Bissau
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Bissau
Bissau
Bissau-Stroossenzeen--w.jpg
Ministério da Justiça, Guiné-Bissau.jpg
Consulmar Bissau.jpg
Museu Militar da Luta de Libertação Nacional (13).jpg
Catedral de Bissau 1.jpg
Mausoléu de Amílcar Cabral, novembro de 2017 04.jpg
Hotel Império, Bissau.jpg
20130610 - Monumento aos Heróis da Independência.jpg
Agencia BCEAO em Bissau.jpg
Aeroporto de Bissau, Guinea-Bissau 2.jpg
Agência da Aliança Seguradora, Bissau.jpg
Photos of Bissau
Flag of Bissau
Flag
Coat of arms of Bissau
Coat of arms
Bissau is located in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau
Bissau
Location of Bissau in Guinea-Bissau
Bissau is located in Africa
Bissau
Bissau
Bissau (Africa)
Coordinates: 11°51?N 15°34?W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567Coordinates: 11°51?N 15°34?W / 11.850°N 15.567°W / 11.850; -15.567
Country Guinea-Bissau
RegionBissau Autonomous Sector
Founded1687
Area
 o Total77.5 km2 (29.9 sq mi)
Elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
(2015 census)
 o Total492,004
 o Density5,009/km2 (12,974/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
ISO 3166 codeGW-BS
ClimateAw

Bissau (Portuguese pronunciation: [?i'saw]) is the capital city of Guinea-Bissau. In 2015, Bissau had a population of 492,004.[1] Bissau is located on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean, and is Guinea-Bissau's largest city, major port, and its administrative and military centre.

Etymology

The term Bissau comes from the name Itchassu (later N'nssassu and Bôssassum), which means "brave as the jaguar", possibly in reference to the warrior profile of the inhabitants of the island of Bissau, mimicking the African leopard,[2] a great feline predator, known in the country as "jaguar".[3] Over time Bôssassum started to be written as Bisão (or "São José de Bisão"), Bissao and finally "Bissau".[2]

Bôssassu (or Itchassu) was the name given to the nephew of King Mecca - the first sovereign of the island of Bissau -, son of his sister Pungenhum. Bôssassu formed the main clan of the paper peoples and the Kingdom of Bissau, the main of the pre-colonial states on the island of Bissau. The bassassum were the kings and noblemen (djagras) of the Kingdom of Bissau.[4]

History

The city was founded in 1687 by Portugal as a fortified port and trading center.[5] In 1942 it became the capital of Portuguese Guinea.

After the declaration of independence by the anti-colonial guerrillas of PAIGC in 1973, the capital of the rebel territories was declared to be Madina do Boe, while Bissau remained the colonial capital. When Portugal granted independence, following the military coup of April 25 in Lisbon, Bissau became the capital of the new independent state.

Bissau was the scene of intense fighting during the beginning and end of the Guinea-Bissau Civil War in 1998 and 1999.[6]

Geography and climate

View of Downtown Bissau in the 1960s as the capital of Portuguese Guinea

Bissau is located at 11°52' North, 15°36' West (11.86667, -15.60) GNS: Country Files, on the Geba River estuary, off the Atlantic Ocean. The land surrounding Bissau is extremely low-lying, and the river is accessible to ocean-going vessels despite its modest discharge for about 80 kilometres (50 mi) beyond the city.

Bissau has a tropical savanna climate (Köppen Aw), not quite wet enough to qualify as a tropical monsoon climate (Am) but much wetter than most climates of its type.

Almost no rain falls from November to May, but during the remaining five months of the year the city receives around 2,000 millimetres (79 in) of rain.

Climate data for Bissau, Guinea-Bissau (1974-1994)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.7
(98.1)
38.3
(100.9)
38.9
(102.0)
41.1
(106.0)
39.4
(102.9)
35.6
(96.1)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
41.1
(106.0)
Average high °C (°F) 31.1
(88.0)
32.8
(91.0)
33.9
(93.0)
33.3
(91.9)
32.8
(91.0)
31.1
(88.0)
29.4
(84.9)
30.0
(86.0)
30.0
(86.0)
31.1
(88.0)
31.7
(89.1)
30.6
(87.1)
31.5
(88.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.4
(75.9)
25.6
(78.1)
26.6
(79.9)
27.0
(80.6)
27.5
(81.5)
26.9
(80.4)
26.1
(79.0)
26.4
(79.5)
26.4
(79.5)
27.0
(80.6)
26.9
(80.4)
24.8
(76.6)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F) 17.8
(64.0)
18.3
(64.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.6
(69.1)
22.2
(72.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
22.2
(72.0)
18.9
(66.0)
21.1
(70.0)
Record low °C (°F) 12.2
(54.0)
13.3
(55.9)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
17.2
(63.0)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
19.4
(66.9)
20.0
(68.0)
15.0
(59.0)
12.8
(55.0)
12.2
(54.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
0.5
(0.02)
0.8
(0.03)
17.3
(0.68)
174.8
(6.88)
472.5
(18.60)
682.5
(26.87)
434.9
(17.12)
194.8
(7.67)
41.4
(1.63)
2.0
(0.08)
2,022.8
(79.63)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 248 226 279 270 248 210 186 155 180 217 240 248 2,707
Source 1: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[7]
Source 2: World Climate Guides (sunshine only)[8]

Demographics

At the 1979 census, Bissau had a population of 109,214. By the 2015 census Bissau had a population of 492,004.[1]

Economy

Bissau is the country's largest city, major port, educational, administrative, industrial and military center. Peanuts, hardwoods, copra, palm oil, milk products, and rubber are the chief products. Bissau is also the main city of the fishing and agricultural industry in the country.[9]

Transportation

Air

The airport that serves Bissau is Osvaldo Vieira International Airport, the only international airport in the country, with domestic and international flights to major cities in Africa as well as Europe, on six scheduled commercial airline companies.

