Adygea
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Adygea
Republic of Adygea
?
Other transcription(s)
 o Adyghe
Anthem: "Anthem of the Republic of Adygea"[3]
Map of Russia - Adygea.svg
Coordinates: 44°39?N 40°00?E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000Coordinates: 44°39?N 40°00?E / 44.650°N 40.000°E / 44.650; 40.000
CountryRussia
Federal districtSouthern[1]
Economic regionNorth Caucasus[2]
CapitalMaykop[4]
Government
 o BodyState Council (Khase)[5]
 o Head[5]Murat Kumpilov
Area
 o Total7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi)
Area rank80th
Population
(2010 Census)[7]
 o Total439,996
 o Estimate 
(2018)[8]
453,376 (+3%)
 o Rank74th
 o Density56/km2 (150/sq mi)
 o Urban
50.9%
 o Rural
49.1%
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[9])
ISO 3166 codeRU-AD
License plates01
OKTMO ID79000000
Official languagesRussian;[10] Adyghe[11]
Websitehttp://www.adygheya.ru/

The Republic of Adygea (;[13] Russian: ?, tr. Respublika Adygeya, IPA: [?d?'ej?]; Adyghe: , Adygæ Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a landlocked republic of Russia located in the North Caucasus of Eastern Europe. It is a part of the Southern Federal District, and covers an area of 7,600 square kilometers (2,900 sq mi), with a population of roughly 450 thousand residents.[7] It is the fifth-smallest Russian federal subject by area, with its territory an enclave within Krasnodar Krai. Maykop is the capital and the largest city of Adygea, home to one-third of the republic's population.

Adygea is one of Russia's ethnic republics, primarily representing the indigenous Adyghe people, a Circassian ethnic group that form 25% of the Republic's population, while Russians form a majority at 60%, and with minority populations of Armenians and Ukrainians. The official languages of Adygea are Russian and the Adyghe.

Geography

Adygea lies in Russia's Southern Federal District of Eastern Europe, in the foothills of the Northwestern Caucasus in the Caucasus Mountains System, with plains in the northern areas and mountains in the southern area. Forests (mainly of European beech, oak, and maple) cover almost 40% of its territory.

  • Area -- 7,792 km2 (3,009 sq mi).
  • Borders -- the Republic of Adygea is entirely surrounded by Krasnodar Krai.
  • Highest point -- Chugush Mountain: 3,238 m (10,623 ft).

Rivers

Khodz river headwaters, endemic region

The 870-kilometer (540 mi) long Kuban River is one of the major navigable rivers in the Caucasus region. It forms part of the northern border between the Republic of Adygea and Krasnodar Krai.
Other rivers include:

Lakes

Lago-Naki area in Adygea

The republic has no large lakes. However, the several large reservoirs include:

Mountains

The republic's major mountains and peaks range in height from 2,000-3,238 metres (6,562-10,623 ft), and include:

Natural resources

The republic is rich in oil and natural gas. Other natural resources include gold, silver, tungsten, and iron.

Climate

  • Average January temperature: -0.5 °C (31.1 °F)
  • Average July temperature: +23 °C (73 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: 70 centimeters (28 in)

February 15, 2010 recorded the absolute maximum for the winter months—in the capital, the city of Maykop, the temperature was 23.4 °C (74.1 °F).

History

Map of Adygea

The Cherkess (Adyghe) Autonomous Oblast was established within the Russian SFSR on July 27, 1922, on the territories of the Kuban-Black Sea Oblast, primarily settled by the Adyghe people.[15] At that time, Krasnodar was the administrative center. It was renamed Adyghe (Cherkess) Autonomous Oblast on August 24, 1922, soon after its creation. In the first two years of its existence the autonomous oblast was a part of the Russian SFSR, but on October 17, 1924, it was transferred to the jurisdiction of the newly created North Caucasus Krai within the RSFSR.[16]

It was renamed Adyghe Autonomous Oblast (AO) in July 1928. On January 10, 1934, the autonomous oblast became part of the new Azov-Black Sea Krai, which was removed from North Caucasus Krai. Maykop was made the administrative center of the autonomous oblast in 1936. Adyghe AO became part of Krasnodar Krai when it was established on September 13, 1937.

