Alvars
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Alvars

Alvar
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ReligionHinduism

The alvars (Tamil: ?, romanized: v?r)[note 1] or Alvarkal (Tamil: ?, romanized: v?rka?, lit.'those immersed in god') were Tamil poet-saints of South India who espoused bhakti (devotion) to the Hindu god Vishnu in their songs of longing, ecstasy and service.[2] They are venerated especially in Vaishnavism, which regards Lord Vishnu as the Supreme entity.

Many modern academics place the Alvar date between 5th century to 10th century CE. However, traditionally the Alvar are considered to have lived between 4200 and 2700 BCE. Orthodoxy posits the number of alvars as ten, though there are other references that include Andal and Madhurakavi Alvar, making the number twelve.[3] Andal is the only female Alvar among the 12. Together with the contemporary sixty three Shaiva Nayanars, they are among the most important saints from Tamil Nadu.

The devotional outpourings of alvars, composed during the early medieval period of Tamil history, helped revive the bhakti movement, through their hymns of worship to Vishnu and his avatars. They praised the Divya Desams, 108 "abodes" (temples) of these Vaishnava deities. The poetry of the alvars echoes bhakti to God through love, and in the ecstasy of such devotions they sang hundreds of songs which embodied both depth of feeling and felicity of expressions.[4] The collection of their hymns is known as Divya Prabandha. The Bhakti literature that sprang from alvars has contributed to the establishment and sustenance of a culture that broke away from the ritual-oriented Vedic religion and rooted itself in devotion as the only path for salvation. In addition they helped to make the Tamil religious life independent of a knowledge of Sanskrit.[5] As part of the legacy of the alvars, five Vaishnava philosophical traditions (sampradayas) have developed at the later stages.[6]

Etymology

The word alvar has traditionally been etymologized as from Tamil. Al (), 'to immerse oneself' as 'one who dives deep into the ocean of the countless attributes of god'.[7]

However recently Indologist Sudalaimuthu Palaniappan has established[8] from epigraphy and textual evidence that the traditional term v?r (?) for Vaiavaite Tamil poet saints has historically been a corruption of the original v?r (?). It is investigated with a multi-faceted approach using philology, linguistics, epigraphy, and religion.

Correction of the original v?r (?) to v?r (?)

Palaniappan[8] shows that what was originally v?r (?) meaning 'One who rules', or '(Spiritual) Master' got changed through hypercorrection and folk etymology to v?r (?) meaning 'One who is immersed'. Palaniappan cites inscriptional evidence and even literary evidence from Vaishnavaite tradition itself for a gradual sound change from v?r (?) to v?r (?) over a period of two centuries from the 9th to the 11th century involving references to religious leaders in Vaiavism, ?aivism and even Jainism and to political personalities. He states: "v?r is but a corrupt form of v?r which has been used interchangeably with n?yan?r in secular and religious contexts in the Tamil land" and "... Notwithstanding the Vaiava claim of unbroken teacher-student tradition, the fact that N?thamuni has used the form v?r but Pin, a disciple and younger cousin of R?m?nuja, ended up using the form v?r suggests that there has been an error in transmission somewhere along the teacher-student chain between the two teachers. This error was obviously due to the influence of the sound variation that has occurred in the Srirangam area and elsewhere".

The original word ? compares with the epithet 'ã?' (?) for the female canonized Vaishnava saint G?dai (?) and they share the same verb Tamil. (), the former being the honorific non-past (or present-future) form and the latter the feminine past form of that same verb.

Reception by scholars

Palaniappan's findings on 'v?r' have been accepted by scholars like Prof. Alexander Dubyanskiy. In his article on , Dubyanskiy says,[9] " was among the twelve v?rs, the poet-saints, adepts of Viu, canonized by the tradition, which accepted the interpretation of meaning of the word v?r as "submerged, plunged [in love for god]", from the verbal root , "to plunge, to be in the deep". But recently it was convincingly shown by S. Palaniappan (2004) that initially the term in question was represented by the word v?r (from the verbal root "to rule"), which reads as "those who rule, lords", and was applied in the texts, both ?aiva and Vaiava, to ?iva and Viu accordingly (pp. 66-70). In the course of time the term underwent the process of sound variation, took the form v?r and acquired the folk etymology which was accepted and fixed by the tradition. It is worth noting here that this interpretation agrees well with the meaning of the poetess' nickname , which means "she who rules".

