2000 Spanish General Election
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2000 Spanish General Election
2000 Spanish general election

← 1996 12 March 2000 2004 →

All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies and 208 (of 259) seats in the Senate
176 seats needed for a majority in the Congress of Deputies
Opinion polls
Registered33,969,640 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4.4%
Turnout23,339,490 (68.7%)
Red Arrow Down.svg8.7 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  José María Aznar 1999 (cropped).jpg Joaquin Almunia 2002 (cropped).jpg Xavier Trias 2011 (cropped).jpg
Leader José María Aznar Joaquín Almunia Xavier Trias
Party PP PSOE-p CiU
Leader since 4 September 1989 21 June 1997 20 August 1999
Leader's seat Madrid Madrid Barcelona
Last election 156 seats, 38.8% 141 seats, 37.6% 16 seats, 4.6%
Seats won 183 125 15
Seat change Green Arrow Up Darker.svg27 Red Arrow Down.svg16 Red Arrow Down.svg1
Popular vote 10,321,178 7,918,752 970,421
Percentage 44.5% 34.2% 4.2%
Swing Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5.7 pp Red Arrow Down.svg3.4 pp Red Arrow Down.svg0.4 pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Francisco Frutos 2005 (cropped).jpg 2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg Portrait placeholder.svg
Leader Francisco Frutos Iñaki Anasagasti José Carlos Mauricio
Party IU EAJ/PNV CC
Leader since 7 December 1998 1986 1996
Leader's seat Madrid Biscay Las Palmas
Last election 19 seats, 9.4%[a] 5 seats, 1.3% 4 seats, 0.9%
Seats won 8 7 4
Seat change Red Arrow Down.svg11 Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Popular vote 1,263,043 353,953 248,261
Percentage 5.4% 1.5% 1.1%
Swing Red Arrow Down.svg3.9 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.2 pp Green Arrow Up Darker.svg0.2 pp

2000 Spanish election - Results.svg
2000 Spanish election - AC results.svg

The 2000 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 12 March 2000, to elect the 7th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain. All 350 seats in the Congress of Deputies were up for election, as well as 208 of 259 seats in the Senate.

The incumbent People's Party (PP) of Prime Minister José María Aznar secured an unpredicted absolute majority in the Congress of Deputies, obtaining 183 out of 350 seats and increasing its margin of victory with the opposition Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) to 2.4 million votes.[1] The PSOE did not profit from a pre-election agreement with United Left (IU) and lost 1.6 million votes and 16 seats, coupled to the 1.4 million votes and 13 seats lost by IU. Such an alliance was said to prompt tactical voting for the PP, which also benefited from economic growth, a moderate stance throughout the legislature and internal struggles within the opposition parties. For the first time since the Spanish transition to democracy, the PP results exceeded the combined totals for PSOE and IU.[2] PSOE leader Joaquín Almunia announced his resignation immediately after results were known.[3]

Regional and peripheral nationalist parties improved their results, except for Convergence and Union (CiU)--which had been in electoral decline for a decade--and Herri Batasuna/Euskal Herritarrok (EH), which urged to boycott the election and called for their supporters to abstain in the Basque Country and Navarre.[4][5] The Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) benefitted from EH's absence and gained two seats, whereas both Canarian Coalition (CC) and the Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) had strong showings in their respective regions. Initiative for Catalonia (IC), which had split from IU in 1997, clinged on to parliamentary representation but suffered from the electoral competition with United and Alternative Left (EUiA), IU's newly-founded regional branch in Catalonia which failed to secure any seat. This would be the first and only general election to date in which both parties would contest each other.

This election featured some notable feats: this was the first absolute majority the PP obtained in a general election, with its best result in both popular vote share and seats up until then, a result only exceeded in 2011. In contrast, the PSOE got its worst election result in 21 years. This was also the second time a party received more than 10 million votes, the last time being in 1982, when 10.1 million voters voted for Felipe González's PSOE. The voters' turnout registered was one of the lowest in democratic Spain for Spanish election standards, with only 68.7% of the electorate casting a vote.

Overview

Electoral system

The Spanish Cortes Generales were envisaged as an imperfect bicameral system. The Congress of Deputies had greater legislative power than the Senate, having the ability to vote confidence in or withdraw it from a prime minister and to override Senate vetoes by an absolute majority of votes. Nonetheless, the Senate possessed a few exclusive, yet limited in number functions--such as its role in constitutional amendment--which were not subject to the Congress' override.[6][7] Voting for the Cortes Generales was on the basis of universal suffrage, which comprised all nationals over eighteen and in full enjoyment of their political rights.[8]

For the Congress of Deputies, 348 seats were elected using the D'Hondt method and a closed list proportional representation, with an electoral threshold of three percent of valid votes--which included blank ballots--being applied in each constituency. Seats were allocated to constituencies, corresponding to the provinces of Spain, with each being allocated an initial minimum of two seats and the remaining 248 being distributed in proportion to their populations. Ceuta and Melilla were allocated the two remaining seats, which were elected using plurality voting.[6][9] The use of the D'Hondt method might result in a higher effective threshold, depending on the district magnitude.[10]