On July 3, 1991, the oblast was elevated to the status of a republic under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation.[12] The first President of the republic was Aslan Dzharimov, elected on 5 January 1992.[17]

Relations between the Adyghe and ethnic Russians in Adygea are currently good. Russians make up two-thirds of the population within Adygea.[18] The current Head of Adygea is Murat Kumpilov.

Divisions

Administrative divisions of the Republic of Adygea

The Republic of Adygea is administratively divided into seven districts (raions), two cities/towns, and (at a lower administrative level) five urban-type settlements. Municipally, the republic is divided into two urban okrugs, five urban settlements, and 46 rural settlements.

Name Local Name Area in
km2
Population
Census[19] 2010
Population
Estimate[20]
1 Jan 2018
Cities (republican municipal districts)
Maykop
58.6 166,540 165,279
Adygeysk
32.4 14,659 15,207
Districts
Giaginsky District ? ?.?. 790.0 31,766 31,394
Koshekhablsky District ? ?.?. 606.7 30,422 29,726
Krasnogvardeysky District ?.?. 725.5 30,868 31,765
Maykopsky District ? ?.?. 3,667.4 58,439 60,107
Takhtamukaysky District ?.?. 440.0 69,662 82,909
Teuchezhsky District ? ?.?. 710.0 20,643 20,802
Shovgenovsky District ?.?. 521.4 16,997 16,187
Adygea Republic ? 7,600.0 439,996 453,376
  • Note "?.?." above is an abbreviation for "? " (Municipal District)

Demographics

Vital statistics

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service[23]
Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates
1970 386,000 5,681 3,307 2,374 14.7 8.6 6.2
1975 396,000 5,900 3,907 1,993 14.9 9.9 5.0
1980 409,000 6,610 4,828 1,782 16.2 11.8 4.4
1985 423,000 6,966 5,283 1,683 16.5 12.5 4.0
1990 436,000 6,171 5,375 796 14.2 12.3 1.8 2.06
1991 439,000 5,912 5,905 7 13.5 13.5 0.0 1.96
1992 444,000 5,306 5,969 - 663 12.0 13.5 -1.5 1.73
1993 447,000 4,774 6,662 -1 888 10.7 14.9 -4.2 1.54
1994 449,000 4,907 6,519 -1 612 10.9 14.5 -3.6 1.59
1995 450,000 4,798 6,475 -1 677 10.7 14.4 -3.7 1.55
1996 450,000 4,625 6,382 -1 757 10.3 14.2 -3.9 1.49
1997 450,000 4,430 6,302 -1 872 9.8 14.0 -4.2 1.42
1998 451,000 4,340 6,245 -1 905 9.6 13.9 -4.2 1.38
1999 450,000 3,879 6,215 -2 336 8.6 13.8 -5.2 1.22
2000 448,000 4,071 6,710 -2 639 9.1 15.0 -5.9 1.27
2001 447,000 4,212 6,566 -2 354 9.4 14.7 -5.3 1.31
2002 447,000 4,540 6,715 -2 175 10.2 15.0 -4.9 1.39
2003 446,000 4,634 6,929 -2 295 10.4 15.6 -5.2 1.40
2004 444,000 4,648 6,645 -1 997 10.5 15.0 -4.5 1.37
2005 443,000 4,550 6,726 -2 176 10.3 15.2 -4.9 1.32
2006 441,000 4,606 6,686 -2 080 10.4 15.2 -4.7 1.33
2007 440,000 5,210 6,454 -1 244 11.8 14.7 -2.8 1.50
2008 440,000 5,601 6,558 - 957 12.7 14.9 -2.2 1.60
2009 439,000 5,513 6,219 - 706 12.5 14.2 -1.6 1.66
2010 439,000 5,721 6,065 - 476 13.0 14.1 -1.1 1.70
2011 441,000 5,511 6,197 - 554 12.5 13.8 -1.3 1.66
2012 444,000 5,700 5,924 - 224 12.9 13.4 -0.5 1.71
2013 445,000 5,568 5,814 - 246 12.5 13.1 -0.6 1.68
2014 448,000 5,699 5,938 - 239 12.7 13.3 -0.6 1.73
2015 450,000 5,613 5,841 - 228 12.5 13.0 -0.5 1.72
2016 453,000 5,451 5,818 - 367 12.1 12.9 -0.8 1.69(e)
2017 453,000 4,758 5,734 - 976 10.5 12.7 -2.2
2019 4,184 5,654 - 1,470 9.1 12.3 -3.2
2020 4,419 6,154 - 1,735 9.5 13.3 -3.8

Ethnic groups

According to the 2010 Census,[7] ethnic Russians make up 63.6% of the republic's total population, while the ethnic Adyghe are 25.8%. Other groups include Armenians (3.7%), Ukrainians (1.4%), Kurds (1.1%) and Tatars (0.6%).

