City of victory
|o Type||City Municipal Corporation|
|o Body||Vijayapura Mahanagara Palike (VMP)|
|o Total||98.73 km2 (38.12 sq mi)|
|Elevation||592.23 m (1,943.01 ft)|
|o Rank||10th (Karnataka)|
|o Density||265/km2 (690/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-KA|
Bijapur, officially known as Vijayapura, is the district headquarters of Bijapur district of Karnataka state of India. It is also the headquarters for Bijapur Taluka. Bijapur city is well known for its historical monuments of architectural importance built during the rule of the Adil Shahi dynasty. It is also well known for the sports by the popular Karnataka premier league team as Bijapur Bulls. Bijapur is located 530 km (330 mi) northwest of the state capital Bangalore and about 550 km (340 mi) from Mumbai and 384 km (239 mi) west of the city of Hyderabad.
The city was established in the 10th-11th centuries by the Kalyani Chalukyas and was known as Vijayapura (City of victory). The city was passed to Yadavas after Chalukya's demise. In 1347, the area was conquered by the Bahmani Sultanate. After the split of the Bahmani Sultanate, the Bijapur Sultanate ruled from the city. Relics of the Sultanates' rule can be found in the city, including the Bijapur Fort, Bara Kaman, Jama Masjid, and Gol Gumbaz.
Bijapur, one of the popular heritage city located in the Karnataka state of India is also one of the top ten populated cities in Karnataka. The Bijapur city has been declared as one of the corporations in the state of Karnataka in 2013. Bijapur urban population as per 2011 census is 326,000, perhaps the 9th biggest city in Karnataka. Bijapur Mahanagara Palike (BMP) is the newest Municipal Corporation formed under the KMC act along with Shimoga and Tumkur Municipal Corporations. Administratively, Vijayapura district comes under Belgaum division along with Bagalkote, Belgaum, Dharwad, Gadag, Haveri and Uttara Kannada (Karwar) districts. The civic administration of the city is managed by the Bijapur City Corporation and office of Deputy Commissioner in Bijapur. The office of Deputy Commissioner has the responsibility of rural areas in Bijapur, while the corporation administrates the city of Bijapur. Effective administration of the heritage city of Bijapur is the main intention behind all the activities of Bijapur City Corporation.
Bijapur district is historically, traditionally and legendarily, one of the richest districts in the state. The evidence found here reveals that it was an inhabited place since the Stone Age. Many places of this district have legendary history. The history of this district is divided into four periods, from the Chalukya acquisition of Badami till the Muslim invasion.
Early Western Chalukya period lasting from about A.D. 535 to about A.D.757. Rastrakuta period from A.D. 757 to A.D.973. Kalachuri and Hoysala period from A.D. 973 to about A.D.1200. Devagiri Yadava period from A.D.1185 to the Muslim conquest of Devagiri in A.D. 1312.
Bijapur first came under the influence of Allaudin Khalji, the Sultan of Delhi, towards the end of the 13th century, and then under the Bahamani kings of Bidar in 1347. In 1347, when the Bahamani dynasty was established, it included southern and eastern parts of Bijapur district. The supremacy of the Bahaman's may be said to have ceased by 1489. At that time five Shahi Dynasties were born and one of them was "Bijapur". The Mughal emperor Aurangazeb conquered Bijapur in 1686 and it was under Mughal rule up to 1723. In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad State established his independence in the Deccan and included Bijapur within his dominion. However, his acquisition on this portion was of brief duration, in 1760 it went into the hands of Marathas.
In 1518, the Bahmani Sultanate split into five splinter states known as the Deccan sultanates, one of which was Bijapur, ruled by the kings of the Adil Shahi dynasty (1490-1686). The city of Vijayapura owes much of its greatness to Yusuf Adil Shah, the founder of the independent state of Bijapur.
In 1724 the Nizam of Hyderabad established his independence in the Deccan, and included Bijapur within his dominions. In 1760, the Nizam suffered a defeat by the Marathas, and ceded the region of Bijapur to the Maratha Peshwa.
After the 1818 defeat of the Peshwa by the British in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, Bijapur passed into the hands of the British East India Company, and was assigned to the Maratha princely state Satara.