For the Senate, 208 seats were elected using an open list partial block voting, with electors voting for individual candidates instead of parties. In constituencies electing four seats, electors could vote for up to three candidates; in those with two or three seats, for up to two candidates; and for one candidate in single-member districts. Each of the 47 peninsular provinces was allocated four seats, whereas for insular provinces, such as the Balearic and Canary Islands, districts were the islands themselves, with the larger--Majorca, Gran Canaria and Tenerife--being allocated three seats each, and the smaller--Menorca, Ibiza-Formentera, Fuerteventura, La Gomera, El Hierro, Lanzarote and La Palma--one each. Ceuta and Melilla elected two seats each. Additionally, autonomous communities could appoint at least one senator each and were entitled to one additional senator per each million inhabitants.[6][9]

Election date

The term of each chamber of the Cortes Generales--the Congress and the Senate--expired four years from the date of their previous election, unless they were dissolved earlier. The election decree was required to be issued no later than the twenty-fifth day prior to the date of expiry of the Cortes in the event that the prime minister did not make use of his prerogative of early dissolution. The decree was to be published on the following day in the Official State Gazette (BOE), with election day taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication. The previous election was held on 3 March 1996, which meant that the legislature's term would expire on 3 March 2000. The election decree was required to be published in the BOE no later than 8 February 2000, with the election taking place on the fifty-fourth day from publication, setting the latest possible election date for the Cortes Generales on Sunday, 2 April 2000.[9][11][12]

The prime minister had the prerogative to dissolve both chambers at any given time--either jointly or separately--and call a snap election, provided that no motion of no confidence was in process, no state of emergency was in force and that dissolution did not occur before one year had elapsed since the previous one. Additionally, both chambers were to be dissolved and a new election called if an investiture process failed to elect a prime minister within a two-month period from the first ballot.[6] Barred this exception, there was no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Congress and the Senate. Still, as of 2021 there has been no precedent of separate elections taking place under the 1978 Constitution, with governments having long preferred that elections for the two chambers of the Cortes take place simultaneously.

It was suggested that Aznar would be tempted to call a snap election after the introduction of the euro was effective at 1 January 1999.[13] Speculation arose among PP ranks and government members that an election would be called in the spring of 1999 or in June, to coincide with the scheduled local, regional and European Parliament elections.[14][15] This possibility was fueled by some remarks from the Catalan president and Convergence and Union (CiU) leader Jordi Pujol, Aznar's main parliamentary ally, that a general election would be held in 1999--a comment that he later was forced to rectify--[16][17][18] coinciding with a critical point in the PP-CiU relationship.[19][20] In the summer of 1999, a new round of speculation emerged that Aznar was considering holding an early election throughout the autumn,[21] but this was ended by Aznar re-assuring that it was his wish to exhaust the legislature and for the election to be held when due, in March 2000.[22] On 23 December 1999, it was confirmed that the general election would be held on 12 March,[23] together with the 2000 Andalusian regional election,[24][25] with the Cortes Generales being dissolved on 17 January.[26][27]

Background

On 5 May 1996, José María Aznar from the People's Party (PP) was able to form the first centre-right government in Spain since 1982 through confidence and supply agreements with Convergence and Union (CiU), the Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) and Canarian Coalition (CC).[28][29][30][31] In the 34th congress of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) held in June 1997, Felipe González, who had been prime minister from 1982 to 1996 and PSOE Secretary General since 1974, announced his intention to leave the party's leadership.[32] The party, divided at the time between González's supporters--renovadores, Spanish for "renovators"--and those following the discipline of former deputy prime minister and PSOE vice secretary general Alfonso Guerra--guerristas--, elected Joaquín Almunia, a "renovator" and former Minister of Labour and Social Security (1982-1986) and Minister for Public Administrations (1986-1991), as new Secretary General.[33][34][35] While it was suggested that González could remain as the party's candidate for prime minister in the next general election, he discarded himself out in January 1998.[36][37]

A primary election to elect the prime ministerial candidate, held among PSOE members on 24 April 1998,[38][39][40] saw Almunia, supported by González and prominent party "renovators",[41][42][43] facing Josep Borrell, the former Minister of Public Works (1991-1996) who received the backing of the guerrista faction.[44][45] Borrell defeated Almunia,[46][47] but the latter remained as the party's Secretary General in order to prevent an extraordinary congress,[48][49] a situation prompting a 'bicephaly' which would see both Borrell and Almunia clashing for months on party direction and strategy issues,[50][51][52] as the extent of each one's competences on the party's political leadership remained unclear.[53] Borrell renounced as candidate in May 1999 after it was unveiled that two of his former employees were involved in a judicial investigation for tax fraud,[54][55] leaving a vacancy that resulted in Almunia being proclaimed as candidate without opposition.[56][57]

