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From top, left to right: Arad City Hall, Cenad Palace, The Red Church, St. Anthony of Padua Church, Moise Nicoar? National College, Ioan Slavici National Theatre, Statue of St. Nepomuk's, Aurel Vlaicu University
A busy transportation hub on the Mure? River and an important cultural and industrial center, Arad has hosted one of the first music conservatories in Europe, one of the earliest normal schools in Europe, and the first car factory in Hungary and present-day Romania. Today, it is the seat of a Romanian Orthodox archbishop and features a Romanian Orthodox theological seminary and two universities.
The evidence of Pre-Indo-European civilisation occurs with the establishment of the first settlement on the northern bank of the Mure? River in the 5th millennium BC, and the extension of the human settlements on the left bank of the Mure? River occurs in the 4th millennium BC. In the 3rd millennium BC prosperous settlements appear on both banks and on the islands of the Mure? River belonging to an Indo-European civilisation, which peaked around 1000 BC. Excavations made for the foundations of the Astoria Hotel found a human skeleton from the Bronze Age.
The first Dacian settlements appear in the 1st millennium BC. In the 5th century a group of Scythians settled in the region but were assimilated by the Dacians. And between the 4th and 3rd centuries, the Celts settled on both banks of the Mure? River, in the vicinity of the existing settlements. The coexistence of the Celts lasted about two centuries and ended with their assimilation by the more numerous Dacians.
The Dacian settlement in the south of the Mic?laca district was conquered by the Roman troops between 101 and 102. During the Second Dacian War (105-106), the Emperor Trajan conquered territories north of Mure? River, making them part of the Roman Dacia. In the Aradul Nou area, the Roman army built the fort Castra of Aradul Nou that housed the legion Legio IV Flavia Felix. During the period between the 2nd and 4th centuries Dacian and Sarmatian settlements were present in the area of today's city, with intense commercial relations with the Roman Empire.
In the 10th century the Hungarians began their expansion in Transylvania, one of the main access routes being the valley of Mure?. Ruler Glad, under the threat of the Hungarian expansion, built a fortress at Vladimirescu-Schanzen, which the Hungarians conquered and destroyed in the middle of the tenth century. Another ruler, Achtum, rebuilt it but the Hungarians destroyed it again in 1028.
Arad was first mentioned in documents in the 11th century. The Mongol invasion of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 showed the importance of the fortifications on this place, to which were added in the second half of the 13th century more stone fortresses at ?oimo?, ?iria, and Dezna. The Ottoman Empire conquered the region from Hungary in 1551 and kept it until the Peace of Karlowitz of 1699. Arad became an eyalet center, which comprised the sanjaks of Arad, Lugoj, Kaca?, Be?lek and Yanova from 1660 till 1697, when it was captured by Austrians (Serbian Militia under command of Subota Jovi?) during Ottoman-Habsburg wars (1683-1699). After 1699, the city was ruled by the Habsburg Monarchy. At the beginning of the 18th century, Arad became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Arad. According to 1720 data, the population of the city was composed of 177 Romanian families, 162 Serbian, and 35 Hungarian.
The first Jew allowed to settle inside the city was Isac Elias in 1717. Eventually the Jewish population of Arad numbered over 10,000 people, more than 10% of the population, before the Second World War.
The new fortress was built between 1763 and 1783. Although it was small, it proved formidable having played a great role in the Hungarian struggle for independence in 1849. The city possesses a museum containing relics of this war of independence.
Courageously defended by the Austrian general Berger until the end of July 1849, it was captured by the Hungarian rebels, who made it their headquarters during the latter part of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. It was from Arad that Lajos Kossuth issued his famous proclamation (11 August 1849), and where he handed over the supreme military and civil power to Artúr Görgey.
The fortress was recaptured shortly after the surrender at Világos (now ?iria, Romania), with the surrender of general Artúr Görgey to the Russians. It became an ammunition depot. Thirteen rebel generals were executed there on 6 October 1849, by order of the Austrian general Julius Jacob von Haynau. These men are known collectively as the 13 Martyrs of Arad, and since then Arad is considered the "Hungarian Golgotha". One of the public squares contains a martyrs' monument, erected in their memory. It consists of a colossal figure of Hungary, with four allegorical groups, and medallions of the executed generals.
Arad enjoyed great economic development in the 19th century. In 1834 it was declared a "free royal town" by Emperor Francis I of Austria.
Aradu Nou / Neu Arad / Újarad ("New Arad"), situated on the opposite bank of the Mure? river, is a neighborhood of Arad, to which it is connected by the Trajan bridge. It was founded during the Turkish wars of the 17th century. The works erected by the Turks for the capture of the fortress of Arad formed the nucleus of the new settlement.
In 1910, the town had 63,166 inhabitants: 46,085 (73%) Hungarians, 10,279 (16.2%) Romanians, 4,365 (7%) Germans.
1st century: Dacian settlement in the present Mic?laca district are conquered by the Roman troops.
1551 - 1595 - The town was occupied and administered by the Ottoman Empire, the former county being divided into three sangeacs.
1553 - 1555 - Between these years, the Ottomans built the first fortress of the city on the northern bank of the river Mure?.
1595 - Transylvanian troops cleared the lower valley of the Mure?, thus the city of Arad was reintegrated in the Transylvanian Principality.
