2016 Japanese House of Councillors Election
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2016 Japanese House of Councillors Election
2016 Japanese House of Councillors election

← 2013 10 July 2016 2019 →

121 of the 242 seats in the House of Councillors
122 seats needed for a majority
Turnout54.7% Increase 2.6%
  First party Second party Third party
  Shinz? Abe.jpg Katsuya Okada (2010).jpg Natsuo Yamaguchi.jpg
Leader Shinz? Abe Katsuya Okada Natsuo Yamaguchi
Party Liberal Democratic Democratic Komeito
Leader since 26 September 2012 14 December 2014 8 September 2009
Last election 115 seats, 34.68% - 20 seats, 14.22%
Seats after 120 49 25
Seat change Increase 5 New Increase 5
Popular vote 20,114,788 11,751,015 7,572,960
Percentage 35.91% 20.98% 13.52%
Swing Increase 1.23pp New Decrease 0.70pp

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Kazuo Shii cropped.jpg Ichiro Matsui Ishin IMG 5775 20130713 cropped.jpg Ky?ko Nakayama.jpg
Leader Kazuo Shii Ichir? Matsui Kyoko Nakayama
Party Communist Innovation Japanese Kokoro
Leader since 24 November 2000 2 November 2015 21 December 2015
Last election 11 seats, 9.68% - -
Seats after 14 12 3
Seat change Increase 3 New New
Popular vote 6,016,245 5,153,684 734,024
Percentage 10.74% 9.20% 1.31%
Swing Increase 1.06pp New New

  Seventh party Eighth party
  Tadatomo Yoshida cropped 2 Masaharu Nakagawa Mizuho Fukushima and Tadatomo Yoshida 201204.jpg Ichiro Ozawa cropped 3 Yoshitaka Kimoto and Ichiro Ozawa 20010718.jpg
Leader Tadatomo Yoshida Ichir? Ozawa
Party Social Democratic People's Life
Leader since 14 October 2013 25 January 2013
Last election 3 seats, 2.36% 2 seats, 1.77%
Seats after 2 2
Seat change Decrease 1 Steady
Popular vote 1,536,239 1,067,301
Percentage 2.74% 1.91%
Swing Increase 0.38pp Increase 0.14pp

House of Councillors elections were held in Japan on Sunday 10 July 2016 to elect 121 of the 242 members of the House of Councillors, the upper house of the National Diet, for a term of six years. As a result of the election, the Liberal Democratic Party-Komeito coalition gained ten seats for a total of 145 (60% of all seats in the house), the largest coalition achieved since the size of the house was set at 242 seats.[1]

76 members were elected by single non-transferable vote (SNTV) and first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting in 45 multi- and single-member prefectural electoral districts; for the first time, there were two combined (g?ku) single-member districts consisting of two prefectures each, Tottori-Shimane and Tokushima-K?chi. This change and several other reapportionments were part of an electoral reform law passed by the Diet in July 2015 designed to reduce the maximum ratio of malapportionment in the House of Councillors below 3.[2][3] The nationwide district which elects 48 members by D'Hondt proportional representation with most open lists remained unchanged.

The elections were the first national election after the 2015 change to the Public Offices Election Act, which allowed people from 18 years of age to vote in national, prefectural and municipal elections and in referendums. The legal voting age prior to the change was 20.[4]

Background

The term of members elected in the 2010 regular election (including those elected in subsequent by-elections or as runners-up) ends on July 25, 2016. Under the "Public Offices Election Act" (k?shoku-senkyo-h?), the regular election must be held within 30 days before that date, or under certain conditions if the Diet is in session or scheduled to open at that time, between 24 and 30 days after the closure of the session and thus potentially somewhat after the actual end of term.[5] The election date was July 10 with the deadline for nominations and the start of legal campaigning 18 days before the election (i.e. June 22).[6]