United Left (IU) underwent a severe internal crisis throughout 1997 over Julio Anguita's confrontational attitude with the PSOE--to the point of siding with the PP in a number of votes in the Congress of Deputies--as well as with a perceived lack of democracy within IU. Anguita sought to prevent an electoral alliance between United Left-Galician Left (EU-EG) and the Socialists' Party of Galicia (PSdeG-PSOE) ahead of the 1997 Galician regional election,[58] a move which received criticism from Initiative for Catalonia (IC),[59][60] IU's sister party in Catalonia, with which disagreements over the coalition's political direction had been on the rise since the 1996 general election.[61] The Democratic Party of the New Left (PDNI), constituted as an internal current within IU which had been critical of Anguita's leadership,[62] was expelled from the alliance's governing bodies in June 1997, after party discipline in the Congress was broken on the issue of labour reform.[63][64] The IU crisis came to a peak in September 1997, which saw NI's expulsion from IU as a whole, the dissolution of the NI-controlled regional leaderships in Cantabria and Castilla-La Mancha and the break up of relations with EU-EG and IC.[65][66][67][68] The PDNI then sought electoral alliances with the PSOE,[69][70] which materialized ahead of the 1999 local, regional and European Parliament elections.[71][72][73]

The PP government relied on confidence and supply support from CiU, PNV and CC. The PNV withdrew its support from the government in June 1999,[74][75] with relations strained after the signing of the Estella Agreement between the PNV and HB in September 1998.[76] The Aragonese Party (PAR), which had been allied with the PP since the 1996 election, broke away from the PP parliamentary group in October 1999 and joined the Mixed Group.[77]

Parliamentary status

The Cortes Generales were officially dissolved on 18 January 2000, after the publication of the dissolution decree in the Official State Gazette.[78] The tables below show the status of the different parliamentary groups in both chambers at the time of dissolution.[79][80]

Parliamentary composition in January 2000[81]
Congress of Deputies
Groups Parties Deputies
Seats Total
People's Parliamentary Group in the Congress PP 153 155
UPN 2
Socialist Group of the Congress PSOE 122 141
PSC 19
United Left's Federal Parliamentary Group IU 16 16
Catalan Parliamentary Group
(Convergence and Union)
CDC 10 16
UDC 6
Basque Parliamentary Group (EAJ/PNV) EAJ/PNV 5 5
Canarian Coalition's Parliamentary Group AIC 2 4
ICAN 1
CCN 1
Mixed Parliamentary Group PDNI 3 11
BNG 2
IC-V 2
EA 1
UV 1
PAR 1
PI 1
Non-Inscrits HB 2 2
 
Parliamentary composition in January 2000[82]
Senate
Groups Parties Senators
Seats Total
People's Parliamentary Group in the Senate PP 129 132
UPN 3
Socialist Parliamentary Group PSOE 90 100
PSC 10
Convergence and Union's
Catalan Parliamentary Group in the Senate
CDC 8 11
UDC 3
Basque Nationalist Senators' Parliamentary Group EAJ/PNV 6 6
Mixed Parliamentary Group PAR 3 10
IU 2
AIC 1
AHI 1
ERC 1
Pacte 1
PIL 1

Parties and candidates

The electoral law allowed for parties and federations registered in the interior ministry, coalitions and groupings of electors to present lists of candidates. Parties and federations intending to form a coalition ahead of an election were required to inform the relevant Electoral Commission within ten days of the election call, whereas groupings of electors needed to secure the signature of at least one percent of the electorate in the constituencies for which they sought election, disallowing electors from signing for more than one list of candidates.[9]

Below is a list of the main parties and electoral alliances which contested the election:

Candidacy Parties and
alliances
Leading candidate Ideology Previous result Gov. Ref.
Votes (%) Con. Sen.
PP José María Aznar 1999 (cropped).jpg José María Aznar Conservatism
Christian democracy
38.79% 156 109 checkY [83]
PSOE-p Joaquin Almunia 2002 (cropped).jpg Joaquín Almunia Social democracy 37.63% 141 73[b] ?N [84]
[85]
IU Francisco Frutos 2005 (cropped).jpg Francisco Frutos Socialism
Communism
9.35%[a] 19 0 ?N [86]
[87]
CiU Xavier Trias 2011 (cropped).jpg Xavier Trias Catalan nationalism
Centrism
4.60% 16 8 ?N [88]
[89]
EAJ/PNV
List
2007 02 Inaki Anasagasti-2.jpg Iñaki Anasagasti Basque nationalism
Christian democracy
Conservative liberalism
1.27% 5 4 ?N
IC-V Joan Saura 2005 (cropped).jpg Joan Saura Regionalism
Eco-socialism
Green politics
1.19%[c] 2 0 ?N
CC
List
Portrait placeholder.svg José Carlos Mauricio Regionalism
Canarian nationalism
Centrism
0.88% 4 0 ?N
BNG Francisco Rodríguez Sánchez (AELG)-1.jpg Francisco Rodríguez Galician nationalism
Left-wing nationalism
Socialism
0.88% 2 0 ?N
ERC Joan Puigcercós 2010 (cropped).jpg Joan Puigcercós Catalan independence
Social democracy
0.67% 1 0 ?N [90]
PA
List
Portrait placeholder.svg José Núñez Andalusian nationalism
Social democracy
0.54% 0 0 ?N [91]
EA
List
Portrait placeholder.svg Begoña Lasagabaster Basque nationalism
Social democracy
0.46% 1 0 ?N
UV
List
Portrait placeholder.svg José María Chiquillo Blaverism
Conservatism
0.37% 1 0 ?N [92]
CHA
List
Portrait placeholder.svg José Antonio Labordeta Aragonese nationalism
Eco-socialism
0.20% 0 0 ?N
PSC-
ERC-ICV
Portrait placeholder.svg Mercedes Aroz Catalan nationalism
Social democracy
Eco-socialism
--[d] N/A 8[e] ?N [93]
[94]
[95]
PAR
List
Portrait placeholder.svg Antonio Serrano Regionalism
Centrism
Within PP[f] ?N [77]

The election was marked by the exploration of joint candidacies between the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) and other parties in the left of the political spectrum. One such example was in Catalonia, where a left-wing alliance came to fruition between the Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC), Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) and Initiative for Catalonia-Greens (IC-V) under the Catalan Agreement of Progress label,[93][94][95][96] aiming to mirror the success of a similar alliance between the PSC and IC-V in the 1999 Catalan regional election.[97][98] Ahead of the Senate election in Ibiza and Formentera, PSOE, United Left of the Balearic Islands (EUIB), The Greens (LV), Nationalist and Ecologist Agreement (ENE) and ERC formed the Pact for Ibiza and Formentera.[99][100][101]

Various attempts at forming a joint left-wing candidacy for the Senate in the Valencian Community were unsuccessful,[102][103][104] primarily due to disagreement over the label and format of such an alliance.[105][106][107][108] Nationwide, an agreement was reached between the national leaderships of PSOE and United Left, under which both parties agreed to cooperate in the Senate elections for 27 constituencies: in those districts, and taking consideration of the Senate electoral system allowing up to three votes to each voter, the PSOE would field two candidates to one from IU, with the parties urging voters to cast their votes as if it were a joint list of three.[109][110] The PSOE also offered IU a similar agreement for the Congress of Deputies, wherein IU would not run in 34 constituencies where it would unlikely win a seat on its own,[111] with a later offer reducing the number to 14.[112] These offers were both rejected.[113][114]

Basque Citizens (EH), the Basque electoral coalition including Herri Batasuna, called for election boycott and urged its supporters to abstain.[115][116][117]

Campaign period

Party slogans

Party or alliance Original slogan English translation Ref.
PP « Vamos a más » "We are going for more" [118]
PSOE-p « Lo próximo » "What comes" [119]
IU « Somos necesarios » "We are necessary" [120]
CiU « La força positiva » "The positive force" [121][122]
BNG « Galiza, coa capacidade de decidir » "Galiza, with the ability to decide" [123]

Opinion polls

Local regression trend line of poll results from 3 March 1996 to 12 March 2000, with each line corresponding to a political party.


