 1861)
June 4 – Francesco Molino, Italian guitarist (d. 1847)
June 8 – Henry Boehm, American clergyman and pastor (d. 1875)
June 9 – Georg Friedrich Grotefend, German epigraphist and philologist (d. 1853)
June 10 – James Barbour, American politician (d. 1842)
June 13 – Antoni Radziwi, Polish politician (d. 1833)
June 14 – André Bruno de Frévol de Lacoste, French general of the First Empire (d. 1809)
June 16 – Judah Touro, American businessman (d. 1854)
June 17 – Alexander Cowan, Scottish papermaker and philanthropist (d. 1859)
June 18 – Orsamus Cook Merrill, American politician (d. 1865)
June 19 – Friedrich August Peter von Colomb, German general (d. 1854)
June 19 – Vardry McBee, saddlemaker and philanthropist (d. 1864)
June 20 – Jacques Frédéric Français, French engineer and mathematician (d. 1833)
June 24 – John Kempthorne, English clergyman and hymnwriter (d. 1838)
June 25 – John Stevenson Salt (d. 1845)
June 29 – Thomas Boyle (d. 1825) June 30 – William Thompson, Irish philosopher (d. 1833)
July 1 – Cephas Thompson, American artist (d. 1856)
July 2 – Aaron Peasley (d. 1837)
July 3 – Antoine Philippe, Duke of Montpensier (d. 1807)
July 5 – William Crotch, English composer, organist and artist (d. 1847)
July 9 – Matthew Lewis, British politician (d. 1818)
July 11 – Joseph Blanco White (d. 1841)
July 15 – Richard Westmacott, British sculptor (d. 1856)
July 24 – Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal and private detective agent (d. 1857)
July 25 – Anna Harrison, American politician (d. 1864)
July 27 – Teréz Brunszvik (d. 1861)
July 28 – Hussey Vivian, 1st Baron Vivian, British Army general (d. 1842)
July 31 – Emmanuel Dupaty, French singer and writer (d. 1851)
August 8 – Richard Blakemore, English politician (d. 1855)
August 9 – Jacob Brown, United States general (d. 1828)
August 12 – Conrad Malte-Brun (d. 1826)
August 14 – Pieter Adrianus Ossewaarde, Dutch politician (d. 1853)
August 23 – Mark Cubbon (d. 1861)
August 25 – Karl Joseph Hieronymus Windischmann, German philosopher and anthropologist (d. 1839)
August 26 – William Joseph Behr (d. 1851)
August 29 – Niels Wulfsberg, Norwegian publisher (d. 1852)
September 1 – Honoré Charles Reille, French general, Marshal of France (d. 1860)
September 4 – Jean-François Le Gonidec, Linguist and translator of the Bible (d. 1838)
September 6 – Aleksey Greig, Russian admiral (d. 1845)
September 7 – John Jebb, Irish writer (d. 1833)
September 12 – Josef Jüttner (d. 1848)
September 15 – William A. Griswold, American lawyer and politician in the U (d. 1846)
September 19 – José Félix Ribas, hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence (d. 1815)
September 20 – François-Pierre Chaumeton, French botanist and physician (d. 1819)
September 22 – Philip Milledoler, minister and the fifth President of Rutgers College (d. 1852)
September 23 – Jens Christian Berg, Norwegian lawyer and historian (d. 1852)
September 24 – Nathan Heald, officer in the United States Army during the War of 1812 (d. 1832)
September 25 – Pierre Flor, Norwegian politician (d. 1848)
September 26 – James Grimston, 1st Earl of Verulam, British peer and Member of Parliament (d. 1845)
September 30 – Robert Adrain, Mathematician (d. 1843)
October 2 – Cornelius O'Callaghan, 1st Viscount Lismore (d. 1857)
October 3 – Isaac von Sinclair, German writer and diplomat (d. 1815)
October 6 – Johann Anton André, German composer and music publisher (d. 1842)
October 13 – John Wentworth Loring, British Royal Navy admiral (d. 1852)
October 17 – Ole Paulssøn Haagenstad, Norwegian politician (d. 1866)
October 23 – Gottlob Friedrich Thormeyer, German architect (d. 1842)
October 24 – Bahadur Shah II, Mughal emperor (d. 1862)
November 1 – Christian Adolph Diriks, Norwegian lawyer and statesman (d. 1837)
November 3 – Edward Paget (d. 1849)
November 4 – Pierre Capelle, 19th-century French chansonnier (d. 1851)
November 6 – August Wilhelm Hartmann, Danish composer (d. 1850)
November 7 – Joseph Fox, English dental surgeon (d. 1816)
November 9 – Daniel Waldron, American businessman (d. 1821)
November 10 – James Elliot, American politician (d. 1839)
November 14 – Paul Johann Anselm Ritter von Feuerbach, German legal scholar (d. 1833)
November 15 – James Carnahan, American clergyman and educator, ninth President of Princeton University (d. 1859)
November 20 – Gustav Anton von Seckendorff, German author (d. 1823)
November 24 – Peter Buell Allen, politician and military commander in New York State, pioneer of Vigo County and Terre Haute (d. 1833)
November 29 – Marie Antoine de Reiset, French general during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars (d. 1836)
November 30 – Jean Joseph Antoine de Courvoisier, French magistrate and politician (d. 1835)
December 2 – Joseph Denis Odevaere, Neo-Classical painter from the Southern Netherlands (now Belgium) (d. 1830)
December 5 – Abijah Bigelow, American politician (d. 1860)
December 11 – Peter Little, American politician (d. 1830)
December 13 – Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Younger (d. 1843)
December 15 – Phineas Riall, British Army general (d. 1850)
December 17 – Carlo Rossi, Russian architect (d. 1849)
December 21 – Julien-Joseph Virey, French naturalist and anthropologist (d. 1846)
December 26 – Anton Carl Ludwig von Tabouillot (d. 1813)
Date unknown: Jeanne Geneviève Labrosse, French balloonist and parachutist (d. 1847)
January 1 – James M. Broom, American politician (d. 1850)
January 2 – Jeremiah Chaplin, American Reformed Baptist theologian (d. 1841)
January 3 – Thomas Morris, American politician (d. 1844)
January 8 – Thomas Langlois Lefroy, Irish politician (d. 1869)
January 9 – Ludwig Rhesa, Prussian scholar (d. 1840)
January 10 – George Birkbeck, English doctor, academic and philanthropist (d. 1841)
January 15 – Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, Roman-born British prince (d. 1834)
January 17 (bapt.) – Jane Porter, English novelist (d. 1850)
January 23 – Howard Douglas, British Army general (d. 1861) January 24
February 11 – Ioannis Kapodistrias, Governor of Greece (d. 1831)
February 14 – Christian Gottfried Daniel Nees von Esenbeck, prolific German botanist (d. 1858)
February 15 – Jean-Pierre Boyer, President of Haiti (d. 1850)