Modern Alvar

Alvar or Alwar[10] in modern times are confined to temples in South India. Still devout to Lord Vishnu, lot of the practices of have remained the same, except for some modern changes.[11][12]

Legacy and History

Alvars are considered the twelve supreme devotees of Vishnu, who were instrumental in popularising Vaishnavism in the Tamil-speaking regions.[13] The alvars were influential in promoting the Bhagavata cult and the two Hindu epics, namely, Ramayana and Mahabaratha.[14] The religious works of these saints in Tamil, songs of love and devotion, are compiled as Nalayira Divya Prabandham containing 4000 verses and the 108 temples revered in their songs are classified as Divya desam.[15][16] The verses of the various alvars were compiled by Nathamuni (824 - 924 CE), a 10th-century Vaishnavite theologian, who called it the "Dravida Veda or Tamil Veda".[17][18] The songs of Prabandam are regularly sung in all the Vishnu temples of South India daily and also during festivals.[16][19]

The birth of Alvars were already been sketched in mid-Dwapara Yuga due to a heated debate between Vishvakarma (the divine architect of Gods) and Agastya (a sage) about the best language (Sanskrit or Tamil). Midst of debate, Agastya Maharshi gets furious which makes him to curse the former that, at some point of time one of his architecture would be destroyed (a contemporary to Gandhari's curse to Dwarka) and can never be recovered. (Some sources say Agastya Maharshi curses Vishvakarma for Sanskrit to lose its fame, as the curse became true in the present Kali Yuga). Enraged Vishvakarma too curse Agastya Maharshi in return that his most favorite language (Tamil) will be downtrodden in the future, and will go very remote that people will badly fail to identify its history and its sources. Agastya Maharshi who felt very bad by then for confronting Vishvakarma for a childish reason is in turn blessed by the vision (darshan) of Lord Vishnu after a long penance who promises him that one day Tamil language will regain consciousness and will emerge same as before but with little disparities and disabilities among people in pronunciation of words as Kali Yuga progresses. At the same time Vishnu also promises the Vedas to be translated to Tamil as the result of his curse on Vishvakarma. Agastya Maharshi gets happy and awaits for the time for his boon to become true. After the Mahabharata war and all the post incidents in Dwarka (Gandhari's curse coming into effect and Lord Krishna's death in the hands of the hunter Jara), Lord Krishna as Lord Vishnu resumes his abode in Vaikunta, hence sowing the seeds of Kali Yuga. In Vaikunta, Lord Vishnu rests on Adi Sesha, surrounded by his amshas (messengers). He becomes worried about the people of Kali Yuga. His weapons (The Sudarshana Chakra, Panchajanya, etc.) asks the reason he to which he responded the same. Sudarshana immediately responded to slice the head of all people who refused Dharma, to which Lord Vishnu smiled and corrected him exclaiming nobody would be left alive if he were to do so even in the Dwapara Yuga, then Kali Yuga would be no less. When asked any other solution, Lord Vishnu says his amshas (messengers or weapons) to take birth and to become a role model and inspire how they suffered to reach the holy feet of Lord to the human beings who come in the future. Thus descended those weapons to Earth, being the amshas (or weapons of Lord Vishnu) who happily accepted to take birth as different Alvars, aligning with the boon given to Agastya Maharshi and also became a role model for the human beings who came later in the Kali Yuga.

As per the boon given to Agastya Maharshi by Lord Vishnu, the 5th (or sometimes the 10th or 12th) Alvar, Nammalvar (amsha or incarnation of Vishvaksena) is credited for converting the Rig Veda to 100 poems called the Thiruviratham, Yajur Veda as Thiruvarshiyam and the most difficult Sama Veda as Thiruvaimozhi in 1000 verses (poems).