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Adyghe 50,821 44.8% 55,048 22.8% 65,908 23.2% 81,478 21.1% 86,388 21.4% 95,439 22.1% 108,115 24.2% 109,699 25.8%
Russians 29,102 25.6% 171,960 71.1% 200,492 70.4% 276,537 71.7% 285,626 70.6% 293,640 68.0% 288,280 64.5% 270,714 63.6%
Armenians 738 0.7% 2,348 1.0% 3,013 1.1% 5,217 1.4% 6,359 1.6% 10,460 2.4% 15,268 3.4% 15,561 3.7%
Ukrainians 26,405 23.3% 6,130 2.5% 7,988 2.8% 11,214 2.9% 12,078 3.0% 13,755 3.2% 9,091 2.0% 5,856 1.4%
Others 6,415 5.7% 6,313 2.6% 7,289 2.6% 11,198 2.9% 13,939 3.4% 18,752 4.3% 26,355 5.9% 14,093 3.3%
1 14,610 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[24]

Religions

Religion in Adygea as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[25][26]
Russian Orthodoxy
35.4%
Other Orthodox
1.4%
Other Christians
3.8%
Islam
12.6%
Spiritual but not religious
29.8%
Atheism and irreligion
9.2%
Other and undeclared
7.8%

According to a 2012 survey which interviewed 56,900 people,[25] 35.4% of the population of Adygea adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 12.6% to Islam, 3% are unaffiliated Christians and 1% are Orthodox Christian believers who don't belong to church or are members of other Orthodox churches. In addition, 30% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 9% is atheist, and 8.6% follows other religions or did not answer to the question.[25]

Politics

Former Head of the Republic of Adygea, Aslan Tkhakushinov, in 2010

The chief executive of the government of the Republic of Adygea is the Head (called "President" until May 2011), who is appointed for a five-year term. Proficiency in the Adyghe language is a prerequisite for the candidate.[27]

The current Head, Murat Kumpilov (since January 27, 2017), succeeded Aslan Tkhakushinov, initially as acting Head of the region. There is also a directly elected State Council (Khase or Xase--not to be confused with the Adyghe Khase, a union of Adyghe who supported Sovmen for a second term), which comprises the Council of Representatives and the Council of the Republic. Both councils are elected every five years and have 27 deputies each.

The Republic sends three representatives to the parliament of the Russian Federation; one to the State Duma and the other two to the Federation Council.

The Constitution of the Republic of Adygea was adopted on May 14, 1995.

Economy

Even though it is one of the poorest parts of Russia, the republic has abundant forests and rich soil. The region is famous for producing grain, sunflowers, tea, tobacco, and other produce. Hog and sheep breeding are also developed.

Food, timber, woodworking, pulp and paper, heavy engineering, and metal-working are the most developed industries.

Transportation

There is a small airport in Maykop (ICAO airport code URKM). Several rail lines pass through the republic.

Culture

A man speaking Adyghe.

The Adyghe language () is a member of the isolate Northwest Caucasian language family. Along with Russian, Adyghe is the official language of the republic.

There are 8 state and 23 public museums in the republic. The largest museum is the National Museum of the Republic of Adygea in Maykop.

Education

Adyghe State University and Maykop State Technological University, both in the capital Maykop, are the two major higher education facilities in Adygea.

