Banat Bulgarians
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Banat Bulgarians

Banat Bulgarians
Bulgarian-inhabited places in the Banat
Bulgarian-inhabited places in the Banat
  Bulgarian population
  City or town
Total population
 Romania: 6,468 (2002)[1]
12,000 (est.)[2]
 Serbia: fewer than 1,658 (2002)[3]
3,000 (est.)[2]
Regions with significant populations
Banat (Romania, Serbia), Bulgaria,
to a lesser extent Hungary, United States
Banat Bulgarian,
common Bulgarian
Predominantly Roman Catholicism
Related ethnic groups

The Banat Bulgarians (Banat Bulgarian: Pal?ene or Banáts?i balgare; common Bulgarian: ?, romanizedBanatski balgari; Romanian: Bulgari b?neni; Serbian: / Banatski Bugari), also known as Bulgarian Roman Catholics and Bulgarians Paulicians or simply as Paulicians,[4] are a distinct Bulgarian minority group which since the Chiprovtsi Uprising in the late 17th century began to settle in the region of the Banat, which was then ruled by the Habsburgs and after World War I was divided between Romania, Serbia, and Hungary. Unlike most other Bulgarians, they are Roman Catholic by confession and stem from groups of Paulicians (who got Catholicized) and Roman Catholics from modern northern and northwestern Bulgaria.[5]

Banat Bulgarians speak a distinctive codified form of the Eastern Bulgarian vernacular with much lexical influence from the other languages of the Banat. Although strongly acculturated to the Pannonian region (remote from Bulgaria's mainland), they have preserved their Bulgarian identity;[6] however, they consider themselves Bulgarians among other ethnic groups but self-identify as Paulicians when compared to ethnic Bulgarians.[4][5]


The ethnic group in scholarly literature is called as Banat Bulgarians, Bulgarians Roman Catholics, Bulgarians Paulicians, or simply Paulicians (Pavli?ani or Pavlikijani with dialectic forms Pal?ani, Pal?ene, Palkene). The latter ethnonym is used by the group members as self-identification (being endonym), and to express "I / we" which is contrasted to "you" of Bulgarian ethnonym (being exonym). Their Bulgarian identification is inconsistent and rather used when compared to other ethnic groups.[4][5] According to Blagovest Njagulov, there existed differences in self-designation among communities. In Romania, in the village of Dude?tii Vechi prevailed Paulician ethnonym, while in Vinga the Bulgarian ethnonym because in the latter was a mixture of Bulgarian communities from different regions. Until the mid-20th century was developed idea of Bulgarian ethnic nationalism and according to it prevailed Bulgarian ethnonym, with the intermediate decision being "Bulgarians Paulicians". As the community's literature and language is based on Paulician dialect and Latin alphabet it was promoted acceptance of Bulgarian literary language and Cyrillic alphabet. In the 1990s was again argued if they are a distinctive group or part of Bulgarian national, cultural and linguistic unity. On the other part, in Serbia the community was not in touch with such political influence and was accepted Paulician ethnonym, and only since 1990s became more in contact with other Bulgarian communities and institutions. According to 1999 research by Njagulov, the people consider themselves to be partly of Bulgarian ethnos, but not on an individual level, only as a community, which is characterized by Catholic faith, specific literature and language practice as well as elements of traditional material heritage and spiritual culture.[5]


Origin and migration north of the Danube

The origin of the Bulgarian Roman Catholic community is related to the Paulicianism, a medieval Christian movement from Armenia and Syria whose members between 8th and 10th century arrived in the region of Thrace, then controlled by Byzantine Empire.[7] They had religious freedom until the 11th century, when the majority were converted to the official Christian state faith by Alexios I Komnenos.[7] Over the centuries, they started to assimilate with the Bulgarians. However, they never fully accepted the Orthodox Church, living with specific traditions.[7] The Roman Catholic Bosnian Franciscans in the late 16th and early 17th century managed to convert them to Catholicism.[5][7] It is believed that the Banat Bulgarian community was formed from two groups in different regions; one from missionary activities of the Roman Catholic Church in the 17th century among merchants and artisans from Chiprovtsi, not only of Paulician origin as included "Saxon" miners among others,[8][9] and other from Paulician peasants of villages from Svishtov and Nikopol municipalities.[5]