February 16 – Abraham Raimbach, British engraver (d. 1843)
February 18 – Karl August Ferdinand von Borcke, German general (d. 1830)
February 20 – Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca, Spanish colonial governor of Cuba (d. 1846)
February 21 – Joseph Barss, Canadian privateer, sea captain (d. 1824)
February 25 – George William Tighe, English expatriate (d. 1837)
February 28 – François Quirouet, Canadian politician (d. 1844)
March 3 – James Parker, American politician (d. 1868)
March 4 – Guillaume Emmanuel Guignard, vicomte de Saint-Priest, Russian army commander (d. 1814)
March 5 – Gerard Troost, American mineralogist (d. 1850)
March 6 – Luigi Lambruschini, Italian Catholic cardinal (d. 1854)
March 7 – Timothy Ruggles, Canadian politician (d. 1831)
March 12 – Lady Hester Stanhope, English archaeologist (d. 1839)
March 15 – Aimé Picquet du Boisguy, French chouan general during the French Revolution (d. 1839)
March 17 – Joel Abbot, American politician (d. 1826)
March 19 – Philemon Beecher, American politician (d. 1839)
March 21 – John Frederick Frelinghuysen, United States general (d. 1833)
March 24 – Zusho Hirosato, Japanese samurai (d. 1849)
March 27 – Charles-François Brisseau de Mirbel, French botanist, politician (d. 1854)
March 30 – Vasily Tropinin, Russian artist (d. 1857)
March 31 – Joseph Küffner, German musician, composer (d. 1856)
April 6 – Jesse Bledsoe, American politician (d. 1836)
April 13 – Wilhelm von Schütz, German author, playwright (d. 1847)
April 15 – John Anstruther-Thomson, Scottish nobleman, Colonel of the Royal Fifeshire Yeomanry Cavalry (d. 1833)
April 17 – Jean-François Roger, French poet, politician (d. 1842)
May 4 – Johann Friedrich Herbart, German philosopher, psychologist (d. 1841)
May 5 – Valentine Efner, American politician (d. 1865)
May 9 – Thomas Maguire, Canadian Catholic priest (d. 1854)
May 10 – George Thomas Smart, English musician (d. 1867)
May 13 – Jett Thomas, American militia general (d. 1817)
May 17 – Amos Eaton, American botanist (d. 1842)
May 18 – Dennis Pennington, American politician (d. 1854)
May 29 – Peter Erasmus Müller, Danish historian, linguist and theologian (d. 1834)
May 31 – José Antonio de la Garza, American mayor (d. 1851)
June 4 – Isaac B. Van Houten, American politician (d. 1850)
June 6 – William Reed, American politician (d. 1837) June 8 – Thomas Rickman, English architect, architectural antiquary (d. 1841)
June 11 – John Constable, English landscape painter (d. 1837)
June 19 – Francis Johnson, American politician (d. 1842)
June 23 – Stephen Longfellow, American politician (d. 1849)
June 28 – Charles Mathews, English actor (d. 1835)
June 29 – George Okill Stuart, Canadian clergyman (d. 1862)
July 3 – Henry Parnell, 1st Baron Congleton, Anglo-Irish politician (d. 1842)
July 10 – Samuel Powell, American politician (d. 1841)
July 11 – William Bradbery, English entrepreneur (d. 1860)
July 12 – John Christian, Manx judge (d. 1852)
July 13 – Caroline of Baden, Queen of Bavaria (d. 1841)
July 14 – Pierre Yrieix Daumesnil, French soldier (d. 1832)
July 17 – John Neilson, Canadian politician (d. 1848)
July 18 – John Struthers, Scottish poet (d. 1853)
July 20 – Ignaz Schuppanzigh, Austrian musician (d. 1830)
July 26 – Pierre Fouquier, French physician, professor of medicine (d. 1850)
July 29 – James McSherry, American politician (d. 1849)
July 30 – Sir Edward Kerrison, 1st Baronet, British general (d. 1853)
August 4 – Pierre-Simon Ballanche, French writer and counterrevolutionary philosopher (d. 1847)
August 6 – William Crooks, Canadian politician (d. 1836) August 9
August 13 – Abraham Shepherd, American politician (d. 1847)
August 22 – Carlo Amati, Italian architect (d. 1852)
August 25 – Thomas Bladen Capel, British admiral (d. 1853)
August 27 – Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Danish-German statesman, historian (d. 1831)
August 29 – Georg Friedrich Treitschke, German librettist (d. 1842)
September 3 – Étienne Mayrand, Canadian politician (d. 1872)
September 4 – Stephen Whitney, American merchant (d. 1860)
September 5 – Augustus Simon Frazer, French-born British Army officer (d. 1835)
September 11 – Thomas Arbuthnot, British Army general (d. 1849)
September 17 – Langdon Cheves, American politician (d. 1857)
September 18 – Thomas Gleadowe-Newcomen, 2nd Viscount Newcomen, English politician (d. 1825)
October 1 – Augustus Warren Baldwin, Upper Canada naval officer, political figure (d. 1866)
October 3 – Thomas Walsh, Vicar Apostolic of England and Wales (d. 1849)
October 8 – Pieter van Os, Dutch painter, engraver (d. 1839)
October 12 – Jean-Michel Mahé, French Navy officer, captain (d. 1833)
October 18 – Cowles Mead, American politician (d. 1844)
October 20 – John Rolls of The Hendre, British judge (d. 1837)
October 21 – George Izard, United States general (d. 1828)
October 22 – Edward Draper, British military officer, civil servant in Mauritius (d. 1841)
October 25 – Patrick Neill, Scottish printer, horticulturalist (d. 1851)
October 28 – Joachim Haspinger, Catholic priest, leader of the Tyrolese revolt against Napoleon (d. 1858)
October 31 – Francis Locke Jr., American politician (d. 1823)
November 1 – Abraham McClellan, American politician (d. 1851)
November 5 – Abraham Teerlink, Dutch painter (d. 1857)
November 11 – Philip E. Thomas, American banker, railroad executive (d. 1861)
November 14 – Henri Dutrochet, French physician (d. 1847)
November 29 – Harcourt Lees, Irish clergyman, political pamphleteer (d. 1852)
December 2 – Louis Alexis Baudoin, French naval officer (d. 1805)
January – William Barton, English cricketer (d. 1825)
January 2 – Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (d. 1857)
January 7 – Lorenzo Bartolini, Italian sculptor (d. 1850)
January 11 – Vincenzo Borg, Maltese merchant, rebel leader (d. 1837)
January 13 – Elisa Bonaparte, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, sister of Napoleon Bonaparte (d. 1820)
January 25 – Karoline Jagemann, German actor (d.1848)
February 3 – John Cheyne, British physician, surgeon and author (d. 1836)
February 10 – Amable Berthelot, Quebec lawyer, author and political figure (d. 1847)
February 18 – Andreas Arntzen, Norwegian politician (d. 1837)
