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Principality of Ardalan

14th Century-1865/68
StatusVassaldom of various empires and dynasties including Qajar
Common languagesGorani, Kurdish
Shia Islam
o ?-?
Bani Ardalan
o 1846-1848 1860-1867
Amanollah Khan Ardalan (last)
o Established
14th Century
o Disestablished
Succeeded by
Today part ofKurdistan Province
Ardalan State circa 1835
Amanollah Khan Ardalan, Wali of Ardalan (1846-1848, 1860-1867)

Ardalan (Kurdish: ‎)[1] was a hereditary Kurdish vassaldom in western Iran from around the 14th century[2] until 1865[3] or 1868[4] with Sanandaj as capital.[5] The territory corresponded roughly to present-day Kurdistan Province of Iran and the rulers were loyal to the Qajar Empire. Baban was its main rival. Shia Islam was the official religion of the principality and Gorani its literary language and lingua franca.[5][6] When the vassaldom fell, literary work in Gorani ceased.[7]


According to Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi, the renowned Kurdish historian, the earliest known leader of the tribe, Bani Ardalan, was a descendant of "Ahmad b. Marwan" also known as "Nasr al-Dawla Ahmad ibn Marw?n", who was the ruler of Marwanid Emirate in 1011-1061 centered in Amid. He settled down among the Goran Kurds in Kurdistan and toward the end of the Mongol period took over the Sharazor, where he established himself as an absolute ruler. Bani Ardalan's family also declared themselves descendants of the legendary Saladin.[2]

Ardalan encompassed Qaradagh, Khanaqin, Kirkuk, and Kifri.[6]

See also


  1. ^ " ? 1799-1847" (PDF) (in Kurdish). 2002. Retrieved 2020. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  2. ^ a b Oberling, P. "BAN? ARDAL?N". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved .
  3. ^ David Mcdowall (1996). The Kurds (PDF). Minority Rights Group International Report. p. 20. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Najat Abdulla-Ali (2006). Empire, frontière et tribu Le Kurdistan et le conflit de frontière turco-persan (1843-1932) (in French). p. 159.
  5. ^ a b Michael M. Gunter (2009). The A to Z of the Kurds. Scarecrow Press. p. 10.
  6. ^ a b Jemal Nebez (2000). "The Kurdish Language from Oral Tradition to Written Language". Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Maisel, Sebastian (2018). The Kurds: An Encyclopedia of Life, Culture, and Society. p. 166. ISBN 9781440842573.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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