In 1688, the members of the community organized the unsuccessful Chiprovtsi Uprising against the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria.[10][8] The uprising was suppressed,[11] due to organizational flaws and the halting of the Austrian offensive against the Ottomans. Around 300 families of the surviving Catholics fled north of the Danube to Oltenia, initially settling in Craiova, Râmnicu Vâlcea, and other cities, where their existing rights were confirmed by Wallachian Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu.[12] Some moved to south-western Transylvania, founding colonies in Vin?u de Jos (1700) and Deva (1714) and receiving privileges such as civil rights and tax exemption.[13]

After Oltenia was occupied by Habsburg Monarchy in 1718,[12] the status of the Bulgarians in the region improved again, as an imperial decree of 1727 allowed them the same privileges as their colonies in Transylvania. This attracted another wave of migration of Bulgarian Catholics, about 300 families from the formerly Paulician villages of central northern Bulgaria. They settled in Craiova between 1726 and 1730, but did not receive the same rights as the colonists from Chiprovtsi.[14] The Habsburgs were forced to withdraw from Oltenia in 1737 in the wake of a new war with the Ottoman Empire. The Bulgarians fled from this new Ottoman occupation and settled in the Austrian-ruled Banat to the northwest. The Austrian authorities,[15] allowed 2,000 people to found the villages of Stár Bi?nov in 1738 and some 125 families Vinga in 1741.[16][17] In 1744, a decree of Maria Theresa of Austria again confirmed their privileges received in Oltenia.[18]

Austrian and Hungarian rule

Around a hundred Paulicians from the region of Svishtov and Nikopol migrated to the Banat from 1753 to 1777.[19] The existing Bulgarian population, especially from Stár Bi?nov,[16] quickly spread throughout the region from the late 18th to the second quarter of the 19th century. They settled in around 20 villages and towns in search of better economic conditions, specifically their need for arable land. Such colonies include those in Modo? (1779), Konak and Stari Lec (1820), Belo Blato (1825), Bréa, Dénta, and Banatski Dvor (1842), Telepa (1846), Skorenovac (1866), and Ivanovo (1866-1868).[16][20]

After they settled, the Banat Bulgarians began to take care of their education and religion. The Neo-Baroque church in Stár Bi?nov was built in 1804 and the imposing Neo-Gothic church in Vinga in 1892. Until 1863, Banat Bulgarians held liturgies in Latin and "Illyric". Illyric was a strain of Croatian which had spread in the communities before they migrated to the Banat. However, with their cultural revival in the mid-19th century, their vernacular was gradually introduced in the church. The revival also led to the release of their first printed book, Manachija kathehismus za katolicsanske Paulichiane, in 1851. "Illyric" was also substituted with Banat Bulgarian in education in 1860 (officially in 1864). In 1866, Jozu Rill codified the dialect with his essay Bálgarskotu pravopisanj.[21] After the Ausgleich of 1867, the Hungarian authorities gradually intensified the Magyarization of the Banat. Until World War I, they imposed Hungarian as the main language of education.[22]

Interwar Romanian and Serbian Banat

After World War I, Austria-Hungary was dissolved and Banat was divided between Romania and Serbia. Most Banat Bulgarians became citizens of the Kingdom of Romania, but many fell inside the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In Greater Romania, the Banat Bulgarians' identity was distinguished in censuses and statistics.[23] The main language of education was changed to Romanian and the Bulgarian schools were nationalized. A Romanian geography book of 1931 describes the Bulgarians in the county of Timi?-Torontal as "foreigners", and their national dress as "not as beautiful" as the Romanian one,[24] but in general the Banat Bulgarians were more favourably treated than the larger Eastern Orthodox Bulgarian minority in interwar Romania.[25]

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia denied the existence of any Bulgarian minority, whether in the Vardar Banovina, the Western Outlands, or the Banat. Official post-World War I statistics provide no data about the number of the Banat Bulgarians.[26] In comparison with the Eastern Orthodox Bulgarians in Yugoslavia, the Banat Bulgarians were treated better by the Yugoslav authorities,[27] although Serbo-Croatian was the only language of education.[28]