In 1817, war broke out between the British and the Marathas. By 1818, the whole of Bijapur was occupied by the British and was included in the territory assigned to the Raja of Satara. In 1848 the territory of Satara was obtained through the failure of heir and the British rule started. Till 1884, the Bijapur district had headquarters at Kaladagi. Bijapur was made headquarters in 1885.
After Independence, the movement for re-organisation of States gained further momentum and on 1 November 1956 a separate "Mysore State" was formed. By the wish of the people it was renamed as "Karnataka". Thus, the district Bijapur along with other Kannada speaking areas became a part of "Karnataka State" on 1 November 1956.
Central government had approved the request to rename the city in October 2014 from Bijapur to "Vijayapura" on 1 November 2014.
Bijapur has a semi-arid climate. It is located at  It has an average elevation of 606 metres (1988 ft). The district has two types of soil. First one is, "deep black soil" (or yeari bhoomi), which is good for the crops like jawar, wheat, pulses, sunflower, etc. The major portion of the district consists of this kind of soil which has a great moisture-holding capacity. Second one is "red soil" (or masari /maddi bhoomi), which is generally poor, good for irrigation and horticulture. Krishna river, which is the most important river of the district. It flows about 125 miles in the district. A dam is built across the river at Almatti, Bhima river flows in northern part of district for about 20 miles. It overflows in the rainy season and spreads over a wider area, which is thereby rendered extremely fertile land. In central part of district Doni river flows..
The climate of Bijapur district is generally dry and healthy. In summer, especially in April and May it is too hot; at that time the temperature lays between 40-degree Celsius to 42-degree Celsius. In winter season, from November to January the temperature is between 15-degree Celsius to 20-degree Celsius. Usually the district has dry weather, so the humidity varies from 10% to 30%. The district has 34 rain gauge stations. The average annual rainfall for the whole district is 552.8 mm, with 37.2 rainy days. The monsoon generally reaches the district by June and lasts till October. Though the total rainfall is not high, the district benefits both from the south-west and the north-east monsoons. The annual rainfall varies from place to place within the district.
|Climate data for Bijapur (1981-2010, extremes 1901-2012)|
|Record high °C (°F)||39.4
|Average high °C (°F)||30.8
|Average low °C (°F)||16.5
|Record low °C (°F)||7.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||4.0
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.1||0.8||1.4||3.3||5.8||5.5||5.6||8.3||5.7||2.0||0.4||39.1|
|Average relative humidity (%)||38||31||28||30||34||56||65||65||62||54||49||43||47|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
The city consists of three distinct portions: the citadel, the fort and the remains of the city. The citadel, built by the Adilshahi Sultans, a mile in circuit, is of great strength, well built of the most massive materials, and encompassed by a ditch 100 yards (91 m) wide, formerly supplied with water. The fort, which was completed by the Adilshahi Sultans in 1566, is surrounded by a wall 6 m. in circumference. This wall is from 30 to 50 ft (15 m) high, and is strengthened with ninety-six massive bastions of various designs. In addition there are ten others at the various gateways. The width is about 25 ft (7.6 m); from bastion to bastion runs a battlement curtained wall about 10 ft (3.0 m) high. The whole is surrounded by a deep moat 30 to 40 ft (12 m) broad. Inside these walls the Bijapur kings bade defiance to all comers. Outside the walls are the remains of a vast city, now for the most part in ruins, but the innumerable tombs, mosques, which have resisted the havoc of time, afford abundant evidence of the ancient splendor of the place. Badami, Aihole, and Pattadakal, near Bijapur, are noted for their historical temples in the Chalukya architectural style.
Bijapur is nearly 530 km (330 mi) from the state capital Bangalore. It lies between latitude 15.20 and 17.28 north and longitude 74.59 and 76.28 east. It is situated well in the interior of the Deccan Peninsula and is about 130 miles away from the west coast.
The district is bounded by Solapur district to the north and Sangli district to the north-west, Belgaum district on the west, Bagalkot district to the south, Gulbarga district to the east and Koppal district to the south-east.
Arrival of Sufis in Bijapur region was started during the reign of Qutbuddin Aibak. During this period Deccan was under the control of native Hindu rulers and Palegars. Shaikh Haji Roomi was the first to arrive in Bijapur with his companions. Although his other comrades like Shaikh Salahuddin, Shaikh Saiful Mulk and Syed Haji Makki were settled in Pune, Haidra and Tikota respectively.