Results

Congress of Deputies

Summary of the 12 March 2000 Congress of Deputies election results ->
SpainCongressDiagram2000.svg
Parties and coalitions Popular vote Seats
Votes % ±pp Total +/-
People's Party (PP) 10,321,178 44.52 +5.73 183 +27
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party-Progressives (PSOE-p) 7,918,752 34.16 -3.47 125 -16
United Left (IU)1 1,263,043 5.45 -3.90 8 -11
Convergence and Union (CiU) 970,421 4.19 -0.41 15 -1
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 353,953 1.53 +0.26 7 +2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 306,268 1.32 +0.44 3 +1
Canarian Coalition (CC) 248,261 1.07 +0.19 4 ±0
Andalusian Party (PA) 206,255 0.89 +0.35 1 +1
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 194,715 0.84 +0.17 1 ±0
Initiative for Catalonia-Greens (IC-V)2 119,290 0.51 -0.68 1 -1
Basque Solidarity (EA) 100,742 0.43 -0.03 1 ±0
Aragonese Union (CHA) 75,356 0.33 +0.13 1 +1
Liberal Independent Group (GIL) 72,162 0.31 New 0 ±0
The Greens (Verdes)3 70,906 0.31 +0.15 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Bloc-The Greens-Valencians for Change (BNV-EV)4 58,551 0.25 +0.06 0 ±0
Valencian Union (UV) 57,830 0.25 -0.12 0 -1
Leonese People's Union (UPL) 41,690 0.18 +0.13 0 ±0
Aragonese Party (PAR) 38,883 0.17 New 0 ±0
Centrist Union-Democratic and Social Centre (UC-CDS) 23,576 0.10 -0.08 0 ±0
PSM-Nationalist Agreement (PSM-EN) 23,482 0.10 ±0.00 0 ±0
The Eco-pacifist Greens (LVEP) 22,220 0.10 New 0 ±0
The Greens of the Community of Madrid (LVCM) 21,087 0.09 +0.06 0 ±0
The Greens-Green Group (LV-GV) 20,618 0.09 +0.02 0 ±0
Humanist Party (PH) 19,683 0.08 +0.03 0 ±0
Commoners' Land-Castilian Nationalist Party (TC-PNC) 18,290 0.08 +0.06 0 ±0
Natural Law Party (PLN) 17,372 0.07 New 0 ±0
The Phalanx (FE) 14,431 0.06 New 0 ±0
Asturian Renewal Union (URAS) 13,360 0.06 New 0 ±0
Communist Party of the Peoples of Spain (PCPE) 12,898 0.06 ±0.00 0 ±0
Internationalist Socialist Workers' Party (POSI) 12,208 0.05 +0.04 0 ±0
The Greens-Green Alternative (EV-AV) 11,579 0.05 New 0 ±0
Lanzarote Independents Party (PIL) 10,323 0.04 New 0 ±0
Spain 2000 Platform (ES2000) 9,562 0.04 New 0 ±0
Spanish Democratic Party (PADE) 9,136 0.04 New 0 ±0
Convergence of Democrats of Navarre (CDN) 8,646 0.04 -0.03 0 ±0
Majorcan Union-Independents of Menorca (UM-INME) 8,372 0.04 +0.01 0 ±0
Andalusian Left (IA) 8,175 0.04 New 0 ±0
Independent Spanish Phalanx-Phalanx 2000 (FEI-FE 2000) 6,621 0.03 +0.02 0 ±0
Localist Bloc of Melilla (BLM) 6,514 0.03 New 0 ±0
Riojan Party (PR) 6,155 0.03 +0.01 0 ±0
Asturianist Party (PAS) 5,876 0.03 -0.02 0 ±0
Regionalist Unity of Castile and León (URCL) 5,683 0.02 ±0.00 0 ±0
United Extremadura (EU) 4,771 0.02 New 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed and Professionals (AUTONOMO) 4,218 0.02 New 0 ±0
Independent Candidacy-The Party of Castile and León (CI-PCL) 4,184 0.02 New 0 ±0
Catalan State (EC) 3,356 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andalusian Nation (NA) 3,262 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Galician Democracy (DG) 2,958 0.01 New 0 ±0
Republican Action (AR) 2,858 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Party of the Democratic Karma (PKD) 2,759 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andalusia Assembly (A) 2,727 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed, Retirees and Independents (EL-PAPI) 2,713 0.01 New 0 ±0
Extremaduran Coalition (PREx-CREx) 2,371 0.01 -0.02 0 ±0
Galician Coalition (CG) 2,361 0.01 New 0 ±0
Zamoran People's Union (UPZ) 2,347 0.01 New 0 ±0
Galician People's Front (FPG) 2,252 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Carlist Party (PC) 2,131 0.01 New 0 ±0
Salamanca-Zamora-León-PREPAL (PREPAL) 2,118 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Cantabrian Nationalist Council (CNC) 2,103 0.01 New 0 ±0
Andecha Astur (AA) 2,036 0.01 New 0 ±0
Self-employed Spanish Party (PEDA) 1,904 0.01 New 0 ±0
Internationalist Struggle (LI (LIT-CI)) 1,716 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party Association of Widows and Legal Wives (PAVIEL) 1,690 0.01 New 0 ±0
Republican Left-Left Republican Party (IR-PRE) 1,541 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of Self-employed, Retirees and Widows (PAE) 1,462 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Independent Salamancan Union (USI) 1,416 0.01 New 0 ±0
Independent Socialists of Extremadura (SIEx) 1,412 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Madrilenian Independent Regional Party (PRIM) 1,363 0.01 ±0.00 0 ±0
Caló Nationalist Party (PNCA) 1,331 0.01 New 0 ±0
Party of El Bierzo (PB) 1,191 0.01 +0.01 0 ±0
Asturian Left Bloc (BIA) 1,085 0.00 New 0 ±0
Aragonese Initiative (INAR) 1,057 0.00 New 0 ±0
Progressives of Canaries Unity (UP-CAN) 980 0.00 New 0 ±0
Valencian Nationalist Left (ENV) 920 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Almerian Regionalist Union (URAL) 838 0.00 New 0 ±0
Socialist Party of the People of Ceuta (PSPC) 788 0.00 -0.01 0 ±0
European Nation State (N) 710 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Liberal and Social Democratic Coalition (CSD-L) 650 0.00 New 0 ±0
Citizens' Convergence of the South-East (CCSE) 645 0.00 New 0 ±0
Federal Progressives (PF) 609 0.00 New 0 ±0
New Region (NR) 598 0.00 -0.01 0 ±0
Christian Positivist Party (PPCr) 546 0.00 New 0 ±0
Balearic People's Union (UPB) 524 0.00 New 0 ±0
Voice of the Andalusian People (VDPA) 493 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Independent Initiative (II) 425 0.00 New 0 ±0
Regionalist Party of Guadalajara (PRGU) 400 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Iberian Union (UNIB) 388 0.00 New 0 ±0
New Force (FN) 343 0.00 New 0 ±0
Social and Autonomist Liberal Group (ALAS) 339 0.00 ±0.00 0 ±0
Balearic Islands Renewal Party (PRIB) 334 0.00 New 0 ±0
Pensionist Assembly of the Canaries (TPC) 319 0.00 New 0 ±0
National Union (UN) 314 0.00 New 0 ±0
Cives (Cives) 206 0.00 New 0 ±0
Movement for Humanist Socialism (MASH) 121 0.00 New 0 ±0
Democratic Party of the People (PDEP) 85 0.00 New 0 ±0
Nationalist Aprome (Aprome) 60 0.00 New 0 ±0
Basque Citizens (EH)5 0 0.00 -0.72 0 -2
Blank ballots 366,823 1.58 +0.61
Total 23,181,290 350 ±0
Valid votes 23,181,290 99.32 -0.18
Invalid votes 158,200 0.68 +0.18
Votes cast / turnout 23,339,490 68.71 -8.67
Abstentions 10,630,150 31.29 +8.67
Registered voters 33,969,640
Sources[124][125]
Popular vote
PP
44.52%
PSOE-p
34.16%
IU
5.45%
CiU
4.19%
EAJ/PNV
1.53%
BNG
1.32%
CC
1.07%
PA
0.89%
ERC
0.84%
IC-V
0.51%
EA
0.43%
CHA
0.33%
Others
3.18%
Blank ballots
1.58%
Seats
PP
52.29%
PSOE-p
35.71%
CiU
4.29%
IU
2.29%
EAJ/PNV
2.00%
CC
1.14%
BNG
0.89%
PA
0.29%
ERC
0.29%
IC-V
0.29%
EA
0.29%
CHA
0.29%