1599 - After the victory of Mihai Viteazu's troops at ?elimb?r, the city enters under the Voivode's authority until 1601 when Gabriel Bethlen gives the Mure? valley back to the Ottomans.
1683 - After the failure of the Ottoman siege of Vienna, Habsburg troops conquer the city in 1687.
1699 - After the Peace of Karlowitz, the Mure? river valley became the new border between The Habsburg Empire and the Ottoman Empire, thus the city became the headquarters of the frontier guard troops. Arad becomes the seat of Eastern Orthodox Eparchy of Arad.
1702 - The furriers' guild was registered - the oldest one.
1715 - Camil Hofflich, Franciscan friar, set up the first German language school.
1724 - First German settlers from Franconia come to the south of the river and establish Neu Arad.
1732 - Almost the entire area of the county was donated to Rinaldo of Modena, who, later disgraced in 1740, lost it to the Austrian crown.
1765 - 1783 - The new fortress was built, in Vauban-Tenaille style.
1781 - Following the building interdiction in the city, providing clear gunshot fields, the Empire considered moving the city in the Zimand pusta; subsequently Emperor Joseph II gave up the idea.
1812 - The foundation of Preparandia - the first Romanian pedagogy school in Transylvania.
1817 - The Hirschl Theatre was built.
1818 - The safety perimeter of the fortress was reduced from 2 kilometers as put out in 1783, to just 500 m.
1909-1914 - Production of motorcars by (MARTA), a subsidiary of Austro-Daimler. MARTA was the acronym of Magyar Automobil Részvény Társaság Arad (Hungarian automobile joint stock company Arad)
1911-1913 - Arad-Podgoria Narrow Railway was electrified. Apart from factory rails and urban trams, it was the third electric railway in Hungary and the sixth one in Habsburg Monarchy. In 1920, it should become the first electrical railway of Romania.
1918 - Arad becomes the headquarters of The Romanian National Central Council, the provisional government of Transylvania, and also its unofficial capital.
According to the 1910 census, from 63,166 inhabitants 46,085 were Hungarian (72,95%), 10,279 Romanian (16,27%), 4,365 German (6,91%), 1,816 Serbian (2,87%), 277 Slovak (0,43%) and 133 Czech (0,21%).
According to the 2011 census, the municipality of Arad was home to 159,704 inhabitants. The ethnic split of the city was as follows: 126,075 Romanians (85.19%); 15,695 Hungarians (10.06%); 2,535 Romani (1.71%); 1,256 Germans (0.84%); and 2,116 of other nationalities (1.22%).
Arad is the most important trans-European road and rail transportation junction point in western Romania, included in the 4th Pan-European Corridor linking Western Europe to South-Eastern European and Middle Eastern countries. The city has an extensive tram network and several bus lines covering most of the city's neighbourhoods and suburbs.
Arad International Airport (IATA: ARW, ICAO: LRAR), with the largest and most modern cargo terminal in western Romania, is situated only 4 km west from central Arad and is directly connected to the Arad west bypass road, part of the A1 Motorway.
The Fortified Town of Arad is one of the Transylvanian fortresses built in the Vauban star-shaped style, in the second half of the 18th century. It was used as a prison for the rebels led by Horia, Clo?ca, and Cri?an
Neptun Swimming Place, known in Romanian as "?trandul Neptun" is the second biggest Swimming Place in Europe, situated near a river. Due to its size and its recreational activities Strandul Neptun has over 3 million visitors annually, according to Recons Arad.
Delta Gallery, with three major events of Arad artistic life: The International Biennial Drawing Saloon, The Biennial Small Sculpture Saloon, The Annual Art Saloon.
Water Tower Gallery
Expo Arad International, The Exhibition Centre of the Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of the County of Arad, the only purely exhibitional arena in western Romania and second only to Romexpo.
Arad town hall square
The most important hospitals in Arad are Arad County Clinical Hospital and Arad Municipal Hospital (in the late 2000s it merged with Arad County Clinical Hospital). The city also has a number of public hospitals (Arad Maternal Hospital, The Polyclinic, The Dental Clinic, etc.) and private hospitals (MedLife Genesis, Laser System, Mediqua, etc.)
The UTA Arad (formerly ITA) football team was founded in 1945 and has won six Romanian championships and two Romanian Cups. In the 2020-1 season, UTA plays in the first national league, Liga I. The team has won more league titles than any other team that is not based in Bucharest, and the third most after Steaua and Dinamo; it is the 3rd more successful modern team in the country and 4th counting Venus Bucharest, a team from the Inter-War period.
The team's most notable performance on the international stage is the elimination from the European Champions Cup of Ernst Happel's Feyenoord in the 1970-71 season, when the Dutch team were defending European champions and later won the Intercontinental Cup.
In basketball, the women's ICIM and the men's West Petrom teams have national prominence, their record including some recent national championship wins (ICIM in 1998 through 2001, West Petrom in 2001 and 2002). In men's water polo, Astra Arad also plays in the first division. The men's rugby team Contor Group Arad plays in the National Rugby League, reaching the playoff final in 2006.
World Champion and Olympic medalist in gymnastics Emilia Eberle was born in Arad.
^ abcdOne or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Arad". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 311-312.