Prior to the election, the Liberal Democratic Party and its coalition partner Komeito controlled a two-thirds super-majority of seats in the House of Representatives but did not control a similar super-majority of seats in the House of Councillors, necessary to initiate amendments of the Constitution of Japan.[7] In order to deny a super-majority to the LDP and other pro-amendment parties, the parties opposed to amending the constitution (Democratic Party, Japanese Communist Party, Social Democratic Party and People's Life Party) agreed to field a single candidate in each single-seat district, leading to a number of one-on-one races between the LDP and an opposition candidate (most of which the LDP ultimately won).[8] Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, historically a vocal proponent of constitutional revision, generally avoided discussing the constitution during the campaign, instead focusing on his "Abenomics" economic policies.[9]

On the eve of the election, Gerald Curtis described the race as "one of the dullest in recent memory," pointing out that "never in Japan's postwar history has the political opposition been as enfeebled as it is now... That's why widespread public disappointment with the government's economic policies hasn't hurt Mr. Abe politically. The prevailing sentiment is that he has done better than his predecessors, and replacing him with another LDP leader, let alone an opposition coalition government, would only make matters worse--especially now that the global economy is in turmoil."[10]

Pre-election composition

As of the official announcement (k?ji, the candidate registration deadline and when the campaign starts) on 22 June (count by Yomiuri Shimbun):[11]

?
37 59 8 2 1 9 50 11 65
O not up Main opposition seats up RO RO up V K up LDP seats up K LDP seats not up

In the class of members facing re-election, the ruling coalition of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) and K?meit? had a combined 60 of 121 seats, slightly short of a majority (as of June 2016).[12] The main opposition Democratic Party held 47 seats.[12] As the coalition held 77 seats not being contested at this election, they only needed to retain 44 seats in the election to maintain their majority in the House. The LDP, which held 117 seats alone, had to gain five seats to reach a majority of its own and make the coalition with K?meit? unnecessary. In the other direction, the governing coalition would have to lose 16 seats or more to forfeit its overall majority in the House of Councillors and face a technically divided Diet. However, as independents and minor opposition groups might be willing to support the government on a regular basis without inclusion in the cabinet, the losses required to face an actual divided Diet may have been much higher. If the Diet were divided after the election, the coalition's two-thirds majority in the House of Representatives could still override the House of Councillors and pass legislation, but certain Diet decisions, notably the approval of certain nominations by the cabinet such as public safety commission members or Bank of Japan governor, would require the cooperation of at least part of the opposition or an expansion of the ruling coalition.

Among the members facing re-election were House of Councillors President Masaaki Yamazaki (LDP, Fukui), Vice President Azuma Koshiishi (DPJ, Yamanashi), Justice Minister Mitsuhide Iwaki (LDP, Fukushima) and Okinawa and Science Minister Aiko Shimajiri (LDP, Okinawa).

Policy effects

The election gave a two-thirds super-majority in the upper house to the four parties in favor of constitutional revision. After the election, Abe publicly acknowledged that constitutional revision would be "not so easy" and said "I expect the discussion will be deepened." The Chinese government voiced concern about the result, while South Korean newspaper Munhwa Ilbo opined that the election results "opened the door for a Japan that can go to war."[9]

Abe announced a major economic stimulus package following the election, leading to a spike in the Japanese stock markets.[13]

District reapportionment

The following districts saw a change in their representation within the House at this election. One set of reforms were introduced in 2012 and first took effect at the 2013 election; the districts affected by the 2015 reforms are shaded.

District Magnitude Notes
Hokkaid? 3 Increased from 2
Miyagi 1 Decreased from 2
Fukushima 1 2 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Tokyo 6 Increased from 5
Kanagawa 4 3 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Niigata 1 Decreased from 2
Nagano 1 Decreased from 2
Gifu 1 2 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Aichi 4 Increased from 3
Osaka 4 3 incumbents in outgoing class (reapportioned in 2012)
Hyogo 3 Increased from 2
Tottori-Shimane 1 Created from the merger of the single-member Tottori and Shimane districts
Tokushima-K?chi 1 Created from the merger of the single-member Tokushima and Kochi districts
Fukuoka 3 Increased from 2

