1975 Pacific Typhoon Season
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1975 Pacific Typhoon Season
1975 Pacific typhoon season
1975 Pacific typhoon season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedJanuary 20, 1975
Last system dissipatedDecember 30, 1975
Strongest storm
NameJune
 o Maximum winds295 km/h (185 mph)
(1-minute sustained)
 o Lowest pressure875 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions39
Total storms21
Typhoons14
Super typhoons3 (unofficial)
Total fatalities>229,195
Total damage> $1.35 billion (1975 USD)
Related articles

The 1975 Pacific typhoon season was one of the deadliest tropical cyclone seasons on record, with nearly 230,000 fatalities occurring during the season. It had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1975, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical Storms formed in the entire west pacific basin were assigned a name by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Tropical depressions in this basin have the "W" suffix added to their number. Tropical depressions that enter or form in the Philippine area of responsibility are assigned a name by the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration or PAGASA. This can often result in the same storm having two names.

Some of the notable storms here are Typhoon Nina, which caused the Banqiao Dam flood, which resulted in approximately 229,000 people dead, and Super Typhoon June, which was the strongest storm on record with a pressure of 875 mbar, until beaten by Typhoon Tip in 1979 with 870 mbar.

Systems

Typhoon Phyllis (1975)Typhoon Rita (1975)Typhoon Nina (1975)Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale

25 tropical depressions formed this year in the Western Pacific, of which 20 became tropical storms. 14 storms reached typhoon intensity, of which 3 reached super typhoon strength.[1]

Typhoon Lola (Auring)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationJanuary 20 - January 28
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Lola (Auring) was a very early typhoon. It made landfall on Mindanao as a minimal typhoon on January 24 and transversed the southern Philippines as a tropical storm. Lola crossed the South China Sea before stalling in the open sea and dissipating on January 28. The typhoon caused 30 casualties from mudslides and heavy rain.

Tropical Depression 02W

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationApril 22 - April 28
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (1-min)  1004 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression 02W formed over the Philippines and crossed them before dissipating over the South China Sea.

Tropical Storm Mamie

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 24 - July 30
Peak intensity75 km/h (45 mph) (1-min)  992 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Mamie formed north of Guam, and briefly attained tropical storm status before weakening. It then passed south of Japan as a tropical depression before dissipating just south of Korea.

Typhoon Nina (Bebeng)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 30 - August 5
Peak intensity250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min)  900 hPa (mbar)

Nina was a short-lived but rapidly intensifying typhoon. After forming on July 30, it struck Taiwan at super typhoon intensity. It stayed a typhoon during its passage over the island, causing 25 fatalities and widespread damage. It emerged into the Formosa Strait and weakened to a tropical storm. Nina headed inland. Its moisture interacted with a cold front, causing a huge amount of rainfall. The rainfall contributed to the bursting of the Banqiao Dam, causing the deaths of at least 229,000 people.

Tropical Depression 05W (Karing)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 4 - August 7
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  998 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression 05W (Karing) formed east-northeast of the Philippines and traveled north then northwest before dissipating off the coast of China.

Typhoon Ora (Diding)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 9 - August 15
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Ora first developed as an weak circulation on August 9th. The influence of a nearby upper-level trough allowed it to intensify from a depression to a Category 1 typhoon in 30 hours. The typhoon passed Okinawa before making landfall in China near Wenzhou. It dissipated over land a few days later. Choppy seas caused by Ora sank a crowded motorboat near Leyte, killing 15 people.[2]

Typhoon Rita

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 9 - August 24
Peak intensity150 km/h (90 mph) (1-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

Rita formed August 17 and erratically headed north and affected the Ry?ky? Islands. Rita then made landfall on Shikoku as a moderately strong Category 1 typhoon. It moved along the entire length of Japan, weakening to a depression. Rita strengthened back into a tropical storm over the Kuril Islands-- an unusually northerly location-- before dissipating on August 24. At least 26 deaths can be attributed to this typhoon from the heavy flooding-- the worst in 10 years.

Typhoon Phyllis

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 12 - August 18
Peak intensity220 km/h (140 mph) (1-min)  920 hPa (mbar)

Phyllis struck the southern part of Japan on August 17 as a minimal typhoon, having weakened from a peak of 140 mph winds. Phyllis caused over 60 casualties, with landslides and flooding causing moderate to heavy damage.

Severe Tropical Storm Susan

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 25 - September 3
Peak intensity95 km/h (60 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Susan formed far southwest of Tokyo, and slowly traveled northwards, reaching tropical storm intensity before weakening and finally dissipating on the 3rd of September at sea west of Hokkaido.

Typhoon Tess

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 1 - September 10
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (1-min)  945 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Tess was first noted as a closed circulation on the 1st of September 600 nautical miles east-northeast of Saipan. The storm intensified over the next few days, becoming a typhoon on the 3rd. The cyclone reached its peak intensity on the 4th. Tess then weakened, losing typhoon status on the 8th, and dissipating over the Sea of Irkutsk on the 10th, being absorbed into a frontal system.[3]

Tropical Storm Viola (Gening)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 4 - September 8
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Storm Viola formed at sea east of the Philippines and tracked northeast before dissipating four days later.