In the 1930s, the Banat Bulgarians in Romania entered a period of cultural revival led by figures such as Ivan Fermend?in, Anton Lebanov, and Karol Telbis (Telbizov).[29] These new cultural leaders emphasized the Bulgarian identity at the expense of the identification as Paulicians and Roman Catholics, establishing contacts with the Bulgarian government and other Bulgarian communities in Romania, particularly that in Dobruja. The organs of this revival were the newspaper Banats?i balgars?i glasni? (Banat Bulgarian Voice),[29] issued between 1935 and 1943, and the annual Banats?i balgars?i kalendar (Banat Bulgarian Calendar), issued from 1936 to 1940. There was a plan to celebrate the 200th anniversary of the settlement in the Banat which was the most significant manifestation by Banat Bulgarians in that period. It was partially spoiled by the Romanian authorities, but still attracted much attention among intellectuals in Bulgaria.[30] The Bulgarian Agrarian Party, a section of the National Peasants' Party, was founded in 1936 on the initiative of Karol Telbizov and Dr. Karol Manjov of Stár Bi?nov,[31] with Petar Telbisz as its chairman,[32] and the Bulgarian National Society in the Banat, also headed by Telbisz, was established in 1939.

Bulgaria and Yugoslavia improved their relations in the 1930s, leading to indirect recognition of the Banat Bulgarian minority by the Yugoslav government. Still, the Banat Bulgarian revival was much less perceivable in the Serbian Banat. The Banat Bulgarian population in Yugoslavia was only partially affected by the work of Telbizov, Lebanov, and the other cultural workers in the Romanian Banat.[33]

Emigration to Hungary, the United States and Bulgaria

Some Banat Bulgarians migrated again, mainly to Hungary and the United States. According to Bulgarian data from 1942, 10,000 Banat Bulgarians lived in Hungary, mainly in the major cities, but this number is most likely overestimated,[34] as were assimilated in Serbian community.[35] Members of the Banat Bulgarian community in Hungary include several deputies to the National Assembly, such as Petar Dobroslav, whose son László Dobroslav (László Bolgár) was a diplomat, and Georgi Vel?ov.[36]

During the Interwar period, the Banat Bulgarian communities in Romania were among those experiencing the greatest emigration to the US, particularly in the 1920s and 1930s.[37] An organized Bulgarian community was established in Lone Wolf, Oklahoma, where the Banat Bulgarians were mostly farmers.[38]

A significant number of Banat Bulgarians returned to Bulgaria since 1878, called as "Bana?ani" ("those from Banat").[10][5] They founded several villages in Pleven Province, Vratsa Province and Veliko Tarnovo Province and received privileges, as per the law of 1880, for the settlement of unpopulated lands. They introduced superior agricultural technologies to the country and fully applied their farming experience. Their religious life was partly determined by the clashes between the dominant Eastern Orthodoxy and the minority Catholicism, and cultural conflicts with other Roman Catholic communities which they lived with in several villages, such as the Banat Swabians and the Bulgarian Paulicians from Ilfov.[39] This migration would be final, although some did return to Banat.[5]

World War II and later

Location of the main Banat Bulgarian villages in Bulgaria

On the eve of World War II, the authoritarian regime of Carol II of Romania and the fascist government under Ion Antonescu widely discriminated against the Bulgarian minority in the Romanian Banat. Bulgarians were often deprived of property and land, subjected to anti-Bulgarian propaganda, and their villages had to shelter Romanian and Aromanian refugees from Northern Transylvania and Southern Dobruja.[40]

In May 1941, the Bulgarians in the Romanian Banat contributed to the release of ethnic Bulgarian prisoners of war from the Yugoslav Army, captured by the Axis, from a camp near Timi?oara. Communicating with the Bulgarian state, Banat Bulgarian leaders headed by Anton Lebanov negotiated the prisoners' release and transportation to Bulgaria, after the example of the release of captured Hungarian soldiers from the Yugoslav Army. They temporarily accommodated these Bulgarians from Vardar Macedonia and the Serbian Banat and provided them with food until they could be taken to Bulgaria.[41]