Opinion polls

Date by Ruling
Coalition
Ruling
Coal.
total
Opposition Source
LDP KM DP JCP IFO SDP PLP PJK NRP Oth. Ind.
July 5-6 Asahi 56 14 70 30 7 8 1 0 0 0 0 5 [14]
July 3-5 Kyodo & Tokyo 58 14 72 27 10 6 1 0 0 0 0 5 [15]
July 3-5 Kyodo 60 14 74 27 9 6 1 0 0 0 0 4 [16]
[17]
July 3-5 Nikkei 49-65 10-15 59-80 19-38 7-15 4-8 0-1 0-1 0 0 2-7 [18]
July 3-5 Yomiuri - - - - - - - - - - - - [19]
July 1-3 Sankei & FNN 59 12 71 28 10 7 1 0 0 0 0 4 [20]
July 1-3 Dwango & Line 55 14 69 27 10 8 1 1 0 0 0 5 [21]
July 1-3 Jiji - - - - - - - - - - - - [22]
June 22 - July 3 Yahoo! 61 10 71 26 11 8 5 [23]
June 22-23 Asahi 57 14 71 30 8 7 1 0 0 0 0 4 [24][25]
June 22-23 Mainichi 58-65 12-14 70-79 22-31 7-12 5-8 0-1 0 0 0 0 2-3 [26][27]
June 22-23 Kyodo - - - - - - - - - - - - [28][29]
June 22-23 Nikkei - - - - - - - - - - - - [30]
June 22-23 Yomiuri - - - - - - - - - - - - [31]
June 4-21 Yahoo! 57 11 68 24 16 10 3 [23]
June 17-19 Dwango & Line 57 14 71 25 10 8 1 1 0 0 0 5 [21]
Approval (blue) and Disapproval (red) Ratings for Second and Third Abe Cabinet

Results

A record 28 women won seats in the compared to 26 in 2007 and 22 in 2013.[32] Among them, actress Junko Mihara won a seat representing Kanagawa Prefecture for the LDP.[33]

Yoshimi Watanabe, former leader of Your Party, returned to the Diet in this election, winning a seat as part of Osaka Ishin no Kai.[34] Justice minister Mitsuhide Iwaki lost his seat in Fukushima Prefecture to an opposition-supported candidate.[35] Aiko Shimajiri, state minister for Okinawan affairs, lost her seat to former Ginowan, Okinawa mayor Yoichi Iha, a critic of the US military presence in Okinawa supported by a coalition of opposition parties. This was viewed by some analysts as a setback for the proposed relocation of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma.[35][36] Former Olympic volleyball player Kentaro Asahi won a seat representing the Tokyo at-large district for the LDP.[37] On the same day, journalist Satoshi Mitazono defeated incumbent Yuichiro Ito in a gubernatorial election in Kagoshima Prefecture. Mitazono campaigned on a platform focused on suspension of the Sendai Nuclear Power Plant.[38]

PartyNationalConstituencySeats
Votes%SeatsVotes%SeatsNot upWonTotal
after
+/-
Liberal Democratic Party20,114,78835.911922,590,79339.94366555120+5
Democratic Party11,751,01520.981114,215,95625.1421173249-19
Komeito7,572,96013.5274,263,4227.547111425+5
Japanese Communist Party6,016,19510.7454,103,5147.2618614+3
Initiatives from Osaka5,153,5849.2043,303,4195.8435712New
Social Democratic Party1,536,2392.741289,8990.510112-1
People's Life Party1,067,3011.9111120
Party for Japanese Kokoro734,0241.310535,5170.950303New
Shiji Seit? Nashi647,0721.160127,3670.230000New
New Renaissance Party580,6531.04060,4310.110000-1
Angry Voice of the People466,7060.83082,3570.150000New
Happiness Realization Party366,8150.650963,5851.7000000
Genzei Nippon218,1710.3900000
Ishin Seito Shimpu42,8580.0800000
World Economic Community Party6,1140.0100000
Katsuko Inumaru and the Republican Party5,3880.010000New
World Peace Party3,8540.010000New
Challenged Japan3,2960.010000New
Assembly to Energize Japan202New
Okinawa Social Mass Party1010
Independents5,739,45210.1557512+9
Total56,007,352100.004856,555,393100.00731211212420
Valid votes56,007,83096.4356,555,39397.35
Invalid/blank votes2,075,1893.571,537,3852.65
Total votes58,083,019100.0058,092,778100.00
Registered voters/turnout106,202,87354.69106,202,87354.70
Source: Ministry of Internal Communications, Yomiuri Shimbun