Typhoon Winnie

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 8 - September 12
Peak intensity120 km/h (75 mph) (1-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Winnie was first detected as a disturbance on the 5th of September, but it did not become a circulation until the 8th. Winnie tracked northwards, becoming a category 1 typhoon, but an unfavorable environment prevented it from intensifying further. It became extratropical on the 12th.[4]

Typhoon Alice (Herming)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 15 - September 21
Peak intensity140 km/h (85 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon Alice(Not to be confused with Typhoon Alice from 1979) hit the Philippine island of Luzon, It weakened over the South China Sea then struck China and Vietnam as a tropical storm, Then it finally dissipated over Thailand.

Typhoon Betty (Ising)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 - September 24
Peak intensity175 km/h (110 mph) (1-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Betty hit Taiwan and China.

Typhoon Cora (Luding)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 3 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 29 - October 7
Peak intensity195 km/h (120 mph) (1-min)  945 hPa (mbar)

Cora re-curved east of Japan.

Severe Tropical Storm Doris

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 2 - October 8
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Doris hit China as a high-end tropical storm.

Typhoon Elsie (Mameng)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 4 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 8 - October 15
Peak intensity250 km/h (155 mph) (1-min)  900 hPa (mbar)

This storm ultimately hit Hong Kong.

Tropical Depression 18W

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 15 - October 16
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (10-min)  1002 hPa (mbar)

18W dissipated near the Philippines. 18W Did not affect land.

Typhoon Flossie (Neneng)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 1 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 17 - October 23
Peak intensity130 km/h (80 mph) (1-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

Flossie struck the extreme southern part of China at Category 1 intensity. 44 people were lost from 2 freighters sinking.

Severe Tropical Storm Grace (Oniang)

Severe tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 23 - November 2
Peak intensity110 km/h (70 mph) (1-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

Grace moved northwest away from the Philippines.

Tropical Storm Helen (Pepang)

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 1 - November 4
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Helen hit Vietnam and The Philippines.

Typhoon Ida

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 2 typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 5 - November 11
Peak intensity155 km/h (100 mph) (1-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Ida recurved out to sea.

Typhoon June (Rosing)

Typhoon (JMA)
Category 5 super typhoon (SSHWS)
DurationNovember 16 - November 24
Peak intensity295 km/h (185 mph) (1-min)  875 hPa (mbar)

Typhoon June was the strongest storm of the season, but it had no effect on land. At the time, June was tied for the strongest typhoon on record, and tropical cyclone worldwide, with a minimum central pressure of 875 millibars. June was also the first recorded case of a typhoon with triple eyewalls.[5]

Tropical Storm 25W

Tropical storm (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationDecember 25 - December 30
Peak intensity65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

25W formed in the South China Sea.

Tropical Depression 24W (Sisang)

Tropical depression (JMA)
Tropical depression (SSHWS)
DurationDecember 26 - December 30
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  1002 hPa (mbar)

A late season tropical depression affected the Philippines before turning back toward the ocean and dissipated out at sea.

Storm names

International

Western North Pacific tropical cyclones were named by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center. The first storm of 1975 was named Lola and the final one was named June.

  • Agnes
  • Bonnie
  • Carmen
  • Della
  • Elaine
  • Faye
  • Gloria
  • Hester
  • Irma
  • Judy
  • Kit
  • Lola 1W
  • Mamie 3W
  • Nina 4W
  • Ora 6W
  • Phyllis 7Ws
  • Rita 8W
  • Susan 9W
  • Tess 10W
  • Viola 11W
  • Winnie 12W
  • Alice 13W
  • Betty 14W
  • Cora 15W
  • Doris 16W
  • Elsie 17W
  • Flossie 19W
  • Grace 20W
  • Helen 21W
  • Ida 22W
  • June 23W
  • Kathy
  • Lorna
  • Marie
  • Nancy
  • Olga
  • Pamela
  • Ruby
  • Sally
  • Therese
  • Violet
  • Wilda
  • Anita
  • Billie
  • Clara
  • Dot
  • Ellen
  • Fran
  • Georgia
  • Hope
  • Iris
  • Joan
  • Kate
  • Louise
  • Marge
  • Nora
  • Opal
  • Patsy
  • Ruth
  • Sarah
  • Thelma
  • Vera
  • Wanda
  • Amy
  • Babe
  • Carla
  • Dinah
  • Emma
  • Freda
  • Gilda
  • Harriet
  • Ivy
  • Jean
  • Kim
  • Lucy
  • Mary
  • Nadine
  • Olive
  • Polly
  • Rose
  • Shirley
  • Trix
  • Virginia
  • Wendy

Philippines

Auring Bebeng Karing Diding Etang
Gening Herming Ising Luding Mameng
Neneng Oniang Pepang Rosing Sisang
Trining (unused) Uring (unused) Warling (unused) Yayang (unused)
Auxiliary list
Ading (unused)
Barang (unused) Krising (unused) Dadang (unused) Erling (unused) Goying (unused)

The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration uses its own naming scheme for tropical cyclones in their area of responsibility. PAGASA assigns names to tropical depressions that form within their area of responsibility and any tropical cyclone that might move into their area of responsibility. Should the list of names for a given year prove to be insufficient, names are taken from an auxiliary list, the first 6 of which are published each year before the season starts. Names not retired from this list will be used again in the 1979 season. This is the same list used for the 1971 season. PAGASA uses its own naming scheme that starts in the Filipino alphabet, with names of Filipino female names ending with "ng" (A, B, K, D, etc.). Names that were not assigned/going to use are marked in gray.