Senate

Summary of the 12 March 2000 Senate of Spain election results ->
SpainSenateDiagram2000.svg
Parties and coalitions Directly
elected
Reg.
app.
Total
Seats +/-
People's Party (PP) 127 +18 23 150
People's Party (PP) 123 +17 23 146
Navarrese People's Union (UPN) 3 ±0 0 3
Melillan People's Union (UPM) 1 +1 0 1
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party-Progressives (PSOE-p) 53 -20 16 69
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) 53 -20 15 68
Democratic Party of the New Left (PDNI) 0 ±0 1 1
Catalan Agreement of Progress (PSC-ERC-IC-V) 8 ±0 3 11
Socialists' Party of Catalonia-Citizens for Change (PSC-CpC) 7 -1 2 9
Republican Left of Catalonia (ERC) 1 +1 1 2
Initiative for Catalonia-Greens (IC-V) 0 ±0 0 0
Convergence and Union (CiU) 8 ±0 3 11
Democratic Convergence of Catalonia (CDC) 6 ±0 2 8
Democratic Union of Catalonia (UDC) 2 ±0 1 3
Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ/PNV) 6 +2 2 8
Canarian Coalition (CC) 5 +4 1 6
Canarian Independent Groups (AIC) 2 +2 1 3
Nationalist Canarian Initiative (ICAN) 1 +1 0 1
Majorera Assembly (AM) 1 +1 0 1
Independent Herrenian Group (AHI) 1 ±0 0 1
United Left (IU) 0 ±0 2 2
Galician Nationalist Bloc (BNG) 0 ±0 1 1
Lanzarote Independents Party (PIL) 1 ±0 0 1
Aragonese Party (PAR) 0 -3 0 0
Pact for Ibiza and Formentera (Pacte) 0 -1 0 0
Total 208 ±0 51 259
Sources[80][125][126][127]
Seats
PP
57.92%
PSOE-p
26.64%
PSC-ERC-ICV
4.25%
CiU
4.25%
EAJ/PNV
3.09%
CC
2.32%
IU
0.77%
BNG
0.39%
PIL
0.39%

Aftermath

Investiture
José María Aznar (PP)
Ballot -> 26 April 2000
Required majority -> 176 out of 350 checkY
Yes
No
Abstentions
Absentees
Sources[128]

Notes

  1. ^ a b Results for IU in the 1996 election, not including IC-EV.
  2. ^ Not including PSC-PSOE results.
  3. ^ Results for IC-EV in the 1996 election.
  4. ^ PSC-ERC-ICV only fielded candidates for the Senate election.
  5. ^ Results for PSC-PSOE in the 1996 Senate election.
  6. ^ The PAR (3 senators) contested the 1996 election alongside the PP.