February 20 – Zacheus Burnham, Canadian farmer, judge and public figure (d. 1857)
February 26 – Matija Nenadovi?, Prime Minister of Serbia (d. 1854)
March 3 – Adolphe Dureau de la Malle, French geographer, naturalist, historian and artist (d. 1857)
March 10 – Robert Allison (Pennsylvania politician), U.S. Representative (d. 1840) March 13 – Charles Lot Church, Nova Scotia politician (d. 1864)
April 30 – Carl Friedrich Gauss, German mathematician, astronomer and physicist (d. 1855)
May 4 – Richard Bourke, Australian governor (d. 1855)
May 8 – Mateli Magdalena Kuivalatar, Finnish-Karelian folksinger (d. 1846)
May 11 – Samuel Bridger, English cricketer
May 12 – Mary Reibey, Australian businessperson (d. 1855)
May 18 – John George Children, British chemist, mineralogist and zoologist (d. 1852)
June 1 – Fernando Errázuriz Aldunate, president of Chile (d. 1841)
June 12 – Robert Clark, American politician (d. 1837)
June 14 – Heman Allen (of Milton), U.S. Representative (d. 1844)
June 15 – David Daniel Davis, British physician (d. 1841)
June 23 – Frederick Bates, American politician (d. 1825)
November 7 – Richard Bassett (clergyman), Welsh cleric (d. 1852)
November 14 – Nathaniel Claiborne, American politician (d. 1859)
November 24 – Samuel Butts, American militia officer (d. 1814)
December 1 – Thomas Bradford, British Army officer (d. 1853)
December 4 – Juliette Récamier, French writer (d. 1849)
December 10 – William Conner, American trader, politician (d. 1855)
December 14 – Du Pré Alexander, 2nd Earl of Caledon, Irish peer, landlord and colonial administrator (d. 1839)
December 15 – Agostino Aglio, Italian painter, decorator and engraver (d. 1857)
December 16 – Madame Clicquot Ponsardin, French champagne producer (d. 1866) December 21 – John Campbell, 7th Duke of Argyll, Scottish peer, Whig politician (d. 1847)
Suleiman al-Halabi, Syrian student, assassin (d. 1800)
Carlos Anaya, Uruguayan politician (d. 1862)
Charles James Apperley, English sportsman, sporting writer (d. 1843)
Carlo Armellini, Italian politician, activist and jurist (d. 1863)
Mevlana Halid-i Bagdadi, Ottoman mystic (d. 1826)
Connell James Baldwin, Irish soldier, civil servant (d. 1861)
Karl Friedrich Becker, German educator, historian (d. 1806)
Vicente Benavides, Chilean soldier (d. 1822)
John Bennett (Hampshire cricketer) (d. 1857)
William Bellinger Bulloch, U.S. Senator (d. 1852)
Sophia Campbell, Australian artist (d. 1833)
Abiel Chandler, U.S. philanthropist (d. 1851)
John Claiborne, U.S. politician (d. 1808)
Charles Othon Frédéric Jean-Baptiste de Clarac, French artist, scholar and archaeologist (d. 1847)
Thomas Cochran (judge), Canadian judge (d. 1804)
Anselmo de la Cruz, Chilean political figure (d. 1833)
Thomas Day, American judge (d. 1855)
Benjamin D'Urban, British general, colonial administrator (d. 1849) Tu'i Malila, Malagasy-born tortoise, longest living animal on record (d. 1965)
January 6 – Thomas Lincoln, Farmer, Carpenter (d. 1851)
January 7 – Anthony Todd Thomson, British dermatologist (d. 1849)
January 9 – Thomas Brown, Scottish metaphysician (d. 1820)
January 10 – Teodoro Sánchez de Bustamante, Argentine politician (d. 1851)
January 11 – Agathon Jean François Fain, French historian (d. 1837)
January 12 – William Herbert, British politician (d. 1847)
January 13 – Sir Isaac Goldsmid, 1st Baronet, British financier and one of the leading figures in the Jewish emancipation in the United Kingdom (d. 1859)
January 15 – Joseph Adamy, Nassauian politician (d. 1849)
Donald Macdonell, Canadian politician (d. 1861) George Black, Canadian politician, businessman and important shipbuilder in Quebec, during the earlier part of the 19th century (d. 1854)
January 18 – George Bellas Greenough, British geologist (d. 1855)
January 20 – Louis Antoine François Baillon, French naturalist, collector (d. 1855)
January 21 – Jeremiah O'Brien, American politician (d. 1858)
January 23 – Alire Raffeneau Delile, French botanist (d. 1850)
January 24 – Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, England (d. 1820)
January 25 – Matsudaira Norihiro, Japanese daimy? who ruled the Nishio Domain (d. 1839)
January 28 – James Tallmadge, Jr., American politician (d. 1853)
January 29 – John Williams, Tennessee politician (d. 1837)
January 31 – Franz Anton von Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky, Austrian statesman (d. 1861)
February 1 – Joseph Richardson, American politician (d. 1871)
February 2 – Mary Anne Talbot, British wartime cross-dresser (d. 1808)
February 4 – Augustin Pyramus de Candolle, Swiss botanist (d. 1841)
February 5 – Jan Nepomucen Umi?ski, Polish general (d. 1851)
February 6 – Ugo Foscolo, Italian writer, revolutionary and poet (d. 1827) 
February 13 – William P. Van Ness, United States federal judge (d. 1826)
February 14 – Fernando Sor, Spanish musician (d. 1839)
February 25 – José de San Martín, Argentine general (d. 1850)
March 8 – Jean-Toussaint Arrighi de Casanova, French soldier, diplomat (d. 1853)
March 19 – Edward Pakenham, Irish-born British general (d. 1815)
March 23 – Paul Traugott Meissner, Austrian chemist (d. 1864)
March 25 – Sophie Blanchard, French aeronaut (d. 1819)
March 26 – Edward Blakeney, British Army officer (d. 1868)
March 28 – Ludvig Stoud Platou, Norwegian politician (d. 1833)
March 30 – Robert Moore, American politician (d. 1831)
March 31 – Coenraad Jacob Temminck, Dutch zoologist (d. 1858)
April 1 – Benjamin Jacob, British musician (d. 1829)
April 3 – Pierre Bretonneau, French physician (d. 1862)
April 7 – John J. Ely, Member of the New Jersey General Assembly (d. 1852) April 9
April 12 – John Strachan, Bishop of Toronto (d. 1867)
April 14 – George Philipp Ludolf von Beckedorff, prominent Prussian Catholic convert, parliamentarian (d. 1858)
April 19 – Elizabeth Wynne Fremantle, main author of the extensive Wynne Diaries, wife of Royal Navy officer Thomas Fremantle (1765-1819) (d. 1857)
April 23 – John Harvey, British Army general (d. 1852)
April 24 – John Graham, soldier notable for founding Grahamstown (d. 1821)
April 27 – Henry Drury, English educator (d. 1841)
April 28 – Adriaan van der Hoop, Dutch banker, politician (d. 1854)
April 29 – Thomas Bateman, British physician, pioneer in the field of dermatology (d. 1821) April 30 – Arvid David Hummel, Swedish entomologist (d. 1836)