By electoral district

Abbreviations and translations used in this table for (nominating - endorsing) parties:

District Magnitude Incumbents Winners & runner-up [+incumbents if lower] with vote share (/votes for PR members) Gains & losses by party
Hokkaid?[39] 3 (+1) Gaku Hasegawa (L)
Eri Tokunaga (D)
Gaku Hasegawa (L - K) 25.5%
Eri Tokunaga (D) 22.0%
Yoshio Hachiro (D) 19.3%
Katsuhiro Kakiki (L - K, NPD) 19.0%
D +1
Aomori[40] 1 Tsutomu Yamazaki (L) Masayo Tanabu (D - S) 49.2%
Tsutomu Yamazaki (L - K) 47.9%
L -1
D +1
Iwate[41] 1 Ry? Shuhama (D) Eiji Kidoguchi (I - D, C, S, PLP) 53.3%
Shin'ichi Tanaka (L - K) 41.0%
D -1
I (opposition) +1
Miyagi[42] 1 (-1) Yutaka Kumagai (L)
Mitsuru Sakurai (D)
Mitsuru Sakurai (D - C, S, PLP) 51.1%
Yutaka Kumagai (L - K) 47.0%
L -1
Akita[43] 1 Hiroo Ishii (L) Hiroo Ishii (L - K) 53.9%
Daigo Matsuura (D - C, S) 44.0%
Yamagata[44] 1 K?ichi Kishi (L) Yasue Funayama (I - D, S) 59.0%
Kaoru Tsukino (L - K) 38.3%
L -1
I (opposition) +1
Fukushima[45] 1 (-1) Teruhiko Mashiko (D)
Mitsuhide Iwaki (L)
Teruhiko Mashiko (D - S) 50.5%
Mitsuhide Iwaki (L - K) 47.2%
L -1
Ibaraki[46] 2 Hiroshi Okada (L)
Akira Gunji (D)
Hiroshi Okada (L - K) 50.3%
Akira Gunji (D) 25.3%
Ky?ko Kobayashi (C) 9.4%
Tochigi[47] 1 Michiko Ueno (L) Michiko Ueno (L - K) 58.9%
Takao Tanobe (I - D, C, S, PLP) 38.3%
Gunma[48] 1 Hirofumi Nakasone (L) Hirofumi Nakasone (L - K) 66.0%
Keinin Horikoshi (D - C, S) 31.1%
Saitama[49] 3 Masakazu Sekiguchi (L)
Makoto Nishida (K)
Motohiro ?no (D)
Masakazu Sekiguchi (L) 29.2%
Motohiro ?no (D - PLP) 22.0%
Makoto Nishida (K - L) 20.9%
Gaku It? (C - PLP) 15.8%
Chiba[50] 3 Hiroyuki Konishi (D)
Kuniko Inoguchi (L)
Ken'ichi Mizuno (D)
Kuniko Inoguchi (L - K) 29.2%
Taiichir? Motoe (L - K) 22.1%
Hiroyuki Konishi (D) 18.1%
Fumiko Asano (C) 13.5%
Ken'ichi Mizuno (D) 12.1%
D -1
L +1
Tokyo[51] 6 (+1) Renh? (D)
Toshiko Takeya (K)
Masaharu Nakagawa (L)
Toshio Ogawa (D)
K?ta Matsuda (AEJ)
Renh? (D) 18.0%
Masaharu Nakagawa (L) 14.2%
Toshiko Takeya (K) 12.4%
Taku Yamazoe (C) 10.7%
Kentar? Asahi (L) 10.4%
Toshio Ogawa (D) 8.2%
Yasuo Tanaka (Osaka Ishin) 7.5%
...
Kazuyuki Hamada[nb 1] (I) 0.5%
AEJ -1
L +1
C +1
Kanagawa[52] 4 (+1) Akio Koizumi (L)
Kenji Nakanishi (I)
Y?ichi Kaneko (D)
Junko Mihara (L) 24.5%
Nobuhiro Miura (K - L) 15.3%
Y?ichi Mayama (D - PLP) 14.2%
Kenji Nakanishi (I - L)[nb 2] 12.8%
Yuka Asaka (C - PLP) 11.9%
Y?ichi Kaneko (D - PLP) 10.9%
K +1
I (government) joins L
Niigata[53] 1 (-1) Naoki Tanaka (D)
Yaichi Nakahara (L)
Y?ko Mori (I - D, C, S, PLP) 49.0%
Yaichi Nakahara (L - K) 48.8%
L -1
D -1
I (opposition) +1
Toyama[54] 1 K?tar? Nogami (L) K?tar? Nogami (L - K) 69.2%
Etsuko D?y? (I - D, C, S, PLP) 27.4%
Ishikawa[55] 1 Naoki Okada (L) Naoki Okada (L - K) 61.7%
Miki Shibata (I - D, C, S, PLP) 36.0%
Fukui[56] 1 Masaaki Yamazaki (L) Masaaki Yamazaki (L - K) 60.1%
Tatsuhiro Yokoyama (I - D, S) 36.3%