The saints had different origins and belonged to different castes. As per tradition, the first three alvars, Poigai Alvar, Bhuthath Alvar, Peyalvar and Andal were born miraculously i.e., they were not given birth. Thirumizhisai Alvar was the son of a sage Bhargava; Thondaradipodi Alvar, Mathurakavi Alvar, Periazhwar were brahmin; Kulasekhara was a Kshatriya, Nammalvar was from a cultivator family, Thirupanalvar from Tamil Panar community and Thirumangai Alvar from kalvar community. Some Vaishnavities consider only the main 10 alvars (except Andal and Madhurakavi Alvar) while other include these two in the list too. Srirangam is the only Divya Desam that was glorified commonly by the 12 Alvars.

Temple records and inscriptions give a detailed account of the alvars and their works. According to these texts, the saints were considered incarnations of some form of Vishnu. Few of them are:

  1. Divya Suri Saritra by Garuda-Vahana Pandita (11th century)
  2. Guruparamparaprabavam by Pinbaragiya Perumal Jiyar
  3. Periya tiru mudi adaivu by Anbillai Kandadiappan
  4. Yatindra Pranava Prabavam by Pillai Lokacharya
  5. commentaries on Divya Prabandam
  6. Guru Parampara (lineage of Gurus) texts

According to traditional account by Manavala Mamunigal, the first three alvars namely Poigai Alvar, Bhoothath Alvar and Pey Alvar belong to Dwapara Yuga (even before birth of Lord Krishna, i.e., before 4200 BCE). It is widely accepted by tradition and historians that the trio are the earliest among the twelve alvars.[15][16][20][21][22] Along with the three Saiva Nayanmars, they influenced the ruling Pallava kings, creating a Bhakti movement that resulted in changing the religious geography from Buddhism and Jainism to these two sects of Hinduism in the region.

After the era of Alvars, few of the Divya Prabandham were lost. So in order to retrieve them, Lord Vishnu sent Nathamuni, who had vision of Nammalvar through the idol that Nammalvar advised Madhurakavi Alvar to get for. The idol can be found till date in Alvarthirunagari Temple.

Summary

Some modern scholars suggest that they lived during 5th - 9th century CE, "on the basis of a few historical evidences", although no "clear" evidence exists to fit them between 5th to 9th century CE.[23][24] The Encyclopædia Britannica says that alvars lived between 7th - 10th century CE.[25] Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, James G. Lochtefeld of Carthage College, notes in his The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, the first three alvars Poigai, Bhoothath and Pey belonged to the 7th century; while Nammalvar and Madhurakavi belonged to the 10th century; while rest of them lived in the 9th century.[26]

Traditionally the Alwars are considered to have lived between 4200 BCE - 2700 BCE,[27][28] while some texts account for range between 4200 BCE to early 10th century. Traditional dates take them to the age of Shuka from the period of the Bhagavata Purana, the first four (Poigai Alvar, Bhoothathalvar, Peyalvar and Thirumalisai alvar) are from Dvapara Yuga, while Nammalwar, Madhurakavi Alvar and others belong to Kali Yuga.[29]

The following table shows the place, century and star of birth of each alvar. Scholarly dating, except that of Kulasekhara Alvar, is based on summary of views of modern scholars by Dr. N Subba Reddiar, although even these dates lack historical evidence.[23] Much effort has gone into dating Kulasekhara Alvar recently. The alvar is now identified as Sthanu Ravi Kulasekhara (reigned c.844-871 CE), the first known ruler of the Cheras of Makotai (Cranganore) (c. 800-1124 CE).[30]