May 2 – Nathan Bangs, American Methodist theologian (d. 1862)
May 3 – Samuel Freeze, Canadian politician (d. 1844)
May 6 – Henry Phillpotts, English bishop (d. 1869)
May 8 – Marie-Louise Coidavid, Queen of the Kingdom of Haiti (1811-20) as the spouse of Henri I of Haiti (d. 1851)
May 9 – Eli Ayers, Liberian politician (d. 1822)
May 10 – William Ladd, American activist (d. 1841)
May 13 – Honoré V, Prince of Monaco (d. 1841)
May 17 – Benjamin Bowring, English watchmaker (d. 1846)
May 25 – Claus Harms, German clergyman, theologian (d. 1855)
May 29 – Charles Kemeys Kemeys Tynte, British politician (d. 1860)
May 30 – Richard Skinner, American politician (d. 1833)
May 31 – Horatio Seymour, American politician (d. 1857)
June 2 – Jean Julien Angot des Rotours, French colonial governor (d. 1844)
June 4 – Martin Parmer, American politician (d. 1850)
June 6 – Edmund Varney, American politician (d. 1847)
June 7 – David Willson, Canadian Quaker minister (d. 1866)
June 11 – John Robison, British inventor (d. 1843)
June 13 – Frederick Louis, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (d. 1819) June 14 – John Cushing Aylwin, United States naval officer (War of 1812) (d. 1813)
June 19 – Robert Allen, Tennessee politician (d. 1844)
June 20 – Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, moderate royalist French statesman, during the Bourbon Restoration (1814-30) under King Charles X (d. 1832)
June 22 – George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland, British politician (d. 1867)
June 23 – Richard W. Meade, American merchant and art collector (d. 1828)
June 26 – Mariya Svistunova, lady-in-waiting at the Russian Court (d. 1866)
June 27 – Sir John Astley, 1st Baronet, British politician (d. 1842)
July 2 – Daniel Wilson, Bishop of Calcutta (d. 1858)
July 3 – Carl Ludvig Engel, German architect (d. 1840)
July 6 – Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent, French scientist (d. 1846)
July 7 – Beau Brummell, English man of fashion (d. 1840) 
July 11 – Timothy Fuller, American politician (d. 1835)
July 12 – Maria Dalle Donne, Bolognese physician (d. 1842)
July 13 – Samuel Stevens, Jr., American politician (d. 1860)
July 17 – Benjamin Isaacs, Connecticut politician (d. 1846)
July 20 – Joshua Tetley, British brewer (d. 1859)
July 28 – Charles Stewart, American naval commander (d. 1869)
August 2 – Georg Anton Rollett, Austrian naturalist (d. 1842)
August 5 – Otto Christian Blandow, German bryologist (d. 1810) August 8 – John Bonfoy Rooper, British landowner, MP (d. 1855)
September 9 – Clemens Brentano, German poet, novelist (d. 1842) 
September 10 – Joshua Lawrence, American Baptist minister (d. 1843)
September 12 – William Davidson, American politician (d. 1857)
September 15 – Augustin Caron, Canadian politician (d. 1862)
September 21 – Carl Ludwig Koch, German entomologist (d. 1857)
September 24 – Micha? Gedeon Radziwi, Polish-Lithuanian noble (d. 1850)
September 26 – Jonathan Fisk, American politician (d. 1832)
October 8 – Hyacinthe-Louis de Quélen, French Catholic bishop (d. 1839)
October 13 – William Marks, American politician (d. 1858)
October 14 – Francis Fane, British Royal Navy admiral (d. 1844)
October 19 – Valentine Blacker, Irish-born Surveyor General of India (d. 1826)
October 22 – Javier de Burgos, Spanish writer, politician and jurist (d. 1849) 
October 23 – Kittur Chennamma, Indian queen regnant (d. 1829)
October 26 – Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg, British politician (d. 1866)
October 28 – Ezekiel Blomfield, British minister (d. 1818)
October 29 – William Creighton, Jr., United States federal judge (d. 1851)
October 30 – Benjamin Ames, American politician (d. 1835)
November 3 – Karlo Lanza, Dalmatian politician (d. 1834)
November 8 – Joseph Signay, Canadian Catholic bishop (d. 1850)
November 11 – Nils Astrup, Norwegian politician (d. 1835)
November 16 – Johann Joseph von Prechtl, Austrian technologist (d. 1854)
November 18 – Lord William Stuart, British politician (d. 1814)
November 19 – Charles de Salaberry, Canadian politician (d. 1829)
November 22 – Aurora Wilhelmina Koskull, Swedish lady-in-waiting, politically active salonist (d. 1852)
November 24 – Salusbury Pryce Humphreys, British Royal Navy officer during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812 (d. 1845)
November 29 – Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovianenko, Ukrainian writer, journalist, and playwright (d. 1843)  November 30 – Andrés Guazurary, Argentine general (d. 1825)
January 5 – Stephen Decatur, American naval officer (d. 1820)
January 18 – Peter Mark Roget, British lexicographer (d. 1869)
February 1 – Nikolaus von Krufft, Austrian composer and civil servant (d. 1818)
March 6 – Antoine-Henri Jomini, French general (d. 1869)
March 15 – William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1848)
May 28 – Thomas Moore, Irish poet (d. 1852)
June 20 – Dorothy Ann Thrupp, British psalmist, hymnwriter, translator (d. 1847)
July 8 – Giorgio Pullicino, Maltese painter and architect (d. 1851)
August 1 – Francis Scott Key, American lawyer, lyricist (d. 1843)
August 8 – Benjamin Silliman, American chemist, educator and abolitionist (d. 1864)
August 20 – Jöns Jacob Berzelius, Swedish chemist (d. 1848)
August 29 – Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, French painter (d. 1867)
September 8 – Mustafa IV, sultan of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1808)
September 18 – Joseph Story, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States (d. 1845)
November 14 – Adam Gottlob Oehlenschläger, Danish poet (d. 1850)
December 12 – Madeleine Sophie Barat, French Catholic saint, founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart (d. 1865)
December 24 – George Washington Lafayette date unknown – Giacomo Beltrami, Italian explorer (d. 1855)
Transcluded articles: 1770, 1771, 1772, 1773, 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779
January 7 – Carl Gustaf Tessin, Swedish politician (b. 1695)
January 8 – John Michael Rysbrack, Flemish sculptor (b. 1694)
January 20 – Charles Yorke, Lord Chancellor of Great Britain (b. 1722)
January 27 – Johann Karl Philipp von Cobenzl, 18th-century politician (b. 1712)