The Serbian Banat was conquered by Nazi Germany on 12 April 1941, and was occupied for much of the war.[42] In late 1942, the German authorities allowed Bulgarian minority classes to be created in the Serbian schools in Ivanovo, Skorenovac, Konak, Belo Blato, and Ja?a Tomi?.[43] However, the sudden change in the war and German withdrawal from the Banat forced education in Bulgarian to be discontinued after the 1943-44 school year.[44]

After the war, Banat Bulgarians in Romania and Yugoslavia were ruled by communist regimes. In the Romanian Banat, some were deported in the B?r?gan deportations in 1951, but most of those were allowed to return in 1956-57.[45] A Bulgarian school was founded in Dude?tii Vechi in 1948, and in Vinga in 1949. Others followed in Bre?tea, Colonia Bulgar?, and Denta, but these were briefly closed or united with the Romanian schools after 1952, and Bulgarian remained an optional subject.[46]

The Constitution of Romania of 1991 allowed Bulgarians in the Romanian Banat parliamentary representation through the minority party of the Bulgarian Union of the Banat -- Romania (Balgarskotu dru?stvu ud Banát -- Rumanija), led formerly by Karol-Matej Iván?ov and as of 2008 by Nikola Mirkovi?,[47] and Bulgarian remained an optional subject in the schools.[48] In post-war Yugoslavia, the existence of a Banat Bulgarian minority was formally recognized, but they were not given the same rights as the larger Bulgarian minority in eastern Serbia. Unlike other minorities in Vojvodina, they were not allowed education in their mother tongue, only Serbo-Croatian.[49]


The vernacular of the Bulgarians of Banat can be classified as a Paulician dialect of the Eastern Bulgarian group. A typical feature is the "?" (*y) vowel, which can either take an etymological place or replace "i".[2] Other characteristic phonological features are the "ê" (wide "e") reflex of the Old Church Slavonic yat and the reduction of "o" into "u" and sometimes "e" into "i": puljé instead of pole ("field"), sélu instead of selo ("village"), ugni?ti instead of ogni?te ("fireplace").[2] Another characteristic feature is the palatalization of final consonants, which is typical for other Slavic languages, but found only in non-standard dialects in Bulgarian (Bulgarian den ("day") sounds like and is written as denj).[50]

Lexically, the language has borrowed many words from languages such as German (such as drot from Draht, "wire"; gáng from Gang, "anteroom, corridor"), Hungarian (vilánj from villany, "electricity"; mozi, "cinema"), Serbo-Croatian (stvár from stvar, "item, matter"; rá?un from ra?un, "account"), and Romanian (?edinca from ?edin, "conference")[51] due to the close contacts with the other peoples of the multiethnical Banat and the religious ties with other Roman Catholic peoples. Banat Bulgarian also has some older loanwords from Ottoman Turkish[52] and Greek, which it shares with other Bulgarian dialects (e.g. hirgjén from Turkish ergen, "unmarried man, bachelor"; trandáfer from Greek triantafyllo, "rose").[53] Loanwords constitute around 20% of the Banat Bulgarian vocabulary.[50][52] The names of some Banat Bulgarians are also influenced by Hungarian names, as the Hungarian (eastern) name order is sometimes used (family name followed by given name) and the female ending "-a" is often dropped from family names. Thus, Marija Vel?ova would become Vel?ov Marija.[54] Besides loanwords, the lexis of Banat Bulgarian has also acquired calques and neologisms, such as svetica ("icon", formerly used ikona and influenced by German Heiligenbild), zarno ("bullet", from the word meaning "grain"), oganbalvá? ("volcano", literally "fire belcher"), and predhurta ("foreword").[50]

The Banat Bulgarian language until the mid-19th century used Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet due to Bosnian Franciscans influence,[5] since when it uses its own script, largely based on the Croatian version of the Latin alphabet (Gaj's Latin Alphabet), and preserves many features that are archaic in the language spoken in Bulgaria. The language was codified as early as 1866 and is used in literature and press, which distinguishes it from plain dialects.[50]


The following is the Banat Bulgarian Latin alphabet:[55][56]

Banat Bulgarian Latin
Cyrillic equivalents
? ?
Á á
B b
C c
? ?
? ?
? ()
D d
Dz dz
? ()
D? d?
? ()
E e
É é
F f
G g
Gj gj
? ()
H h
I i
J j
? , ?
K k
L l
Lj lj
? ()
M m
N n
Nj nj
? ()
O o
P p
R r
S s
? ?
T t
U u
V v
Z z
? ?


