Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust
Get Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust essential facts below. View Videos or join the Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust discussion. Add Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust
Abundance (atom fraction) of the chemical elements in Earth's upper continental crust as a function of atomic number. The rarest elements in the crust (shown in yellow) are not the heaviest, but are rather the siderophile (iron-loving) elements in the Goldschmidt classification of elements. These have been depleted by being relocated deeper into the Earth's core. Their abundance in meteoroids is higher. Tellurium and selenium are concentrated as sulfides in the core and have also been depleted by preaccretional sorting in the nebula that caused them to form volatile hydrogen selenide and hydrogen telluride.[1]

The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as mg/kg, or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm = 1%).

Estimates of elemental abundance are difficult because (a) the composition of the upper and lower crust are quite different, and (b) the composition of the continental crust can vary drastically by locality.[2]

List of abundance by element

Abundance of chemical elements in Earth's (continental) crust, according to various sources
Rank Element Abundance by source (ppm) Annual production
Z Name Symbol Darling[3] Barbalace[4] WebElements[5] Israel
Science and
Technology[6]
CRC[7] (2016, tonnes)[8]
1 8 oxygen O 466,000 474,000 460,000 467,100 461,000 (46.1%)
2 14 silicon Si 277,200 277,100 270,000 276,900 282,000 (28.2%) 7,200,000
3 13 aluminium Al 81,300 82,000 82,000 80,700 82,300 (8.23%) 57,600,000
4 26 iron Fe 50,000 41,000 63,000 50,500 56,300 (5.63%) 1,150,000,000
5 20 calcium Ca 36,300 41,000 50,000 36,500 41,500 (4.15%)
6 11 sodium Na 28,300 23,000 23,000 27,500 23,600 (2.36%) 255,000,000
7 12 magnesium Mg 20,900 23,000 29,000 20,800 23,300 (2.33%) 27,700,000
8 19 potassium K 25,900 21,000 15,000 25,800 20,900 (2.09%)
9 22 titanium Ti 4,400 5,600 6,600 6,200 5,650 (0.565%) 6,600,000
10 1 hydrogen H 1,400 1,500 1,400 1,400 (0.14%)
11 15 phosphorus P 1,200 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,050 (0.105%)
12 25 manganese Mn 1,000 950 1,100 900 950 (0.095%) 16,000,000
13 9 fluorine F 800 950 540 290 585 (0.0585%)
14 56 barium Ba 500 340 340 500 425 (0.0425%)
15 38 strontium Sr 370 360 370 (0.037%) 350,000
16 16 sulfur S 500 260 420 520 350 (0.035%) 69,300,000
17 6 carbon C 300 480 1,800 940 200 (0.02%)
18 40 zirconium Zr 190 130 250 165 (0.0165%) 1,460,000
19 17 chlorine Cl 500 130 170 450 145 (0.0145%)
20 23 vanadium V 100 160 190 120 (0.012%) 76,000
21 24 chromium Cr 100 100 140 350 102 (0.0102%) 26,000,000
22 37 rubidium Rb 300 90 60 90 (0.009%)
23 28 nickel Ni 80 90 190 84 (0.0084%) 2,250,000
24 30 zinc Zn 75 79 70 (0.007%) 11,900,000
25 29 copper Cu 100 50 68 60 (0.006%) 19,400,000
26 58 cerium Ce 68 60 66.5 (0.00665%)
27 60 neodymium Nd 38 33 41.5 (0.00415%)
28 57 lanthanum La 32 34 39 (0.0039%)
29 39 yttrium Y 30 29 33 (0.0033%) 6,000
30 7 nitrogen N 50 25 20 19 (0.0019%) 140,000,000
31 27 cobalt Co 20 30 25 (0.0025%) 123,000
32 21 scandium Sc 16 26 22 (0.0022%)
33 3 lithium Li 20 17 20 (0.002%) 35,000
34 41 niobium Nb 20 17 20 (0.002%) 64,000
35 31 gallium Ga 18 19 19 (0.0019%) 315
36 82 lead Pb 14 10 14 (0.0014%) 4,820,000
37 5 boron B 950
[dubious ]
8.7 10 (0.001%) 9,400,000
38 90 thorium Th 12 6 9.6 (0.00096%)
39 59 praseodymium Pr 9.5 8.7 9.2 (0.00092%)
40 62 samarium Sm 7.9 6 7.05 (0.000705%)
41 64 gadolinium Gd 7.7 5.2 6.2 (0.00062%)
42 66 dysprosium Dy 6 6.2 5.2 (0.00052%)
43 68 erbium Er 3.8 3.0 3.5 (0.00035%)
44 18 argon Ar 3.5 (0.00035%)
45 70 ytterbium Yb 3.3 2.8 3.2 (0.00032%)
46 72 hafnium Hf 5.3 3.3 3.0 (0.0003%)
47 55 caesium Cs 3 1.9 3.0 (0.0003%)
48 4 beryllium Be 2.6 1.9 2.8 (0.00028%) 220
49 92 uranium U 0 1.8 2.7 (0.00027%) 74,119
50 35 bromine Br 0.3700 3 2.4 (0.00024%) 391,000
51 50 tin Sn 0 2.2 2.2 2.3 (0.00023%) 280,000
52 73 tantalum Ta 2 1.7 2.0 (0.0002%) 1,100
53 63 europium Eu 2.1 1.8 2.0 (0.0002%)
54 33 arsenic As 1.5 2.1 1.8 (0.00018%) 36,500
55 32 germanium Ge 1.8 1.4 1.5 (0.00015%) 155
56 74 tungsten W 160.6
[dubious ]
1.1 1.25 (0.000125%) 86,400
57 67 holmium Ho 1.4 1.2 1.3 (0.00013%)
58 42 molybdenum Mo 1.5 1.1 1.2 (0.00012%) 227,000
59 65 terbium Tb 1.1 0.9400 1.2 (0.00012%)
60 81 thallium Tl 0.6000 0.5300 0.85 (0.000085%) 10
61 71 lutetium Lu 0.8 (0.00008%)
62 69 thulium Tm 0.4800 0.4500 0.52 (0.000052%)
63 53 iodine I 0.1400 0.4900 0.45 (0.000045%) 31,600
64 49 indium In 0.0490 0.1600 0.25 (0.000025%) 655
65 51 antimony Sb 0.2000 0.2000 0.2 (0.00002%) 130,000
66 48 cadmium Cd 0.1100 0.1500 0.15 (0.000015%) 23,000
67 80 mercury Hg 0.0500 0.0670 0.085 (0.0000085%) 4,500
68 47 silver Ag 0.0700 0.0800 0.075 (0.0000075%) 27,000
69 34 selenium Se 0.0500 0.0500 0.05 (0.000005%) 2,200
70 46 palladium Pd 0.0006 0.0063 0.015 (0.0000015%) 208
71 83 bismuth Bi 0.0480 0.0250 0.0085 (0.00000085%) 10,200
72 2 helium He 0.008 (0.0000008%)
73 10 neon Ne 0.0051 (0.00000051%)
74 78 platinum Pt 0.0030 0.0037 0.005 (0.0000005%) 172
75 79 gold Au 0.0011 0.0031 0.004 (0.0000004%) 3,100
76 76 osmium Os 0.0001 0.0018 0.0015 (0.00000015%)
77 52 tellurium Te 0.0050 0.0010 0.001 (0.0000001%) 2,200
78 44 ruthenium Ru 0.0010 0.0010 0.001(0.0000001%)
79 77 iridium Ir 0.0003 0.0004 0.001(0.0000001%)
80 45 rhodium Rh 0.0002 0.0007 0.001(0.0000001%)
81 75 rhenium Re 0.0004 0.0026 0.0007 (0.00000007%) 47.2
82 36 krypton Kr 0.0001 (0.00000001%)
83 54 xenon Xe 0.00003 (0.000000003%)
84 91 protactinium Pa 0.0000014 (0.00000000014%)
85 88 radium Ra 0.0000009 (0.00000000009%)
86 84 polonium Po 0.0000000002 (0.00000000000002%)
87 94 plutonium Pu 0.00000000003 (0.000000000000003%)
88 93 neptunium Np 0.000000000003 (0.0000000000000003%)
89 43 technetium Tc 0.00000000000135 (0.000000000000000135%)
90 89 actinium Ac 0.0000000000006 (0.00000000000000006%)
91 86 radon Rn 0.0000000000004 (0.00000000000000004%)
92 61 promethium Pm 0.00000000000000002 (0.000000000000000000002%)
93 87 francium Fr 0.000000000000000001 (0.0000000000000000000001%)
94 85 astatine At 0.00000000000000000003 (0.000000000000000000000003%)