January 30 – Giovanni Pietro Francesco Agius de Soldanis, Maltese linguist, historian and cleric (b. 1712)
January 27 – Philippe Macquer, French historian (b. 1720)
February 26 – Giuseppe Tartini, Italian composer, violinist (b. 1692) March 5 – Crispus Attucks, African-American dockworker, first to die in the Boston Massacre (b. 1723)
March 27 – Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Venetian artist (b. 1696)
April 27 – José Solís Folch de Cardona, Spanish colonial governor (b. 1716)
April 25 – Jean-Antoine Nollet, French abbot, physicist (b. 1700)
May 30 – François Boucher, French painter (b. 1703)
June 22 – Philip Carteret Webb, English barrister (b. 1702)
June 23 – Mark Akenside, English poet, physician (b. 1721)
July 17 – Joseph Paris Duverney, French banker (b. 1684)
July 21 – Charlotta Frölich, Swedish agronomist (b. 1698)
July 27 – Robert Dinwiddie, British colonial Governor of Virginia (b. 1693)
August 15 – Edward Antill (colonial politician), American winemaker (b. 1701)
August 24 – Thomas Chatterton, English poet (b. 1752)
September 2 – Hongzhou, Manchu prince of the Qing Dynasty (b. 1712)
September 9 – Bernhard Siegfried Albinus, German anatomist (b. 1697) September 22 – Ignatius of Santhià, Italian Catholic priest (b. 1686)
October 14 – Benning Wentworth, colonial governor of New Hampshire (b. 1696)
October 18 – John Manners, Marquess of Granby, British soldier (b. 1721)
November 9 – John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll, Scottish politician
November 13 – George Grenville, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1712)
November 24 – Charles-Jean-François Hénault, French historian (b. 1685)
December 4 – John Perceval, 2nd Earl of Egmont, Irish politician (b. 1711)
December 5 – James Stirling, Scottish mathematician (b. 1692) December 6 – Neri Maria Corsini, Italian Catholic priest and cardinal (b. 1685)
May 21 – Christopher Smart, English poet (b. 1722)
May 27 – Anthony Ashley Cooper, 4th Earl of Shaftesbury, England (b. 1711)
June 5 – Samuel Phillips (reverend), colonial American minister, 1st Pastor of the South Church in Andover (b. 1690)
June 8 – George Montagu-Dunk, 2nd Earl of Halifax, English statesman (b. 1716)
July 14 – Chen Hongmou, Chinese scholar and philosopher (b. 1696)
July 22 – William Whitmore (British Army officer), British general (b. 1714)
July 30 – Thomas Gray, English writer (b. 1716)
September 13 – John Gambold, British bishop (b. 1711)
September 17 – Tobias Smollett, Scottish novelist (b. 1721)
October 22 – Charles-Nicolas d'Oultremont, Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1716)
November 4 – Charles Lucas (politician), Irish apothecary (b. 1713)
November 6 – John Bevis, English physician, astronomer (b. 1695) November 13 – Konrad Ernst Ackermann, German actor (b. 1712)
March 29 – Emanuel Swedenborg, Swedish philosopher and mathematician (b. 1688)
April 28 – Johann Friedrich Struensee, Danish royal physician (b. 1737)
May 1 – Gottfried Achenwall, German statistician (b. 1719)
May 22 – Durastante Natalucci, Italian historian (b. 1687)
June 15 – Louis-Claude Daquin, French composer (b. 1694)
June 22 – François-Vincent Toussaint, French writer most famous for Les Moeurs (The Manners) (b. 1715)
August 31 – William Borlase, English naturalist (b. 1695)
September 30 – James Brindley, British canal builder (b. 1716) October 7 – John Woolman, American Quaker preacher, abolitionist (b. 1720)
October 8 – Jean-Joseph de Mondonville, French violinist, composer (b. 1711)
October 14 – Benjamin Green, Canadian merchant and judge (b. 1713)
October 16 – Ahmad Shah Durrani, Afghan founder of the Durrani Empire (cancer) (b. 1724)
October 19 – Andrea Belli, Maltese architect, businessman (b. 1703)
November 10 – Pedro Antonio Joaquim Correa da Serra Garção, Portuguese poet (b. 1724)
November 18 – Madhavrao I, ruler of India (b. 1745)
November 19 – William Nelson, American colonial governor of Virginia (b. 1711)
December 4 – Dov Ber of Mezeritch, the Great Maggid, a preacher and founder of Hasidism.
December 7 – Martín Sarmiento, Spanish writer, scholar (b. 1695)  Date unknown – Panna Cinka, Hungarian violinist (b. 1711)
March 20 – Gottlieb Heinrich Totleben, German noble (b. 1715)
May 8 – Ali Bey Al-Kabir, Mamluk Sultan of Egypt (b. 1728)
May 15 – Alban Butler, English Catholic priest, writer (b. 1710)
May 28 – John Wayles, American lawyer and planter (b. 1715)
June 21 – Jorge Juan y Santacilia, Spanish geodesist (b. 1713)
June 27 – Mentewab, dowager Empress of Ethiopia (b. c. 1706)
July 5 – Francisco José Freire, Portuguese historian, philologist (b. 1719)
July 12 – Johann Joachim Quantz, German flutist, composer (b. 1697)
July 23 – George Edwards, English naturalist (b. 1693)
July 25 – Axel Löwen, Swedish duke (b. 1686)
August 3 – Stanis?aw Konarski, Polish writer (b. 1700)
August 20 – Enrique Florez, Spanish historian (b. 1701)
September 23 – Johan Ernst Gunnerus, Norwegian bishop and botanist (b. 1718)
October 14 – Septimanie d'Egmont, French salonist (b. 1740)
October 30 – Philippe de La Guêpière, French architect (b. 1725)
November 2 – John Glas, Scottish minister (b. 1695) November 7 – Princess Anne Charlotte of Lorraine, French royal (b. 1714)
January 9 - Józef Andrzej Za?uski, Polish bishop (b. 1702)
January 18 - Louis de Brienne de Conflans d'Armentières, French general (b. 1711)
January 21 - Mustafa III, Ottoman Sultan (b. 1717)
January 30 - Franti?ek T?ma, Czech composer (b. 1704)
February 4 - Charles Marie de La Condamine, French mathematician, geographer (b. 1701)
February 10 - Florian Leopold Gassmann, German composer (b. 1729)
March 30 - Countess Palatine Caroline of Zweibrücken (b. 1721)
April 4 - Oliver Goldsmith, Irish writer (b. 1728)
April 23 - Christian Wilhelm Ernst Dietrich, German artist (b. 1712)
April 24 - Sara Banzet, French educator, diarist (b. 1745)
May 4 - Duke Anthony Ulrich of Brunswick, Russian general (b. 1714)
May 10 - King Louis XV of France (b. 1710)
May 17 - Jeremiah Theus, American artist (b. 1716)
June 24 - Thomas Amory (tutor), English tutor/minister/poet (b. 1701)
July 1 - Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland, English statesman (b. 1705)
July 9 - Anna Morandi Manzolini, internationally known Italian anatomist and anatomical wax modeler (b. 1714)