The Lord's Prayer in Banat Bulgarian:[57]
Banat Bulgarian Bulgarian [58] English
Ba?tá ná?, kojtu si na nebeto: Imetu ti da se pusveti. ? , , ?, Our father who art in heaven hallowed be thy name.
Kraljéstvotu ti da dodi. Olete ti da badi, ?, ? ?, Thy kingdom come, thy will be done,
ka?étu na nebeto taj i na zemete. ? ? . as in heaven so on earth.
Kátadenj?nija leb ná?, dáj mu nám dnés. ? ?, Give us this day our daily bread.
I uprusti mu nám ná?a dalgj, ? ?, And forgive us guilty as we are,
ka?étu i nija uprá?temi na ná?te dla?nici. ? ? , as we also forgive our debtors.
I nide mu uvi?de u nápas, ? ? , Also do not bring us into temptation,
negu mu izbávej ud zlo. ?, But free us from this evil.


Banat Bulgarians have engaged in literary activity since they settled in the Banat. Their earliest preserved literary work is the historical record Historia Domus (Historia Parochiae Oppidi Ó-Bessenyö, in Diocesi Czanadiensi, Comitatu Torontalensi), written in Latin in the 1740s. The codification of the Banat Bulgarian vernacular in 1866 enabled the release of a number of school books and the translation of several important religious works in the mid-19th century.[59] There was a literary revival in the 1930s, centered around the Banats?i balgars?i glasni? newspaper. Today, the Bulgarian Union of the Banat - Romania issues the biweekly newspaper Ná?a glás and the monthly magazine Literaturna miselj.[60]

The music of the Banat Bulgarians is classed as a separate branch of Bulgarian folk music, with several verbal and musical peculiarities. While the typically Bulgarian bars have been preserved, a number of melodies display Romanian, Serbian, and Hungarian influences, and the specific Bulgarian Christmas carols have been superseded by urban-type songs. Roman Catholicism has exerted considerable influence, eliminating certain types of songs and replacing them with others.[61] Similarly, Banat Bulgarians have preserved many Bulgarian holidays but also adopted others from other Roman Catholic peoples.[62] One of the most popular holidays is Far?ángji, or the Carnival.[63] In terms of dances, Banat Bulgarians have also heavily borrowed from the neighbouring peoples, for example Hungarian csárdás.[61]

The women's national costume of the Banat Bulgarians has two varieties. The costume of Vinga is reminiscent of those of sub-Balkan cities in Bulgaria; the one of Stár Bi?nov is characteristic of northwestern Bulgaria. The Vinga costume has been particularly influenced by the dress of Hungarians and Germans, but the Stár Bi?nov costume has remained more conservative.[64] The Banat Bulgarian women's costume is perceived as particularly impressive with its crown-like headdress.[61]


The Banat Bulgarian Roman Catholic church in Bardarski Geran, Bulgaria
The Roman Catholic Church in Vinga, Romania
The Roman Catholic Church in Ivanovo, Serbia

In 1963 was estimated that approximately lived 18,000 Banat Bulgarians in Banat, of which 12,000 in Romanian, and 6,000 in Serbian part of the region. In 2008 was estimated half of the previous population in Serbia,[2][5] while in 2013 between 4,000-4,500 people.[3] However, according to Romanian 2002 census circa 6,468 people of Banat Bulgarian origin inhabited the Romanian part of the region,[65] of which 3,000 in Stár Bi?nov, making it half of 1963's estimation.[3] The Serbian 2002 census recognized 1,658 Bulgarians in Vojvodina, the autonomous province that covers the Serbian part of the Banat.[66] However it includes Orthodox Bulgarians and hence the number of Catholic Bulgarians is smaller by two-thirds compared to previous estimation.[3] The 2011 census are even more vague to understand the actual numbers, but the numbers are probably declining.[3]