References

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  2. ^ "Aznar consigue una histórica mayoría absoluta". El País (in Spanish). 13 March 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Joaquín Almunia asume la derrota y dimite". El País (in Spanish). 13 March 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "HB promueve la abstención en las generales para frenar "el intrusismo español"". El País (in Spanish). 18 October 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ "Críticas unánimes a la decisión de HB de abstenerse en las elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 1 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d "Constitución Española". Actof29 December 1978. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016.
  7. ^ "Constitución española, Sinopsis artículo 66". Congress of Deputies (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Carreras de Odriozola & Tafunell Sambola 2005, pp. 1077.
  9. ^ a b c d "Ley Orgánica 5/1985, de 19 de junio, del Régimen Electoral General". Organic LawNo. 5of19 June 1985. Boletín Oficial del Estado (in Spanish). Retrieved 2016.
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  11. ^ "PP y PSOE preparan una campaña electoral larga y muy agria". El País (in Spanish). 23 August 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ "Las generales se celebrarán entre el 27 de febrero y el 26 de marzo". El País (in Spanish). 8 September 1999. Retrieved 2019.
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  16. ^ "Pujol asegura que las elecciones generales se celebrarán el próximo año". El País (in Spanish). 23 November 1998. Retrieved 2019.
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  44. ^ "Borrell anuncia que disputará a Almunia la candidatura a la presidencia del Gobierno". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  45. ^ "Borrell disputará a Almunia el liderazgo electoral del PSOE". El Mundo (in Spanish). 22 March 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  46. ^ "Borrell gana y trastoca la situación del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 25 April 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  47. ^ "Borrell gana por 21.394 votos a Almunia en las primarias". El País (in Spanish). 7 May 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  48. ^ "El PSOE intenta parar la dimisión de Almunia". El País (in Spanish). 26 April 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  49. ^ "El PSOE concede a Borrell el papel de líder de la oposición y evita el congreso extraordinario". El País (in Spanish). 1 May 1998. Retrieved 2019.
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  54. ^ "Borrell renuncia como candidato por el escándalo de sus ex colaboradores". El País (in Spanish). 15 May 1999. Retrieved 2019.
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  58. ^ "Esquerda Unida desoye a Anguita y cierra su pacto con el PSOE en Galicia". El País (in Spanish). 23 May 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  59. ^ "IC exige a Anguita que respete el pluralismo y abandone las prácticas del comunismo ortodoxo". El País (in Spanish). 23 August 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  60. ^ "Ribó proclama que Iniciativa per Catalunya estará "siempre" con Esquerda Galega". El País (in Spanish). 11 September 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  61. ^ "IU elimina de sus estatutos toda referencia a sus socios catalanes". El País (in Spanish). 30 June 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  62. ^ "Nueva Izquierda nace para ser nexo entre PSOE e IU, según López Garrido". El País (in Spanish). 2 November 1996. Retrieved 2019.
  63. ^ "IU expulsa de su ejecutiva a Nueva Izquierda y reclama las actas a sus tres diputados". El País (in Spanish). 17 June 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  64. ^ "Anguita agudiza la crisis de IU con la expulsión de Nueva Izquierda de los órganos de dirección". El País (in Spanish). 29 June 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  65. ^ "Izquierda Unida registra nombres similares a los de las federaciones críticas". El País (in Spanish). 6 September 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  66. ^ "Anguita expulsa a Nueva Izquierda, rompe con Ribó y repudia a Esquerda Galega". El País (in Spanish). 11 September 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  67. ^ "IU expulsó ayer a los críticos y rompió lazos con sus socios catalanes y gallegos". El País (in Spanish). 28 September 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  68. ^ "Nueva Izquierda se pasa al Grupo Mixto". El País (in Spanish). 28 September 1997. Retrieved 2019.
  69. ^ "Nueva Izquierda y sus socios se constituyen en plataforma electoral". El País (in Spanish). 17 January 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  70. ^ "López Garrido propondrá una alianza electoral de fuerzas de izquierda". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  71. ^ "El PSOE presentará a Cristina Almeida como candidata contra Ruiz-Gallardón". El País (in Spanish). 15 May 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  72. ^ "PSOE y Nueva Izquierda quieren extender el pacto electoral de Madrid a toda España". El País (in Spanish). 16 May 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  73. ^ "La dirección de Nueva Izquierda propone que sus candidatos se integren en las listas del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 2 November 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  74. ^ "Arzalluz asegura que el tiempo de pactar con el Gobierno de Madrid se ha terminado". El País (in Spanish). 22 March 1999. Retrieved 2019.
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  76. ^ "El Gobierno descalifica el pacto de Estella por ser "complaciente" con los intereses de ETA". El País (in Spanish). 14 September 1998. Retrieved 2019.
  77. ^ a b "El Par rompe con el PP y le disputará tres escaños en Aragón". El País (in Spanish). 26 October 1999. Retrieved 2019.