July 11 - Sir William Johnson, 1st Baronet, Irish-born New York pioneer (b. 1715)
July 14 - James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley, British field marshal (b. 1682)
August 11 - Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche, French writer (b. 1722)
August 14 - Johann Jakob Reiske, German scholar, physician (b. 1716)
August 25 - Niccolò Jommelli, Italian composer (b. 1714)
September 22 - Pope Clement XIV (b. 1705) 
September 25 - John Bradstreet, Canadian-born soldier (b. 1714)
October 16 - Robert Fergusson, Scottish poet (b. 1750)
October 23 - Michel Benoist, French Jesuit missionary, scientist (b. 1715)
October 26 - Roemer Vlacq II, Dutch vice-admiral (b. 1712)
November 22 - Robert Clive, British general, statesman (b. 1725)
November 25 - Henry Baker, English naturalist (b. 1698)
December 2 - Johann Friedrich Agricola, German composer (b. 1720)
December 16 - François Quesnay, French economist (b. 1694) date unknown
January 1 – Ahmad Shah Bahadur (b. 1725)
January 6 – Khawaja Muhammad Zaman of Luari, Sindhi Sufi poet (b. 1713)
January 8 – John Baskerville, English printer (b. 1707)
January 10 – Stringer Lawrence, English soldier (b. 1697)
January 11 – Prithvi Narayan Shah, last ruler of the Gorkha Kingdom in the Indian subcontinent (b. 1723)
January 13 – Johann Georg Walch, German theologian (b. 1693)
January 14 – Peter Schenk the Younger, Dutch engraver and map publisher active in Leipzig (b. 1693)
January 17 – Vincenzo Riccati, Venetian mathematician and physicist (b. 1707)
February 2 – Sir John Rushout, 4th Baronet, England (b. 1685)
February 5 – Eusebius Amort, German Catholic theologian (b. 1692)
February 6 – William Dowdeswell, English politician (b. 1721)
February 15 – Peter Dens, Belgian Catholic theologian (b. 1690)
February 28 – Empress Xiaoyichun, of China (b. 1727)
March 5 – Pierre-Laurent Buirette de Belloy, French dramatist and actor (b. 1727)
March 6 – Job Baster, Dutch naturalist (b. 1711)
March 21 – Thomas Penn, son of American colonial leader William Penn (b. 1702)
March 22 – Peter August, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (b. 1697)
March 30 – Christian Ditlev Reventlow, Danish Privy Councillor (b. 1710)
April 14 – Countess Palatine Ernestine of Sulzbach, wife of Landgrave William II (b. 1697)
April 19 – Isaac Davis, gunsmith and a militia officer who commanded a company of Minutemen from Acton (b. 1745)
April 30 – Peter Harrison, colonial American architect who was born in York (b. 1716)
May 1 – Israel Lyons (b. 1739)
May 2 – Fredericka of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, German noblewoman (b. 1715)
May 3 – George Boscawen, British general (b. 1712)
May 18 – Magnus Beronius (b. 1692)
May 27 – Louise Élisabeth de Bourbon, daughter of Louis (b. 1693)
June 15 – Asa Pollard, American soldier (b. 1735)
June 21 – Charles, Prince of Nassau-Usingen (1718-1775) and Nassau-Saarbrücken (1728-1735) (b. 1712)
June 23 – Karl Ludwig von Pöllnitz, German adventurer and writer (b. 1692)
July 3 – Col. Thomas Gardner, political figure and heroic soldier (b. 1724)
July 11 – Simon Boerum, American Continental Congressman (b. 1724)
July 21 – Szymon Czechowicz, prominent Polish painter of the Baroque (b. 1689)
August 10 – Elihu Adams, soldier in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War (b. 1741)
August 13 – Micha? Fryderyk Czartoryski, Polish nobleman (b. 1696)
August 21 – Zahir al-Umar (b. 1689)
August 22 – Remember Baker, member of the Green Mountain Boys (b. 1737)
August 27 – James Burgh, British Whig politician and writer (b. 1714)
September 6 – Jean-Baptiste Bullet, French writer (b. 1669)
September 13 – Klaas Annink (b. 1710)
September 16 – Allen Bathurst, 1st Earl Bathurst, English privy councillor (b. 1684)
September 17 – John Parker, American colonial farmer (b. 1729)
September 23 – John Bentinck, officer of the Royal Navy (b. 1737)
September 24 – Emanuel Büchel, Swiss painter (b. 1705)
October 2 – Chiyo-ni, Japanese poet (b. 1703)
October 3 – Cluer Dicey (b. 1715)
October 13 – James Cholmondeley, British Army officer who also sat in Parliament (b. 1708)
October 18 – Christian August Crusius, German philosopher and theologian (b. 1715)
October 21 – Peyton Randolph, American president of the Continental Congress (b. 1721)
October 22 – Peyton Randolph, planter and public official from the Colony of Virginia (b. 1721)
November 4 – Luis Jayme (b. 1740)
November 5 – Christian IV, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken, German noble (b. 1722)
November 9 – Francisco Ximenes de Texada, 69th Grandmaster of the Knights Hospitaller (b. 1703)
November 13 – Jeanne Camus de Pontcarré, French aristocrat and eccentric widow (b. 1705)
November 21 – John Hill, English writer
November 24 – Lorenzo Ricci, Italian Jesuit leader (b. 1703)
November 25 – Richard Spry, Royal Navy officer who served as North America and West Indies Station (b. 1715)
December 7 – Charles Saunders, British admiral
December 9 – Robert Livingston (b. 1718)
December 15 – Marie-Angélique Memmie Le Blanc, French feral child (b. 1712)
December 28 – Petrus Albertus van der Parra, Dutch colonial governor (b. 1714) December 31 – Richard Montgomery, American general (killed in battle) (b. 1738)
January 6 – James Gabriel Montresor, British military engineer (b. 1704)
January 8 – James Frye, colonial soldier (b. 1709)
January 12 – Johann Philipp Murray, German historian interested in early Nordic studies and relations between England and Scandinavia (b. 1726)
January 14 – Edward Cornwallis, British military officer, first Governor of Nova Scotia (b. 1713)
January 21 – Jacques de Romas, French physicist (b. 1713)
February 13 – Élisabeth Catherine Ballard (b. 1704)
February 18 – Lady Anne Monson, English botanist (b. 1726)
March 4 – Johann Georg Ziesenis, German - Danish portrait painter (b. 1716)
March 5 – Pierre-Robert Le Cornier de Cideville, French magistrate and scholar (b. 1693)
March 7 – John Bowes, 9th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (b. 1737)
March 24 – John Harrison, English clockmaker (b. 1693)
March 26 – Samuel Ward, American politician (b. 1725)
March 29 – Johann Gotthelf Lindner, German university teacher and writer (b. 1729)