The earliest and most important centers of the Banat Bulgarian population are the villages of Dude?tii Vechi (Stár Bi?nov) and Vinga, both today in Romania,[67] but notable communities also exist in Romania in Bre?tea (Bréa), Colonia Bulgar? (Telepa) and Denta (Dénta),[10] and the cities of Timi?oara (Timi?vár) and Sânnicolau Mare (Smiklu?), as well as in Serbia in the villages of Ivanovo, Belo Blato, Konak (Kanak), Ja?a Tomi? (Modo?), Skorenovac (Gjurgevo), as well cities of Pan?evo, Zrenjanin, Vr?ac and Kovin.[5][68]

In Bulgaria, returning Banat Bulgarians populated the villages of Asenovo, Bardarski Geran, Dragomirovo, Gostilya, and Bregare,[10] among others, in some of which they coexist or coexisted with Banat Swabians, other Bulgarian Roman Catholics, and Eastern Orthodox Bulgarians.[69]

In Banat, the people mainly intermarried within the group, and only since the 1940s began intensive marriages with other nationalities, because of which many got assimilated, especially according to confessional factor (among Slovaks and Hungarians, while few among Croats, Serbs and so on).[70]

Historical population

According to various censuses and estimates, not always accurate, the number of the Banat Bulgarians varied as follows:[71]

Source Date Population Notes
Romania Serbia
Jozu Rill 1864 30,000-35,000
Hungarian statistics 1880 18,298
Hungarian statistics 1900 19,944
Hungarian statistics 1910 13,536 "evidently underestimated"[68]
Various authors second half
of the 19th century
22,000-26,000 "sometimes including the Krashovani"[68]
Romanian census 1930 10,012 Romanian Banat only
Dimo Kazasov 1936 3,200 Serbian Banat only; estimated
Romanian census 1939 9,951 Romanian Banat only
Karol Telbizov 1940 12,000 Romanian Banat only; estimated
Mihail Georgiev 1942 up to 4,500 Serbian Banat only; estimated[72]
Romanian census 1956 12,040 Romania only[73]
Yugoslav census 1971 3,745 Serbian Banat only[74]
Romanian census 1977 9,267 Romania only[73]
Romanian census 2002 6,486 Romania only[1]
Serbian census 2002 1,658 Serbia only[75]