Season effects

This table will list all the storms that developed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line and north of the equator during 1975. It will include their intensity, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, and damage totals. Classification and intensity values will be based on estimations conducted by the JMA, the JTWC, and/or PAGASA. Peak wind speeds are in one-minute sustained standards unless otherwise noted. All damage figures will be in 1975 USD. Damages and deaths from a storm will include when the storm was a precursor wave or an extratropical low.


Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Lola (Auring) January 20 - 28 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) Philippines Unknown 30
02W April 22 - 28 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) Philippines None None
TD April 28 - 30 Tropical depression Not specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) Philippines None None
TD June 16 - 19 Tropical depression Not specified 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) South China, Vietnam None None
TD July 4 - 6 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) None None None
TD July 4 - 5 Tropical depression Not specified 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
TD July 23 - 26 Tropical depression Not specified 1012 hPa (29.89 inHg) None None None
Mamie July 24 - 30 Tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Japan None None
Nina (Bebeng) July 30 - August 5 Typhoon 250 km/h (155 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, East China $1.2 billion 229,000
05W (Karing) August 4 - 7 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Taiwan None None
Ora (Diding) August 9 - 15 Typhoon 250 km/h (155 mph) 900 hPa (28.79 inHg) Taiwan, Ryukyu Islands, East China None None
TD August 9 Tropical depression Not specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Philippines None None
Rita August 9 - 24 Typhoon 150 km/h (90 mph) 965 hPa (28.50 inHg) China, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Japan $114 million} 33
Phyllis August 12 - 18 Typhoon 220 km/h (140 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Japan $37 million 88
TD August 14 - 17 Tropical depression Not specified 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Ryukyu Islands None None
TD August 23 - 26 Tropical depression Not specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) South China, Vietnam None None
Susan August 25 - September 3 Severe tropical storm 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Japan None None
TD August 27 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) None None None
TD August 28 - 31 Tropical depression Not specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) South China, Vietnam None None
Tess September 1 - 10 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 945 hPa (27.91 inHg) None None None
Viola (Gening) September 4 - 8 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) None None None
TD September 6 - 9 Tropical depression Not specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Vietnam, Laos None None
Winnie September 8 - 12 Typhoon 120 km/h (75 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) None None None
TD September 12 - 14 Tropical depression Not specified 1012 hPa (29.89 inHg) None None None
Alice (Herming) September 15 - 21 Typhoon 140 km/h (85 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Philippines, South China, Vietnam, Laos Unknown Unknown
Betty (Ising) September 17 - 24 Typhoon 175 km/h (110 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Taiwan, East China Unknown Unknown
TD September 23 - 24 Tropical depression Not specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) None None None
Cora (Luding) September 29 - October 7 Typhoon 195 km/h (120 mph) 945 hPa (27.91 inHg) Ryukyu Islands, Japan None None
Doris October 2 - 8 Severe tropical storm 100 km/h (65 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) China Unknown Unknown
Elsie (Mameng) October 8 - 15 Typhoon 250 km/h (155 mph) 900 hPa (26.58 inHg) Philippines, Taiwan, South China Unknown Unknown
18W October 15 - 16 Tropical depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Taiwan None None
Flossie (Neneng) October 17 - 23 Typhoon 130 km/h (80 mph) 970 hPa (28.64 inHg) Philippines, South China Unknown 44
Grace (Oyang) October 23 - November 2 Severe tropical storm 110 km/h (70 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) None None None
TD October 25 - 27 Tropical depression Not specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) Mariana Islands None None
Helen (Pepang) November 1 - 4 Tropical storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia None None
Ida November 5 - 11 Typhoon 155 km/h (100 mph) 950 hPa (28.05 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands None None
June (Rosing) November 16 - 24 Typhoon 295 km/h (185 mph) 875 hPa (25.84 inHg) Caroline Islands, Mariana Islands None None
25W December 25 - 30 Tropical storm 55 km/h (35 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Philippines None None
24W (Sisang) December 26 - 30 Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Philippines None None
Season aggregates
39 systems January 20 - December 30 295 km/h (185 mph) 875 hPa (25.84 inHg) >$1.35 billion >229,135

See also

References

  1. ^ 1975 ATCR TABLE OF CONTENTS Archived 2011-06-06 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ "1975 Annual Typhoon Report" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "1975 Annual Typhoon Report" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ "1975 Annual Typhoon Report" (PDF). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Shanmin, Chen (1987). "Preliminary analysis on the structure and intensity of concentric double-eye typhoons". Advances in Atmospheric Sciences. 4 (1): 113-118. Bibcode:1987AdAtS...4..113C. doi:10.1007/BF02656667.

External links


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