Sl no Image Alwar Saint Scholarly dating[23] Traditional date[31][32] and place Composition Month Nakshatra Avatar of
1 Poigai Alvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Kanchipuram Mudhal Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Thiruvonam (Sravana) Panchajanya (Vishnu's conch)
2 Bhoothath Alvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Thirukadalmallai (Mahabhalipuram) Irandam Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Avittam (Dhanishta) Kaumodaki (Vishnu's Mace)
3 Pey Alvar 713 CE 4203 BCE, Mylapore Moondram Thiruvandhadhi, 100 verses. Aiypassee Sadayam (Satabhishak) Nandaka (Vishnu's sword)
4 Thirumalisai Alvar 720 CE 3102 BCE Thirumazhisai Nanmugan Thiruvandhadhi, 96 verses; ThiruChanda Virutham, 120 verses. Thai Magam (Magh?) Sudarshana Chakra (Vishnu's discus)
5
Kalamegaperumal1 (2).jpg
Nammalvar 798 CE 3059[33] BCEAlwarthirunagiri (Kurugur) Thiruvaymozhi, 1102 verses; Thiruvasiriyam, 7 verses; Thiruvirutham, 100 verses; Periya Thiruvandhadhi, 87 verses. Vaikasi Vishaakam (Vish?kh?) Vishvaksena (Vishnu's commander)
6 Madhurakavi Alvar 800 CE 3049 BC, Thirukollur Kanninun Siruthambu, 11 verses. Chitthirai Chitthirai (Chithra) Kumuda Ganesha (Vishvaksena's disciple) or Padma (Lotus)
7
Kulasekhara Alwar.png
Kulasekhara Alvar (Sthanuravi Kulasekhara[30]) 9th century CE (reigned 844-883CE)[30] 3075 BC, Tiruvancikkulam (Cranganore), Chera Kingdom of Makotai Perumal Thirumozhi, 105 verses. Maasee Punar Poosam (Punarvasu) Kaustubha (Vishnu's jewel embedded in his necklace)
8
Periazhwar.jpg
Periyalvar 785 CE 3056 BC, Srivilliputhur Periyalvar Thirumozhi, 461 verses. Aani Swathi (Swaathee) Garuda (Vishnu's mount)
9
NarayanaTirumala5.JPG
Andal 767 CE 3005 BC, Srivilliputhur Nachiyar Thirumozhi, 143 verses; Thiruppavai, 30 verses. Aadi Pooram (P?rva Phalgun? (Pubbha)) Bhudevi (Vishnu's wife and the earth goddess)
10
Thondaradipodi Azhwar.jpg
Thondaradippodi Alvar 726 CE 2814 BCE, Thirumandangudi Thirumaalai, 45 verses; Thirupalliezhuchi, 10 verses. Margazhi Kettai (Jyeshta) Vanamalai (Vishnu's garland)
11
Thirupaan Azhwar.jpg
Thiruppaan Alvar 781 CE 2760 BCE, Uraiyur Amalan Adi Piraan, 10 verses. Karthigai Rogini (Rohinee) Srivatsa (An auspicious mark on Vishnu's chest)
12
Thirumangai Azhwar.jpg
Thirumangai Alvar 776 CE 2706 BCE, Thirukurayalur Periya Thirumozhi, 1084 verses; Thiru Vezhukootru irukkai, 1 verse; Thiru Kurun Thandagam, 20 verses; Thiru Nedun Thandagam, 30 verses; Siriya Thirumadal, 40 verses; Periya Thirumadal, 78 verses; Kaarthigai Krithika (K?ttik?) Sharanga (Vishnu's bow)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Considered by some a misspelling as the pronunciation for "wa" is not the same as "va" and does not exist in Tamil or Sanskrit)[1]