Notable figures

See also


  1. ^ a b "Structura Etno-demografic? a României" (in Romanian). Centrul de Resurse pentru Diversitate Etnocultural?. 2008-07-24.
  2. ^ a b c d e ?, ? ? - ? .
  3. ^ a b c d e Nomachi, Motoki (2016). "The Rise, Fall, and Revival of the Banat Bulgarian Literary Language: Sociolinguistic History from the Perspective of Trans-Border Interactions". The Palgrave Handbook of Slavic Languages, Identities and Borders. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 394-428. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ a b c Vu?kovi?, Marija (2008). "? -- ? (?)? " [Bulgarians - We or the Others? (Self)identification of Paulicians from Banat]. Etnolingwistyka. Problemy J?zyka i Kultury. 20: 333-348. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Vu?kovi?, Marija (2008). "Savremena istra?ivanja malih etni?kih zajednica" [Contemporary studies of small ethnic communities]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 2-8. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ Zatykó Vivien (1994). "Magyar bolgárok? Etnikus identitás és akkulturáció a bánáti bolgárok körében". REGIO folyóirat (in Hungarian). Archived from the original (- Scholar search) on September 26, 2007. Retrieved .
  7. ^ a b c d Nikolin, Svetlana (2008). "Pavlikijani ili banatski Bugari" [Paulicians or Banat Bulgarians]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 15-16. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ a b , (1988). 1688 ?. (in Bulgarian). . ISBN 0-393-04744-X. Archived from the original on 2007-04-01.
  9. ^ ?, ? (2004). ? ? ? (in Bulgarian). : IMIR. ISBN 954-8872-45-5.
  10. ^ a b c d Kojnova, Marija. "Catholics of Bulgaria" (PDF). Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe - Southeast Europe.
  11. ^ Kojnova, Marija. "Catholics of Bulgaria" (PDF). Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe -- Southeast Europe.
  12. ^ a b Maran, Mir?a (2008). "Bugari u Banatu i njihovi odnosi sa Rumunima" [Bulgarians in Banat and their relationships with Romanians]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 17-18. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ Ivanciov, Istorijata i tradicijite na balgarskotu malcinstvu ud Rumanija.
  14. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 19-20.
  15. ^ ?, ? ? , p. 243.
  16. ^ a b c "Najzna?ajnija mesta u kojima ?ive Pal?eni" [Most important places in which live Paulicians]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 9-12. 2008. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ According to the earliest entries in the local birth and wedding records. , (1938). " ? ". ? ? ? (in Bulgarian). " ?". Archived from the original on 2007-02-26.
  18. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 20-21.
  19. ^ , ; et al. (1983). ? , 4? ( XV XVIII ?.) (in Bulgarian). ? . p. 249. OCLC 58609593.
  20. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 22.
  21. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 27-30.
  22. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 30.
  23. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 56.
  24. ^ Nisipeanu, I.; T. Geant?, L. Ciobanu (1931). Geografia jude?ului Timi?-Torontal pentru clasa II primar? (in Romanian). Bucharest. pp. 72-74.
  25. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 70.
  26. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 75.
  27. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 78.
  28. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 80.
  29. ^ a b , (1938). " ? ". (in Bulgarian).
  30. ^ ?, "? ?- ? ? ", ? ?, pp. 141-195.
  31. ^ Banats?i balgars?i glasni? (5) (in Bulgarian). 2 February 1936.
  32. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 230.
  33. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 196-200.
  34. ^ , ?. (1936). "?". ? (in Bulgarian). p. 18.
  35. ^ Sikimi?, Biljana (2008). "Bugari Pal?ani: nova lingvisti?ka istra?ivanja" [Bulgarians Paulicians: New linguistic studies]. XXI Vek (in Serbo-Croatian). 3: 22-29. Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 82-83.
  37. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 84.
  38. ^ ?, ? (1993). ? ? ? ? (in Bulgarian). Sofia. pp. 35, 55, 113.
  39. ^ ?, "? ? ? ", ? ?, pp. 87-142.
  40. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 252-258.
  41. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 263-265.
  42. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 286-287.
  43. ^ , ?. 166?, . 1, ?.?. 503, ?. 130-130?.
  44. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 295.
  45. ^ Mirciov, R. (1992). Deportarea în Baragan 1951-1956. Scurt? istorie a deportilor din Dude?ti vechi (in Romanian). Timi?oara.
  46. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 294-295, p. 302.
  47. ^ "Deputáta Nikola Mirkovi? ij bil izbrán predsedátel na B.D.B.-R" (PDF). Ná?a glás (in Bulgarian) (1). 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-09-10.
  48. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 305-306.
  49. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 312-316.
  50. ^ a b c d ?, .
  51. ^ Etymology from Gaberoff Koral German Dictionary (German), MTA SZTAKI (Hungarian), Serbian-English Dictionary Archived 2009-10-06 at the Wayback Machine (Serbo-Croatian) and Archived 2010-10-28 at the Wayback Machine (Romanian).
  52. ^ a b ?, ? ?, p. 27.
  53. ^ See Sveta ud pukraj námu posts #127 and #128 for the words in use. Etymology from (Turkish) and Lexicon (Greek).
  54. ^ For another example, see Ná?a glás Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine of 1 March 2007, p. 6.
  55. ^ ?, ? ?, p. 11.
  56. ^ ?, (1967). ? (in Bulgarian). . pp. 21-23. OCLC 71461721.
  57. ^ Svetotu pismu: Novija zákun (in Bulgarian). Timi?oara: Helicon. 1998. ISBN 973-574-484-8.
  58. ^ bg:wikisource:?
  59. ^ ?, ? ?, pp. 32-37.
  60. ^ "? ? ? ? ? ?" (in Bulgarian). ? ? ?. Archived from the original on March 25, 2008. Retrieved .
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