Yamanashi[57] 1 Azuma Koshiishi (D) Yuka Miyazawa (D - C, S) 43.0%
Tsuyoshi Takano (L - K) 37.8%
Nagano[58] 1 (-1) Kenta Wakabayashi (L)
Toshimi Kitazawa (D)
Hideya Sugio (D - C, S) 52.5%
Kenta Wakabayashi (L - K) 45.7%
L -1
Gifu[59] 1 (-1) Takeyuki Watanabe (L)
Yoshiharu Komiyama (D)
Takeyuki Watanabe (L - K) 55.8%
Yoshiharu Komiyama (D - C, S, PLP) 40.9%
D -1
Shizuoka[60] 2 Shigeki Iwai (L)
Y?ji Fujimoto (D)
Shigeki Iwai (L - K) 44.3%
Sachiko Hirayama (D - S) 41.0%
Chika Suzuki (C) 10.2%
Aichi[61] 4 (+1) Mashito Fujikawa (L)
Yoshitaka Sait? (D)
Misako Yasui (D)
Masahito Fujikawa (L) 29.3%
Yoshitaka Sait? (D) 17.5%
Ry?ji Satomi (K - L) 16.2%
Takae It? (D) 15.8%
Hatsumi Suyama (C) 9.2%
K +1
Mie[62] 1 Hirokazu Shiba (D) Hirokazu Shiba (D) 49.7%
Sachiko Yamamoto (L - K) 47.5%
Shiga[63] 1 Kumiko Hayashi (D) Takashi Koyari (L - K) 52.2%
Kumiko Hayashi (D - C, S) 45.8%
D -1
L +1
Kyoto[64] 2 Tetsur? Fukuyama (D)
Satoshi Ninoyu (L)
Satoshi Ninoyu (L - K) 40.0%
Tetsur? Fukuyama (D - S) 36.9%
Toshitaka ?kawara (C) 20.0%
Osaka[65] 4 (+1) Issei Kitagawa (L)
Tomoyuki Odachi (D)
Hirotaka Ishikawa (K)
Rui Matsukawa (L) 20.4%
Hitoshi Asada (Osaka Ishin) 19.5%
Hirotaka Ishikawa (K) 18.2%
Kaori Takagi (Osaka Ishin) 17.9%
Yui Watanabe (C - PLP) 12.2%
Tomoyuki Odachi (D - PLP) 9.3%
D -1
Osaka Ishin +2
Hy?go[66] 3 (+1) Shinsuke Suematsu (L)
Shun'ichi Mizuoka (D)
Shinsuke Suematsu (L) 26.3%
Takae It? (L - K) 22.2%
Daisuke Katayama (Osaka Ishin) 21.8%
Shun'ichi Mizuoka (D) 17.2%
D -1
L +1
Osaka Ishin +1
Nara[67] 1 Kiyoshige Maekawa (D) Kei Sat? (L - K) 45.5%
Kiyoshige Makawa (D - C, S, PLP) 33.7%
D -1
L +1
Wakayama[68] 1 Y?suke Tsuruho (L) Y?suke Tsuruho (L - K) 69.2%
Takanobu Yura (I - C, S, PLP) 26.1%
Tottori-Shimane[69] 1 (-1 combined) From Tottori: Kazuyuki Hamada (I)
From Shimane: Kazuhiko Aoki (L)
Kazuhiko Aoki (L - K) 62.7%
Hirohiko Fukushima (I - D, C, S, PLP) 34.7%
I -1
Okayama[70] 1 Satsuki Eda (D) Kimi Onoda (L - K) 55.6%
Kentar? Kuroishi (D - C, S) 41.9%
D -1
L +1
Hiroshima[71] 2 Y?ichi Miyazawa (L)
Minoru Yanagida (D)
Y?ichi Miyazawa (L - K) 49.8%
Minoru Yanagida (D - S) 23.1%
Kana Haioka (Osaka Ishin) 13.8%
Yamaguchi[72] 1 Kiyoshi Ejima (L) Kiyoshi Ejima (L - K) 64.0%
Atsushi K?ketsu (I - D, C, S) 29.8%
Tokushima-K?chi[73] 1 (-1 combined) From Tokushima: Y?suke Nakanishi (L)
From K?chi: Hajime Hirota (D)
Y?suke Nakanishi (L) 54.1%
S? ?nishi (I - D, C, S) 42.9%
D -1
Kagawa[74] 1 Yoshihiko Isozaki (L) Yoshihiko Isozaki (L - K) 65.1%
Ken'ichi Tanabe (C - S, PLP) 26.1%
Ehime[75] 1 Junz? Yamamoto (L) Junz? Yamamoto (L - K) 49.6%
Takako Nagae (I - D, S) 48.3%
Fukuoka[76] 3 (+1) Satoshi ?ie (L)
Tsutomu ?kubo (D)
Yukihito Koga (D) 30.7%
Satoshi ?ie (L) 29.3%
Hiromi Takase (K - L) 21.4%
Masako Shibata (C) 9.0%
K +1
Saga[77] 1 Takamaro Fukuoka (L) Takamaro Fukuoka (L - K) 65.6%
Tetsuji Nakamura (D - S) 31.3%
Nagasaki[78] 1 Genjir? Kaneko (L) Genjir? Kaneko (L - K) 52.9%
