Baden Culture
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Baden Culture
Baden culture
Map Corded Ware culture-en.svg
Geographical rangeEast-Central Europe
PeriodChalcolithic Europe, Bronze Age Europe
Datesc. 3600-2690 BC
Major sitesVucedol
Preceded byFunnelbeaker culture, Lengyel culture
Followed byVucedol culture

The Baden culture was a Chalcolithic culture from c. 3520-2690 BC.[1] It was found in Central and Southeast Europe, and is in particular known from Moravia (Czech Republic), Hungary, southern Poland, Slovakia, northern Croatia and eastern Austria. Imports of Baden pottery have also been found in Germany and Switzerland (Arbon-Bleiche III).

History of research

The Baden culture was named after Baden near Vienna by the Austrian prehistorian Oswald Menghin. It is also known as the Ossarn group[3] or Pecel culture. The first monographic treatment was produced by J. Banner in 1956. Other important scholars are E. Neustupny, Ida Bognar-Kutzian and Vera Nemejcova-Pavukova.

Baden has been interpreted as part of a much larger archaeological complex encompassing cultures at the mouth of the Danube (Ezero-Cernavoda III) and the Troad. In 1963, Nándor Kalicz had proposed a connection between the Baden culture and Troy, based on the anthropomorphic urns from Ózd-Centre (Hungary). This interpretation cannot be maintained in the face of radiocarbon dates. The author himself (2004) has called this interpretation a "cul-de-sac", based on a misguided historical methodology.


Baden developed out of the late Lengyel culture in the western Carpathian Basin. N?mejcová-Pavuková proposes a polygenetic origin, including southeastern elements transmitted by the Ezero culture of the early Bronze Age (Ezero, layers XIII-VII) and Cernavoda III/Co?ofeni. Ecsedy parallelises Baden with Early Helladic II in Thessaly, Parzinger with Sitagroi IV. Baden was approximately contemporaneous with the late Funnelbeaker culture, the Globular Amphora culture and the early Corded Ware culture. The following phases are known: Balaton-Lasinya, Baden-Boleráz, Post-Boleráz (divided into early, Fonyod/Tekovský Hrádok and late, ?ervený Hrádok/Szeghalom-Dioér by Vera N?mejcová-Pavuková) and classical Baden.

Phase Subgroups Date sites
Balaton-Lasinya - 3700 BC cal -
Boleráz - 3500 BC Pilismarot
Ia ?túrovo - Letkès
Ib Nitriansky Hrádok - Lánycsok, Vysoki breh
Ic Zlkovce - Balatonboglár
Post-Boleraz -
early Fonyod/Tekovský Hrádok - -
late ?ervený Hrádok/Szeghalom-Dioér - -
Classical Baden 3400 BC -
II, III older - Nevidzany, Viss
IV younger - Uny, Chlaba, Ózd


The settlements were often located on hilltops. Both undefended and fortified settlements are known.


Both inhumations and cremations are known. In Slovakia and Hungary, the burned remains were often placed in anthropomorphic urns (Slána, Ózd-Center). In Nitriansky Hrádok, a mass grave was uncovered. There are also burials of cattle. Up to now, the only cemetery known from the early Boleráz-phase is Pilismárot (Hungary), which also contained a few examples of stroke-ornamented pottery.

In Serbia,[4] anthropomorphic urns were found in the towns of Dobanovci, Gomolava, Perlez and Zemun.


The economy was mixed. Full-scale agriculture was present, along with the keeping of domestic stock--pigs, goats, etc. The Baden culture has some of the earliest attestation of often wheeled, wagon-shaped models in pottery, sometimes with a handle. There are burials of pairs of cattle that have been interpreted as draft animals. Though there are no finds of actual wagons, some scholars take these finds together as proof for the presence of real wagons.


PCA and ADMIXTURE analysis showing that Baden individuals predominantly belong to European Neolithic populations of Anatolian ancestry, per Gelabert et al. 2022.

In the Kurgan hypothesis espoused by Marija Gimbutas, the Baden culture is seen as being Indo-Europeanized.


In three genetic studies the remains of fifteen individuals roughly from 3600-2850 BCE ascribed to the Baden culture were analyzed.[5] Of the nine (plus one Proto-Boleraz) samples of Y-DNA, five belonged to various subclades of haplogroup G2a2 (G2a2b2a1a1c-CTS342, G2a2a2b-Z36525, G2a2b2a1a1b-L497, G2a2a1a2a1a-L166, G2a2b2a1a-PF3346), and four belonged to haplogroup I2 subclades (3x I2a1a1a1-Y11222, I2-P37). The mtDNA extracted included subclades of U5a1, U5b, U8b1a1, J1c, J1c2, J2a1a1, H, H26a, T2, T2b, T2c1d1, HV, K1a and W,[6][5] summing up the earlier ones, in particular.[7]

According to ADMIXTURE analysis they had approximately 78-91% Early European Farmers, 6-17% Western Hunter-Gatherer and 0-8% Western Steppe Herders-related ancestry,[5] implying that the Indo-European influence on the local population was predominantly cultural and not biological.

See also


  1. ^ Tünde Horváth, S. Éva Svingor, Mihály Molnár : NEW RADIOCARBON DATES FOR THE BADEN CULTURE . RADIOCARBON, Vol 50, Nr. 3, 2008, p 447-458. © 2008 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.
  2. ^ "Anthropomorphic vessel". Google Arts & Culture - Neues Museum Berlin.
  3. ^ Colledge, Sue; Conolly, James (2007). The Origins and Spread of Domestic Plants in Southwest Asia and Europe. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press. p. 214. ISBN 978-1-59874-988-5. The Ossarn group represents a later phase of the Baden culture, with sites located in Lower Austria south of the Danube and in northern and central Burgenland.
  4. ^ Dragoslav Srejovi?, "Kulture bakarnog i ranog bronzanog doba na tlu Srbije"
  5. ^ a b c Patterson 2022.
  6. ^ Narasimhan 2019.
  7. ^ Lipson 2017.


External Links

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