See also

References

  1. ^ Anderson, Don L.; "Chemical Composition of the Mantle", Theory of the Earth, pp. 147-175 ISBN 0865421234
  2. ^ David Kring, Composition of Earth's continental crust as inferred from the compositions of impact melt sheets, Lunar and Planetary Science XXVIII
  3. ^ "Elements, Terrestrial Abundance". www.daviddarling.info. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Barbalace, Kenneth. "Periodic Table of Elements". Environmental Chemistry.com. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Abundance in Earth's Crust". WebElements.com. Archived from the original on 9 March 2007. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "List of Periodic Table Elements Sorted by Abundance in Earth's crust". Israel Science and Technology Homepage. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Abundance of elements in the earth's crust and in the sea, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 97th edition (2016-2017), p. 14-17
  8. ^ Commodity Statistics and Information. USGS. All production numbers are for mines, except for Al, Cd, Fe, Ge, In, N, Se (plants, refineries), S (all forms) and As, Br, Mg, Si (unspecified). Data for B, K, Ti, Y are given not for the pure element but for the most common oxide, data for Na and Cl are for NaCl. For many elements like Si, Al, data are ambiguous (many forms produced) and are taken for the pure element. U data is pure element required for consumption by current reactor fleet [1]. WNA.
  • BookRags, Periodic Table.
  • World Book Encyclopedia, Exploring Earth.
  • HyperPhysics, Georgia State University, Abundance of Elements in Earth's Crust.
  • Data Series 140, Historical Statistics for Mineral and Material Commodities in the United States, Version 2011, USGS [2].
  • Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2007

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Abundance_of_elements_in_Earth's_crust
 



 



 
Music Scenes