March 30 – Jonathan Belcher, British-American lawyer (b. 1710)
March 31 – Jane Randolph Jefferson, wife of Peter Jefferson and the mother of US president Thomas Jefferson (b. 1720)
April 7 – Charles-Pierre Colardeau, French poet (b. 1732)
April 19 – Jacob Emden, leading German rabbi and talmudist who championed Orthodox Judaism (b. 1697)
April 20 – Olivier de Vézin (b. 1707)
April 29 – Edward Wortley Montagu, English traveller and writer (b. 1713)
May 4 – Jacques Saly, French sculptor (b. 1717)
May 6 – James Kent, English organist and composer (b. 1700)
May 7 – Duchess Maria Anna Josepha of Bavaria, Duchess of Bavaria by birth and Margravine of Baden-Baden by marriage (b. 1734)
May 23 – Jeanne Julie Éléonore de Lespinasse, French salon holder (b. 1732)
May 25 – Richard FitzWilliam, 6th Viscount FitzWilliam (b. 1711)
May 30 – Albert Frick, German theologian (b. 1714)
June 2 – Continental Army General John Thomas, from smallpox (b. 1724)
June 13 – Elizabeth Scott, British-American poet and Christian hymnwriter (b. 1708)
June 20 – Benjamin Huntsman, English inventor, manufacturer (b. 1704)
July 7 – Jeremiah Markland, English classical scholar (b. 1693)
July 10 – Richard Peters, English-born American clergyman (b. 1704)
July 15 – Richard Bampfylde, British politician (b. 1722)
July 16 – Countess Palatine Francisca Christina of Sulzbach, Princess-abbess of Essen Abbey and Thorn Abbey (b. 1696)
July 21 – Benedicta Margareta von Löwendal, German industrialist (b. 1683)
August 2 – Louis François, Prince of Conti, French military leader (b. 1717)
August 14 – Charles Cathcart, 9th Lord Cathcart (b. 1721)
August 25 – David Hume, Scottish philosopher (b. 1711)
August 27 – William Stark, Revolutionary War era officer (b. 1724)
August 29 – Joseph Arnold, pre-revolutionary resident of North Kingstown and Exeter (b. 1710)
September 1 – Angelica Le Gru Perotti, Italian woman painter of the Rococo (b. 1719)
September 6 – Chamaraja Wodeyar VIII, twentieth maharaja of the Kingdom of Mysore from 1770 to 1776 (b. 1759)
September 22 – Nathan Hale, American Revolutionary War captain, writer and patriot (executed) (b. 1755)
September 24 – Charles Cadogan, 2nd Baron Cadogan, Anglo-Irish peer (b. 1685)
September 28 – Cadwallader Colden, physician (b. 1688)
October 3 – Ay?e Sultan, Ottoman princess (b. 1713)
October 10 – Karl Gotthelf von Hund, German Freemason (b. 1722)
October 15 – John Ellis, naturalist (b. 1710)
October 17 – Pierre François le Courayer, French theologian (b. 1681)
October 28 – Princess Sophie of Saxe-Hildburghausen, Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen by birth (b. 1760)
October 30 – Simón de Anda y Salazar, Spanish Basque governor of the Philippines from July (b. 1709)
November 15 – Fernando de Silva, 12th Duke of Alba, Spanish duke (b. 1714)
November 17 – James Ferguson, Scottish astronomer (b. 1710)
November 23 – Théophile de Bordeu, French physician (b. 1722)
December 5 – Elizabeth Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, British duchess; Lady of the Bedchamber (b. 1716)
December 10 – Robert Hay Drummond, Archbishop of York (b. 1711)
December 13 – Victor-Thérèse Charpentier (b. 1732)
December 25 – John Gabriel Jones, colonial American pioneer and politician (b. 1752) date unknown – Muhammad al-Warghi, Tunisian writer and poet (b. c. 1713)
January 10 – Spranger Barry, Irish actor (b. 1719)
January 12 – Hugh Mercer, American Revolutionary War officer, mortally wounded in battle (b. 1726)
January 13 – James Rait, Anglican clergyman, Scottish Episcopal Church Bishop of Brechin 1742-1777 (b. 1689)
January 27 – Hubert de Brienne, French naval commander (b. 1690)
January 30 – Enrichetta d'Este, Duchess of Parma (b. 1702)
February 11 – Sir Gilbert Elliot, 3rd Baronet, of Minto, Scottish statesman, philosopher and poet (b. 1722)
February 24 – King Joseph I of Portugal (b. 1714)
February 28 – Joab Hoisington, American major (b. 1736)
March 2 – Empress Xiaoshengxian, mother of the Chinese Qianlong Emperor of China (b. 1692)
March 4 – Pierre-Herman Dosquet, 4th bishop of Quebec (b. 1691)
March 6 – Jeremias Friedrich Reuß, German theologian (b. 1700)
March 10 – John the Painter, British criminal (b. 1752)
March 20 – Jean-François-Joseph de Rochechouart, French Roman Catholic Cardinal (b. 1708)
March 23 – Sir Hugh Paterson, 2nd Baronet, Scottish Jacobite and Member of the Parliament of Great Britain (b. 1685) March 31 – Richard Terrick, Church of England clergyman, Bishop of Peterborough 1757-1764 and Bishop of London 1764-1777 (b. 1710)
April 7 – Anna Chamber, British noblewoman and poet (b. 1709)
April 29 – Antonio Joli, Italian painter of vedute and capricci (b. 1700)
May 5 – Raphael Hayyim Isaac Carregal, Palestinian rabbi preaching in the Americas (b. 1733)
May 7 – Jean-Baptiste Nicolas Roch de Ramezay, marine captain and colonial administrator in New France (b. 1708)
May 9 – Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Aylesford, Member of the Parliament of Great Britain (b. 1715)
May 11 – George Pigot, 1st Baron Pigot, British governor of Madras (b. 1719)
May 19 – Button Gwinnett, a signatory of the American Declaration of Independence (b. 1735)
May 22 – David Wooster, American general in the French and Indian War and in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1711)
May 28 – William Douglas, American military officer, leading regiments from Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1742)
May 31 – Henry Fane of Wormsley, English politician (b. 1703)
June 8 – Cornelia Schlosser, sister and only sibling of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe to survive to adulthood (b. 1750) June 21 – Georg Friedrich Meier, German philosopher and aesthetician (b. 1718)
July 4 – Consort Shu, consort of the Chinese Qianlong Emperor (b. 1728)
July 13 – Guillaume Coustou the Younger, French artist (b. 1716)
August 23 – Celia Grillo Borromeo, Italian scientist, mathematician (b. 1684)
August 30 – John Clavering, British Army officer (b. 1722)
September 7 – Tekle Haymanot II, emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1754)
September 16 – Simon Harcourt, 1st Earl Harcourt, English landowner, diplomat, general and Viceroy of India (b. 1714)
September 18 – Princess Amalia of Nassau-Dietz, wife of Frederick (b. 1710)
