Abgarid Dynasty
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Abgarid Dynasty
Abgarid
CountryEdessa, Osroene
Founded134 BC
Current headExtinct
Final rulerAbgar IX Severus (de facto)
Abgar X Frahad (only in name)
Dissolution242 AD

The Abgarid dynasty or Abgar dynasty was a dynasty of Nabataean Arab origin.[1][2] Members of the dynasty, the Abgarids, reigned between 134 BC and 242 AD over Edessa and Osroene in Upper Mesopotamia.[1] Some members of the dynasty bore Iranian names, while others had Arab names, including Abgar itself.[3] J.B. Segal notes that the names ending in "-u" are "undoubtedly Nabatean".[3] The Abgarid dynasts spoke "a form of Aramaic".[3] Following the Battle of Carrhae (53 BC), members of the dynasty pursued a broadly pro-Parthian policy for about two centuries.[3] At the turn of the 2nd century AD, the Romans turned Osroene into a Roman client state.[3] During Caracalla's reign (r198-217), most likely in 214, Abgar IX Severus was deposed and Osroene was incorporated as a Roman province (colonia).[3] Thereafter, Abgarid dynasts only ruled "in name".[3] Abgar X Frahad, the last nominal Abgarid ruler, settled in Rome together with his wife.[3]

Kings of Edessa/Osroene

This is a list of kings of Edessa/Osroene, most of whom were members of the Abgarid dynasty. The list also mentions the non-dynastic rulers of Edessa/Osroene as well as the periods of interregnum. Segal notes: "the early names and dates should be regarded with caution".[3]

Kings of Edessa/Osroene
King Reign (BC) Consort(s) Comments
Aryu 132-127 BC -
Abdu, son of Maz'ur 127-120 BC -
Fradasht, son of Gebar'u 120-115 BC -
Bakru I, son of Fradasht 115-112 BC -
Bakru II, son of Bakru 112-94 BC - Ruled alone
Bakru II and Ma'nu I 94 BC - Ruled together
Bakru II and Abgar I Piqa 94-92 BC - Ruled together
Abgar I 92-68 BC - Ruled alone
Abgar II, son of Abgar I 68-53 BC -
Interregnum 53-52 BC -
Ma'nu II 52-34 BC -
Paqor 34-29 BC -
Abgar III 29-26 BC -
Abgar IV Sumaqa 26-23 BC -
Ma'nu III Saflul 23-4 BC -
Abgar V Ukkama, son of Ma'nu 4 BC-7 AD - 1st tenure
Ma'nu IV, son of Ma'nu 7-13 AD -
Abgar V Ukkama 13-50 AD - 2nd tenure
Ma'nu V, son of Abgar 50-57 AD -
Ma'nu VI, son of Abgar 57-71 AD -
Abgar IV, son of Ma'nu 71-91 AD -
Interregnum 91-109 AD -
Abgar VII, son of Ezad 109-116 AD -
Interregnum 116-118 AD -
Yalur (Yalud) and Parthamaspates 118-122 AD - Ruled together
Parthamaspates 122-123 AD - Ruled alone
Ma'nu VII, son of Ezad 123-139 AD -
Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu 139-163 AD - First tenure
Wa'el, son of Sahru 163-165 AD - Installed by the Parthians
Ma'nu VIII, son of Ma'nu 165-177 AD - Second tenure
Abgar VIII the Great, son of Ma'nu 177-212 AD -
Abgar IX Severus, son of Abgar 212-214 AD - Deposed by the Romans; Osroene incorporated as a Roman province (colonia)[4][3]
Ma'nu IX, son of Ma'nu 214-240 AD - Ruled only in name
Abgar X Frahad, son of Ma'nu 240-242 AD - Ruled only in name

References

  1. ^ a b Ramelli 2018.
  2. ^ Sartre 2005, p. 500.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Segal 1982, pp. 210-213.
  4. ^ Sartre 2005, p. 508.

Sources

  • Ramelli, Ilaria L.E. (2018). "Abgarids". In Hunter, David G.; van Geest, Paul J.J.; Peerbolte, Bert Jan Lietaert (eds.). Brill Encyclopedia of Early Christianity Online.
  • Sartre, Maurice (2005). "The Arabs and the desert peoples". In Bowman, Alan K.; Garnsey, Peter; Cameron, Averil (eds.). The Cambridge Ancient History: Volume 12, The Crisis of Empire, AD 193-337. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521301992.
  • Segal, J.B. (1982). "ABGAR". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica, Volume I/2Abd-al-Ham?d-?Abd-al-Ham?d. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. pp. 210-213. ISBN 978-0-71009-091-1.

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