According to Tazkiraye Auliyae Dakkan i.e., Biographies of the saints of the Deccan, compiled by Abdul Jabbar Mulkapuri in 1912-1913,
Sufi Sarmast was one of the earliest sufi of this region. He came to the Deccan from Arabia in the 13th Century at a time when the Deccan was a land of unbelievers with no sign of Islam or correct faith anywhere. His companions, pupils (fakir), disciples (murid), and soldiers (ghazi), numbered over seven hundred. He settled in Sagar in Solapur district. There, a zealous and anti-Muslim raja named Kumaram (Kumara Rama) wished to expel Sufi Sarmast, and his companions having also prepared to a struggle, a bitter fight ensued. Heroes on both sides were slain. Finally the raja was killed by the hand of his daughter. Countless Hindus were killed, and at this time Lakhi Khan Afghan and Nimat Khan came from Delhi to assist him. Hindus were defeated and the Muslims were victorious. The rest of the Hindus, having accepted tributary status, made peace. Since by nature he was fundamentally not combative, Sufi Sarmast spread the religion of Mohammed and befriended the hearts of Hindus. Having seen his fine virtue s and uncommon justice, many Hindus of that time accepted Islam, finally he died in the year A.H.680 i.e., 1281 A.D.
After this period arrival of Sufis in Bijapur and suburbs was started. Ainuddin Gahjul Ilm Dehelvi narrates that Ibrahim Sangane was one of the early Sufis of Bijapur parish. Sufis of Bijapur can be divided into three categories according to period of their arrival viz., Sufis before Bahmani and / or Adil Shahi Dynasty, Sufis during Adil Shahi Dynasty and Sufis after the fall of Adil Shahi Dynasty. And further it can be classified as Sufis as warriors, Sufis as social reformers, Sufis as scholars, poets and writers.
Ibrahim Zubairi writes in his book Rouzatul Auliyae Beejapore (compiled during 1895) which describes that more than 30 tombs or Dargahs are there in Bijapur with more than 300 Khankahs i.e., Islamic Missionary Schools with notable number of disciples of different lineage like Hasani Sadat, Husaini Sadat, Razavi Sadat, Kazmi Sadat, Shaikh Siddiquis, Farooquis, Usmanis, Alvis, Abbasees and other and spiritual chains like Quadari, Chishti, Suharwardi, Naqshbandi, Shuttari, Haidari etc.
Bijapur City had a population of 326,360 population as per census 2011. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Bijapur has an effective literacy rate of 83.43%, higher than the national average of 74%; with male literacy of 88.92% and female literacy of 77.86%. 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. Kannada is the major language spoken here.
Roadways Roadways: geographically & strategically well connected through major cities by four lane NH-13(Solapur-Mangalore) (now NH50), NH-218 (Hubli-Humnabad) and other state highways The main stand in Bijapur is near the southwestern side of the citadel, near the city center. Bus services to Badami, Belgaum, Almatti, Gulbarga, Bidar, Hubli and Solapur are frequent. Bijapur is geographically & strategically well connected through major cities by four lane NH 13(Solapur-Mangalore) (now NH50), NH-218 (Hubli-Humnabad) and other state highways. Bijapur is a big road transport hub and its state run bus transport division has 6 depots/units and comes under North East Karnataka Road Transport Corporation (NEKRTC) headquartered at Gulbarga. The division plys many premium multi-axle coaches, sleeper coach, sitting push back coach with AC and Non AC with makers like Volvo, Mercedes Benz, Isuzu Tata Motors, Ashok Leyland, Mitsubishi etc. services to Bangalore, Mumbai, Pune, Hyderabad, Mangalore, Mysore, Hubli, Belgaum and other major cities.
Railways Bijapur is well connected by rail with Bangalore and other major cities of India (Bombay, Hyderabad,Ahmedabad, Hubli and Solapur). It has its own railhead that is located just 2 km (1.2 mi) from the main town.
Bijapur railway station is connected by a broad-gauge railway (Gadag-Hotgi railway line) to Hotgi Junction near Solapur railway station and Kurduvadi railway station on Central Railway towards the north and to Bagalkot and Gadag junction on South Western Railway towards the south. Bijapur is connected with direct trains to Solapur, Bagalkot, Gadag, Dharwad, Bellary, Yeswanthpur (Bangalore), Hubli, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad. Bijapur comes under Hubli division of South Western Railway (SWR)
Bijapur-Shahabad is a proposed new railway line (via Devar Hippargi, Sindgi, Jewargi) and was sanctioned in the state budget of 2010-11.