September 19 – Infante Philip, Duke of Calabria (b. 1747)
September 20 – Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk, British peer (b. 1686)
September 22 – John Bartram, American botanist (b. 1699) September 25 – Johann Heinrich Lambert, Swiss mathematician, physicist and astronomer (b. 1728)
October 3 – Jeremias van Riemsdijk, Dutch colonial governor (b. 1712)
October 4 – Francis Nash, American brigadier general, killed at the Battle of Germantown (b. c. 1742)
October 6 – Marie Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin, French salon holder (b. 1699)
October 7 – Simon Fraser of Balnain, Scottish general during the American Revolutionary War, killed in battle (b. 1729)
October 21 – Samuel Foote, English dramatist and actor (b. 1720)
October 25 – Carl von Donop, Hessian colonel fighting in the American Revolutionary War (b. 1732)
October 27 – Charles Antoine de La Roche-Aymon, French cardinal-archbishop and Grand Almoner (b. 1697)
October 30 – John Hart, American militia officer during King George's War and the French and Indian War (b. 1706)
November 1 – Jonathan Hampton, American colonial surveyor (b. 1712)
November 6 – Bernard de Jussieu, French naturalist (b. 1699)
November 10 – Cornstalk, Shawnee chief (b. c. 1720)
November 13 – William Bowyer, English printer (b. 1699)
November 17 – Pratap Singh Shah, 2nd king of Nepal (b. 1751)
November 18 – Thomas Foley, 1st Baron Foley, English landowner and politician (b. 1716)
November 27 – Henry Stauffer, German settler in Bucks County, Pennsylvania (b. 1724)
December 9 – Sir Charles Knowles, 1st Baronet, British Royal Navy officer (b. c. 1704)
December 12 – Albrecht von Haller, Swiss anatomist and physiologist (b. 1708)
December 25 – Charles Chauncey, English physician (b. 1706)
December 27 – Frederick Keppel, Church of England clergyman (b. 1728)
December 30 – Maximilian III Joseph, Elector of Bavaria, Prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Bavaria 1745-1777 (b. 1727) October 22 – Friedrich Baum, German dragoon Lieutenant Colonel of Brunswick in British service during the American Revolutionary War (b. 1748)
January 10 – Carl Linnaeus, Swedish botanist (b. 1707)
February 18 – Joseph Marie Terray, French statesman (b. 1715)
February 20 – Laura Bassi, Italian physicist and academic (b. 1711)
February 27 – Alexander Murray of Elibank, fourth son of Alexander Murray (b. 1712)
March 5 – Thomas Arne, English composer of Rule, Britannia! (b. 1710)
March 7 – Charles De Geer, Swedish industrialist and entomologist (b. 1720)
March 13 – Charles le Beau, French historian (b. 1701)
April 8 – Pieter Teyler van der Hulst, Dutch businessman (b. 1702)
April 22 – James Hargreaves, English weaver, carpenter, and inventor (b. 1720)
May 8 – Lorenz Christoph Mizler, German music historian, polymath (b. 1711)
May 11 – William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1708)
May 12 – Paul-Joseph Le Moyne de Longueuil, seigneur and colonial army officer in New France, governor of Trois-Rivières (b. 1701) May 16 – Robert Darcy, 4th Earl of Holderness, English diplomat and politician (b. 1718)
July 3 – Anna Maria Mozart, Austrian mother to the Mozarts (b. 1720)
July 4 – Ebenezer Kinnersley, American scientist (b. 1711)
August 5 – Charles Clémencet, French historian (b. 1703)
August 7 – Sir Thomas Cave, 5th Baronet of England (b. 1712)
August 12 – Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, British general, politician (b. 1714)
October 1 – Washington Shirley, 5th Earl Ferrers, British Royal Navy admiral (b. 1722)
October 6 – George Hay, British politician (b. 1715)
October 11 – Saliha Sultan, daughter of Ottoman Sultan (b. 1715)
October 24 – Henry Ernest of Stolberg-Wernigerode, German politician, provost and author (b. 1716)
November 11 – Anne Steele, English hymnwriter and essayist (b. 1717) 
November 20 – Francesco Cetti, Italian Jesuit scientist (b. 1726)
December 26 – Pedro Antonio de Cevallos, Spanish military Governor of Buenos Aires (1757–1766) (b. 1715)
December 30 – Constantine, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg (b. 1716) date unknown – Thomas Johnson, English furniture maker (b. 1714)
January 3 – Claude Bourgelat, French veterinary surgeon (b. 1712)
January 20 – David Garrick, English actor (b. 1717)
January 22 – Jeremiah Dixon, English surveyor, astronomer (b. 1733)
February 7 – William Boyce, English composer (b. 1711)
February 14 – James Cook, British naval captain and explorer (b. 1728)
February 24 – Paul Daniel Longolius, German encyclopedist (b. 1704)
April 7 – Martha Ray (b. 1742), British singer and mistress of John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich (murdered) (b. 1742)
April 9 – Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa, Spanish military officer (b. 1717)
April 24 – Eleazar Wheelock, American founder of Dartmouth College (b. 1711)
May 1 – Sarah Clayton, English industrialist (b. 1712)
May 3 – John Winthrop, American astronomer (b. 1714)
June 7 – William Warburton, English critic, Bishop of Gloucester (b. 1698)
June 10 – Jane Gomeldon, English writer, poet and adventurer (b. 1720)
June 16 – Sir Francis Bernard, 1st Baronet, Colonial governor of New Jersey and Massachusetts Bay (b. 1712)
June 23 – Ras Mikael Sehul, Enderase of Ethiopia
June 28 – Martha Daniell Logan, American botanist (b. 1704)
June 29 – Anton Raphael Mengs, German-Bohemian painter (b. 1728)
July 21 – Caleb Fleming, English dissenting minister, polemicist (b. 1698)
August 26 – Henrika Juliana von Liewen, Swedish political salonnière (b. 1709)
September 12 – Richard Grenville-Temple, 2nd Earl Temple, English politician (b. 1711)
October 11 – Kazimierz Pu?aski, veteran commander of Polish, Russian, and American troops (b. 1745)
November 16 – Pehr Kalm, Finnish explorer and naturalist (b. 1716)
December 6 – Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin, French painter (b. 1699)
December 8 – Nathan Alcock, English physician (b. 1707)
December 16 – Emperor Go-Momozono of Japan (b. 1758)
December 17 – Giuseppe Carcani, Italian composer (b. 1703) December 23 – Augustus Hervey, 3rd Earl of Bristol, British admiral and politician (b. 1724)
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