Notable people

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ ? . ? No849  13 2000 ?. «? ? ? ? ? ». ? ? ? 13 2000 ?. : " ? ", No. 20, . 2112, 15 2000 ?. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ ? . No 024-95 27 ? 1995 ?. « ? ? . 2. ? », ? . No5/2001 ?. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ Law #90
  4. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 62
  5. ^ a b Constitution, Article 7.4.
  6. ^ ? (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "?, ?, ? ? ? ? ? (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". ? 2002 ? (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). ? 2010 ?.  1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. ? 2010 ? [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  8. ^ "26. ? ? 1 2018 ?". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ " ? ?". - ? (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  11. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Adygea, Article 5
  12. ^ a b Official website of the Republic of Adygea. Archived July 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  13. ^ "Adygeya at merriam-webster.com". m-w.com. Retrieved 2009.
  14. ^ Baryshnikova, Gennady; John F. Hoffeckerb; Robin L. Burgess (May 1996). "Palaeontology and Zooarchaeology of Mezmaiskaya Cave (Northwestern Caucasus, Russia)". Journal of Archaeological Science. 23 (3): 313-335. doi:10.1006/jasc.1996.0030. Over 6000 large mammal and numerous small vertebrate remains have been recovered from preliminary excavations at Mezmaiskaya Cave
  15. ^ Azarenkova et al., p. 154
  16. ^ . ?. ? ? ?. ? (1998). "" 1997. 2. - " (Political Almanac of Russia 1997. Vol. 2. Social and Political Portraits of the Regions), online edition" (PDF) (in Russian). ? ?. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  17. ^ Richmond, Walter (2008). The Northwest Caucasus: Past, Present, Future. Routledge. p. 146. ISBN 978-1134002498.
  18. ^ -2010 (in Russian). Gks.ru. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ State Committee of the Russian Federation on Statistics.
  20. ^ www.gks.ru http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar. Retrieved 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  21. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). , ? ? ? ?, ?, , ? ? - ? ? ? ? ? ? 3  ? ? [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities--Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). ? 2002 ? [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  22. ^ ? 1989 ?. ? ? ? , ? ? ?, , , ?, ? -? [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. ? 1989 ? [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). ? ? : [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  23. ^ ? ?:: ? (in Russian). Gks.ru. May 8, 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  24. ^ "-2010". rosstat.gov.ru.
  25. ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  26. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", No 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  27. ^ ?, ? (2009). "" ? (in Russian). Moscow: Regnum. p. 17. ISBN 978-5-91150-030-6.

Sources

  •  - ? ? .  No90  7 ? 2007 ?. «? ? ( ? . 7 ? 2007 ?.)», ? . No91  28 2012 ?. «? ? ? ». ? ? ?  ?. : " ", No112-113, 14 ? 2007 ?. (State Council of the Republic of Adygea. Law #90 of June 7, 2007 On the Symbols of State of the Republic of Adygea (text of rev. of June 7, 2007), as amended by the Law #91 of April 28, 2012 On Amending Various Laws of the Republic of Adygea. Effective as of the day of official publication.).
  •  No168-1  14 ? 1995 ?. «? ? ? ? », ? . No231  1 ? 2013 ?. «? ?  3 ? "? ? ? ? "». ? ? ? 14 ? 1995 ?. : " (?) - ? ", No15, 14 ? 1995 ?.. (Law #168-1 of February 14, 1995 On Holidays and Memorial Dates, as amended by the Law #231 of August 1, 2013 On Amending Article 3 of the Law of the Republic of Adygea "On Holidays and Memorial Dates". Effective as of February 14, 1995.).
  •  -- ? ? . 10 1995 ?. « ? ( ? . 3  2007 ?.)», ? . ? No459  30 ? 2015 ?. «? ? ? ». : " (?) -- ? ", No16, 6-10 1995 ?. (State Council of the Republic of Adygea. March 10, 1995 Constitution of the Republic of Adygea (text of rev. of May 3, 2007), as amended by the Constitutional Law #459 of October 30, 2015 On the Amendments to the Constitution of the Republic of Adygea. ).
  • ? .  No46-  2 2007 ?. « - ? ? ». (President of the Republic of Adygea. Directive #46-rp of April 2, 2007 On Creation of the Official Website of the Executive Organs of State Power of the Republic of Adygea. ).
  • ?, ?. ?.; ?, ?. ?.; , ?. ?. (1986) [1986]. - (1793-1985 .) (in Russian). ? ? . p. 394.

External links


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Adygea
 



 



 
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