References

  1. ^ https://linguistics.stackexchange.com/questions/6039/how-is-sanskrit-va-supposed-to-be-pronounced
  2. ^ Andrea Nippard. "The Alvars" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  3. ^ Flood 1996, p. 131
  4. ^ "Indian Literature Through the Ages". Indian literature, Govt of India. Archived from the original on 15 May 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  5. ^ "About Alvars". divyadesamonline.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  6. ^ Mittal, S. G. R.; Thursby (2006). Religions of South Asia: An Introduction. Routledge. p. 27. ISBN 9780203970027.
  7. ^ "Meaning of Alvar". ramanuja.org. Retrieved 2007.
  8. ^ a b Palaniappan, Sudalaimuthu. "v?r or N?yar: The Role of Sound Variation, Hypercorrection and Folk Etymology in Interpreting the Nature of Vaiava Saint-Poets" – via www.academia.edu. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  9. ^ https://publications.efeo.fr/en/livres/820_the-archaeology-of-bhakti-i and http://www2.rsuh.ru/binary/object_40.1412591563.13923.pdf
  10. ^ Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Murthy, Tejus (2017). "Alvars of South India: A psychiatric scanner". Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 59 (3): 375-379. doi:10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_383_16. PMC 5659091. PMID 29085100.
  11. ^ https://in.pinterest.com/pin/575686764849073511/[full ][self-published source?]
  12. ^ https://indiathedestiny.com/india-philosophers/alvars-tamil-saints/
  13. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 47-48
  14. ^ B.S. 2011, p. 42
  15. ^ a b Rao, P.V.L. Narasimha (2008). Kanchipuram - Land of Legends, Saints & Temples. New Delhi: Readworthy Publications (P) Ltd. p. 27. ISBN 978-93-5018-104-1.
  16. ^ a b c Dalal 2011, pp. 20-21
  17. ^ Mukherjee (1999). A Dictionary of Indian Literatures: Beginnings-1850 Volume 1 of A Dictionary of Indian Literature, A Dictionary of Indian Literature. Orient Blackswan. p. 15. ISBN 9788125014539.
  18. ^ Garg, Ga?g? R?m (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World: Ak-Aq. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 352-354. ISBN 9788170223757.
  19. ^ Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. p. 211. ISBN 9780810864450.
  20. ^ Lochtefeld, James (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 515. ISBN 9780823931804. poygai.
  21. ^ Aiyangar, Sakkottai Krishnaswami (1920). Early history of Vaishnavism in south India. Oxford University Press. pp. 17-18. poigai azhwar.
  22. ^ Krishna (2009). Book of Vishnu. Penguin Books India. p. 136. ISBN 9780143067627.
  23. ^ a b c "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the ?l?v?rs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 11
  24. ^ "M?dhavêndra Pur?: A Link between Bengal Vaiavism and South Indian "Bhakti", by Friedhelm HardyThe Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland No. 1 (1974), pp. 23-41, Published by: Cambridge University Press, JSTOR 25203503
  25. ^ "Azhvaar". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2014. Web. 30 Dec. 2014 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/18115/Azhvar>.
  26. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 29-30. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  27. ^ "Philosophy and Theistic Mysticism of the ?l?v?rs", by S. M. Srinivasa Chari, publisher = Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 9788120813427, p. 10
  28. ^ "?r?bhyam: Catu?s?try?tmaka?", by R?m?nuja, Raghunath Damodar Karmarkar, p.18, original from = The University of Michigan
  29. ^ Jean Filliozat. Religion, Philosophy, Yoga: A Selection of Articles. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 23.
  30. ^ a b c Narayanan, M. G. S. "Perumals of Kerala: Brahmin Oligarchy and Ritual Monarchy--Political and Social Conditions of Kerala Under the Cera Perumals of Makotai (c. AD 800-AD 1124)" Kerala. Calicut University Press. 1996
  31. ^ "Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India", by Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, p. 403-404, publisher = Asian Educational Services
  32. ^ "Music and temples, a ritualistic approach", by L. Annapoorna, p. 23, year = 2000, ISBN 9788175740907
  33. ^ "History of Classical Sanskrit Literature", by M. Srinivasachariar, p. 278, ISBN 9788120802841

Bibliography

  • Flood, G.D. (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hymns for the Drowning by A.K. Ramanujan (Penguin)
  • Nammalvar by A. Srinivasa Raghavan (Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi),1975, ISBN 81-260-0416 9
  • Alwargal - ^Or Eliya Arimugam by Sujatha (Visa Publications, Chennai, India)(in Tamil), 2001

External links


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Alvars
 



 



 
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