Hideko Nishioka (D - S, PLP) 44.9%
Kumamoto[79] 1 Yoshifumi Matsumura (L) Yoshifumi Matsumura (L - K) 59.1%
Hiromi Abe (I - D, C, S) 36.1%
?ita[80] 1 Shin'ya Adachi (D) Shin'ya Adachi (D) 48.1
Harutomo Kosh? (L - K) 47.9%
Miyazaki[81] 1 Shinpei Matsushita (L) Shinpei Matsushita (L - K) 62.0%
Y?ji Yomiyama (I - D, S) 33.5%
Kagoshima[82] 1 Tetsur? Nomura (L) Tetsur? Nomura (L - K) 59.0%
Kazumi Shimomachi (I - D, C, S) 29.2%
Okinawa[83] 1 Aiko Shimajiri (L) Y?ichi Iha (I) 57.8%
Aiko Shimajiri (L - K) 40.6%
L -1
I (opposition) +1
National 48 (pre-election by parliamentary group, not by party)[nb 3]
D 18
L 12
K 6
C 3
Osaka Ishin 2
S 2
AEJ 1
PLP 1
NRP 1
I 2)
L 35.9% of proportional votes->19 seats:[84]
Masayuki Tokushige 521,060
Shigeharu Aoyama 481,890
Satsuki Katayama 393,382
Satoshi Nakanishi 392,433
Eriko Imai 319,359
Toshiyuki Adachi 293,735
Eriko Yamatani 249,844
Shin'ya Fujiki 236,119
Hanako Jimi 210,562
Kanehiko Shind? 182,467
Emiko Takagai 177,810
Hiroshi Yamada 149,833
Toshiyuki Fujii 142,132
Masashi Adachi 139,110
Takashi Uto 137,993
Katsumi Ogawa 130,101
Yoshifumi Miyajima 122,833
Toshiei Mizuochi 114,485
Sh?k? Sonoda 101,154
Isao Takeuchi 87,578
...
Tsuneo Horiuchi 84,597
(change from last election 2010)
L +7
D (from DPJ) -5
K +1
C +2
Osaka Ishin (new +4)
S -1
PLP (new +1)
NRP -1
Kokoro (from Sunrise) -1
YP (defunct, now D/OIshin/Kokoro/L/I) -7
D 21.0% of proportional votes->11 seats:[85]
Masao Kobayashi 270,285
Makoto Hamaguchi 266,623
Wakako Yata 215,823
Yoshifu Arita 205,884
Nakanori Kawai 196,023
Sh?ji Nanba 191,823
Takashi Esaki 184,187
Masayoshi Nataniya 176,683
Michihiro Ishibashi 171,486
Kenz? Fujisue 143,188
Shinkun Haku 138,813
Kaoru Tashiro 113,571
...
Naoki Tanaka 86,596
Takumi Shibata 73,166
...
Takeshi Maeda 59,853
Jir? Ono 46,213
Masami Nishimura 38,899
K 13.5% of proportional votes->7 seats:[86]
Hiroaki Nagasawa 942,266
K?z? Akino 612,068
Shin'ichi Yokoyama 606,889
Seishi Kumano 605,223
Masaaki Taniai 478,174
Masayoshi Hamada 388,477
Masaru Miyazaki 18,571
Shinji Takeuchi 7,489
C 10.7% of proportional votes->5 seats:[87]
Tadayoshi Ichida 77,348
Tomoko Tamura 49,113
Mikishi Daimon 33,078
Tomo Iwabuchi 31,099
Ry?suke Takeda 23,938
Tomoko Okuda 23,680
Osaka Ishin 9.2% of proportional votes->4 seats:[88]
Toranosuke Katayama 194,902
Yoshimi Watanabe 143,343
Mitsuko Ishii 68,147
Akira Ishii 50,073
Tsuyoshi Gibu 43,679
S 2.7% of proportional votes->1 seat:[89]
Mizuho Fukushima 254,956
Tadatomo Yoshida 153,197
PLP 1.9% of proportional votes->1 seat:[90]
Ai Aoki 109,050
Yumiko Himei 16,116
Incumbents on other party lists without seat:
Kokoro (1,3%): none[91]
SSN (1.2%): none[92]
NRP (1.0%): Tar? Yamada, Hiroyuki Arai[93]
Angry voice of the people (0.8%): none[94]
HRP (0.7%): none[95]
  1. ^ incumbent from Tottori
  2. ^ retroactively nominated by the LDP on election night
  3. ^ seats up 2016 from House of Councillors website as of June 2016