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  84. ^ "El candidato pide a los socialistas en su primer discurso que recuperen el 'espíritu del 82'". El País (in Spanish). 25 July 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  85. ^ "El PSOE añade a sus siglas el 'apellido' Progresistas". El País (in Spanish). 28 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  86. ^ "La dirección de IU decide que Frutos sustituya a Anguita, pero sólo para las elecciones". El País (in Spanish). 18 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  87. ^ "EUiA rechaza integrarse en las listas de IC-V y prepara una coalición con Els Verds". El País (in Spanish). 1 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  88. ^ "Pujol confirma a Trias como cabeza de lista de CiU en las generales". El País (in Spanish). 20 August 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  89. ^ "Molins descarta volver a Madrid, mientras que Trias se afianza". El País (in Spanish). 22 October 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  90. ^ "Puigcercós encabezará la lista de ERC al Congreso". El País (in Spanish). 21 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  91. ^ "El PA aspira a formar un grupo parlamentario en el Congreso con canarios, aragoneses y valencianos". El País (in Spanish). 10 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
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  93. ^ a b "La izquierda catalana se presentará unida al Senado y formará grupo al margen del PSOE". El País (in Spanish). 12 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  94. ^ a b "La izquierda se presentará al Senado bajo la denominación de Entesa Catalana de Progrés". El País (in Spanish). 15 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  95. ^ a b "Los partidos de izquierda sellan su pacto para el Senado". El País (in Spanish). 25 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  96. ^ "Los socialistas rechazan ir con Ciutadans pel Canvi a las elecciones legislativas". El País (in Spanish). 11 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  97. ^ "Maragall ve el pacto con IC-V como un paso hacia la creación de partidos amplios". El País (in Spanish). 4 September 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  98. ^ "El PSC e IC-V estudian repetir la coalición en las generales". El País (in Spanish). 21 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  99. ^ "El PP elige esta semana candidatos sin que el Pacte haya cerrado aún un acuerdo". Periódico de Ibiza (in Spanish). 20 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  100. ^ "Els Verds de Eivissa se integran en la candidatura unitaria al Senado". Periódico de Ibiza (in Spanish). 30 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  101. ^ "Pacte y PP, convencidos de ganar el disputado escaño del Senado". Periódico de Ibiza (in Spanish). 25 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  102. ^ "Principio de acuerdo de la izquierda para la candidatura única al Senado". El País (in Spanish). 14 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  103. ^ "El PSPV enfría las posibilidades de lograr un acuerdo al Senado con el resto de partidos". El País (in Spanish). 4 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  104. ^ "La izquierda se muestra incapaz de pactar una lista única para el Senado". El País (in Spanish). 10 December 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  105. ^ "El PSPV sólo aceptará una lista al Senado con EU bajo sus siglas". El País (in Spanish). 18 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  106. ^ "El Consell Nacional de EU aprueba la "entesa" de la izquierda para el Senado bajo siglas unitarias". El País (in Spanish). 28 November 1999. Retrieved 2019.
  107. ^ "EU y Bloc, dispuestos a reabrir la negociación sobre la 'Entesa' al Senado con los socialistas". El País (in Spanish). 27 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  108. ^ "La ausencia de acuerdo entre PSOE e IU en Madrid frustra la posible 'Entesa' al Senado". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  109. ^ "PSOE e IU cierran un pacto para el Senado y descartan presentarse juntos al Congreso". El País (in Spanish). 2 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  110. ^ "PSOE e IU cerraron anoche el pacto para el Senado en 27 provincias". El País (in Spanish). 7 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  111. ^ "Almunia ofrece a IU un pacto de gobierno". El País (in Spanish). 25 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  112. ^ "El PSOE rebaja de 34 a 14 las provincias en las que pide a IU que retire sus listas". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  113. ^ "PSOE e IU descartan la coalición pero acercan posiciones para un programa común". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  114. ^ "IU centró su estrategia en forzar una coalición en algunas provincias". El País (in Spanish). 29 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  115. ^ "EH presentará listas para usar los espacios electorales". El País (in Spanish). 30 January 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  116. ^ "HB despliega una candidatura de presos y dirigentes de su Mesa Nacional para propugnar la abstención". El País (in Spanish). 9 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  117. ^ "Batzarre deja EH porque ETA ha puesto Lizarra "patas arriba"". El País (in Spanish). 27 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
  118. ^ "Un mapa de España y el eslogan "Juntos vamos a más" serán las claves en la campaña electoral del PP". Libertad Digital (in Spanish). 17 February 2004. Retrieved 2019.
  119. ^ "IU exige al PSOE que no pida "el voto útil"". El País (in Spanish). 6 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
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  123. ^ "El BNG aclara que su apoyo a un Gobierno progresista no sería "un cheque en blanco"". El País (in Spanish). 26 February 2000. Retrieved 2019.
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Bibliography


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