GoK's intention is to develop Bijapur Gulbarga belt as a cement & steel hub, which has created a need for a direct railway line between Bijapur and Shahabad. This would also be able to carry coal from the Jharkhand and Singareni colleries for NTPC's 4000 MW Power Project in Kudagi (Basavana Bagewadi Taluk). The Bijapur-Shahabad line would run 156.60 km (97.31 mi) and be under the South Western Railway. Partial private sector financing is required; however, state government will contribute two-thirds of the project cost of the railway line, which is estimated at Rs. 12 billion over the first five years, in a role as an investor in return for a share in the profits.
Similar proposal has been made for sugar belt on the Bijapur Athani Belgaum new line, which will also provide shorter connectivity from Goa to Solapur, Gulbarga, Bidar, Nagpur, Kolkata. The line would run 112.3 km (69.8 mi) and be under South Western Railway, if project is taken into consideration it will be on 50:50 cost sharing basis on both state and railways
Air Transport The nearest airport is at Kalaburgi (152 km). Many airlines connect Bijapur to the rest of India via this airport. A greenfield airport which can accommodate ATR 72 & Airbus 320 (expansion afterwards) is currently being built by Karnataka government. Land has already been acquired. Bijapur Airport will be built by the Karnataka State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (KSIIDC) at a cost of Rs 220 crore. The project site is located 15 km from the city on 727-acre (2.94 km2) of land in Madhubavi villages. The airport is expected to be ready by early 2022.
Bijapur is emerging as a hub for professional education. Previously (i.e. before the 1980s) there were very few professional educational institutions. Along with the professional colleges there are many colleges which provide under-graduate and post-graduate degrees in the faculty of applied science, pure science, social-sciences and humanities. College of Agriculture, Bijapur,  Hittinalli Farm affiliated university of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad is one of the leading educational and research institutes in the field of agriculture, which is offering undergraduate and postgraduate courses in various disciplines of agriculture.
Engineering colleges are affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University viz, B.L.D.E.A's V.P. Dr. P.G. Halakatti College of Engineering and Technology and SECAB College of Engineering and Technology
Al Ameen Medical college is affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. BLDEA's B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre is a deemed university recognised by UGC. Other professional colleges run by BLDE Association are BLDEA's college of pharmacy and college of Nursing sciences affiliated to RGUHS.
Many of colleges except professional are affiliated to Rani Chennamma University Belagavi viz, B.L.D.E.A'S A.S.PATIL COLLEGE OF COMMERCE(Autonomous)MBA Programme, Bijapur. Rani Chennamma University has a Post-Graduation Centre at Bijapur also.
First women's university in the state of Karnataka is located at Bijapur. Various post-graduate courses like MBA, MCA are conducted here. Additionally Bijapur has the first Sainik School in the state, the second being in Kodagu. This is a very reputed residential school preparing cadets for the Defence forces and grooming students very well in many fields. And there many private computer training institutes providing computer education.
The Bijapur district is known for its mosques, structural monuments, art and architectural heritages, archaeological sites and cave temples. With the objective to spread education in this area, Karnatak University opened its Post-Graduate Centre in 1993.
Karnataka State Women's University, established in 2003 in the city of Bijapur is the only Women's University in Karnataka dedicated exclusively for women's education. It is recognised under 2(f) and 12(B) of the UGC Act. Seventy women's colleges spread in twelve districts of North-Karnataka are affiliated to this University. The University offers various UG programmes leading to bachelor's degree in Arts, Business Administration, Computer Applications, Commerce, Education, Fashion Technology, Home Science, Physical Education, Science and Social Work. It also offers 20 P G Courses, P G Diploma and Certificate Courses in the Faculties of Arts, Commerce and Management, Social Sciences, Science and Technology and Education.
Bijapur has IGNOU regional center, There are 7 districts under its jurisdiction(Districts Bagalkote, Bijapur, Bidar, Gulbarga, Koppal Raichur and Yadgir). The newly created Bijapur Regional Centre would cater to seven northern districts.
At the inaugural auction of Karnataka Premier League (KPL), Bijapur Bulls was one of the eight teams that were formed. Bijapur Bulls represent the Gulbarga zone of Karnataka State.