References

  1. ^ "Ruling camp holds over 60% of seats". The Japan News. Yomiuri Shimbun. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ The Japan Times, July 28, 2015: Upper House districts set for shake-up after electoral reform laws pass Diet
  3. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, August 5, 2015: Changes to House of Councillors electoral districts, Summary (Japanese)
  4. ^ Asahi Shimbun, June 17, 2015: http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASH6J41T7H6JUTFK001.html 18?
  5. ^ e-gov legal database: Archived 2016-07-29 at the Wayback Machine, chapter 5 (election dates), article 32 (regular elections)
  6. ^ Jiji Press, May 1, 2016: 7?10?=?-?
  7. ^ Will Japanese Change Their Constitution?, CFR.org, July 7, 2016.
  8. ^ "Abe camp gains supermajority needed to alter constitution". Nikkei Asian Review. 11 July 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ a b Rich, Motoko (11 July 2016). "Japan Election, a Landslide for Abe, Could Allow a Bolder Military". The New York Times. Retrieved 2016.
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  12. ^ a b House of Councillors: Members by caucus, class, parallel election segment and gender (Japanese) Archived 2016-04-07 at the Wayback Machine The governing coalition's number included President of the House Masaaki Yamazaki, who sat as an independent. The Democratic Party's number included Vice President Azuma Koshiishi and "Shin-Ryokufukai" members.
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  16. ^ "?2/3 ?". Mainichi Shimbun. 2016-07-06. Archived from the original on 2016-07-11. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "432 ?". Chunichi Shimbun. 2016-07-06. Archived from the original on 2016-07-06. Retrieved .
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  31. ^ "...?". Yomiuri Shimbun. 2016-06-23. Retrieved .
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  89. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, SDP
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  93. ^ Yomiuri Online, 2016 election results: proportional election, Shint? kaikaku
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External links


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