Highways

The main highway connecting Bissau to the rest of the nation and the continent is the Trans-West African Coastal Highway. There are also many smaller national highways that connect to other big cities such as Bafatá and Gabu.

Education

The main secondary school institutions in Bissau are the National Lyceum Kwame N'Krumah[10] and the Bethel-Bissau Adventist School.[11] The main higher education institutions in the city are the Amílcar Cabral University,[12] the Catholic University of Guinea Bissau, and the Jean Piaget University of Guinea-Bissau.

The city of Bissau still has two international schools:[13]

  • Escola Portuguesa da Guiné-Bissau
  • Escola Portuguesa Passo a Passo

Culture

Attractions include the Portuguese-built Fortaleza de São José da Amura barracks from the 18th century, containing Amílcar Cabral's mausoleum, the Pidjiguiti Memorial to the dockers killed in the Bissau Dockers' Strike on August 3, 1959, the Guinea-Bissau National Arts Institute, Bissau New Stadium and local beaches.

Many buildings in the city were ruined during the Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), including the Guinea-Bissau Presidential Palace and the Bissau French Cultural Centre (now rebuilt), and the city centre is still underdeveloped. Because of the large populations of Muslims in Bissau, Ramadan is also an important celebration.[14][15]

Sports

Football is the most popular sport in the country, as well as in the city. Many teams are based in the city, such as: UD Internacional, SC de Bissau, SC Portos de Bissau, Sport Bissau e Benfica, and FC Cuntum. Stadiums that are located in the city are Estádio Lino Correia and Estádio 24 de Setembro.

Religion

The majority of the population of Bissau is with the majority being Muslims (40%) Christianity (34%) and animists (7.9%).[16]

Places of Worship

Among the places of worship, they are predominantly Muslim mosques.[17] There are also some Christian churches and temples such as the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bissau (Catholic Church), Evangelical Churches, and the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God.

Gallery

International relations

Twin towns - Sister cities

Bissau is twinned with:

References

  1. ^ a b "Africa by Country Internet User Stats and 2017 Population". internetworldstats.com. Archived from the original on 2019-08-04. Retrieved .
  2. ^ a b "Revoltas e resistências dos Papéis da Guiné-Bissau contra o Colonialismo Português - 1886-1915. (Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso de Bacharelado em Humanidades)" (PDF).
  3. ^ "Quadro Nacional da Biotecnologia e da Biossegurança da Guiné-Bissau" (PDF).
  4. ^ "O casamento tradicional na Guiné-Bissau" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-07-12. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Cybriwsky, Roman Adrian (2013). Capital Cities Around the World: An Encyclopedia of Geography, History, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 53.
  6. ^ "Guinea-Bissau". Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia. Uppsala University. Archived from the original on 2013-12-31. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ "GUINEA-BISSAU - BISSAU". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved .
  8. ^ "Bissau Climate Guide". Centro de Investigaciones Fitosociológicas. Archived from the original on 2007-08-07. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Urbanização na Guiné-Bissau: Morfologia e Estrutura Urbana da sua Capital [Urbanization in Guinea-Bissau: Morphology and Urban Structure of its Capital] (Master's thesis) (in Portuguese). Lisbon University of Humanities and Technologies. 2010. pp. 93-97. Archived from the original on 6 January 2021. Retrieved 2020.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
  10. ^ Furtado, Alexandre Brito Ribeiro (2005). Administração e Gestão da Educação na Guiné-Bissau: Incoerências e Descontinuidades [Administration and Management of Education in Guinea-Bissau: Inconsistencies and Discontinuities] (Doctorate thesis) (in Portuguese). Universidade de Aveiro. hdl:10773/1098.
  11. ^ "Voluntários Fazem Diferença em Projeto em Guiné-Bissau" [Volunteers Make a Difference in a Project in Guinea-Bissau]. Notícias Adventistas (in Portuguese). 22 July 2016. Archived from the original on 2021-01-06.
  12. ^ "Equipamento Novo e Desafios Adicionais para Universidade Amílcar Cabral" [New Equipment and Additional Challenges for Universidade Amílcar Cabral]. Rádio das Nações Unidas (in Portuguese). 19 May 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-29. Retrieved 2015.
  13. ^ "Escolas com Currículo Português na Guiné-Bissau" [Portuguese Curriculum Schools in Guinea-Bissau]. Direção de Serviços de Ensino e Escolas Portuguesas no Estrangeiro (DSEEPE) of the Portuguese Education Ministry (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2015-05-31. Retrieved 2015.
  14. ^ "Korité in Guinea-Bissau in 2021". Office Holidays. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Guinea-Bissau Holidays and Festivals". iexplore.com. Archived from the original on 2021-01-06. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Guinea-Bissau: socio-cultural characteristics" (PDF). National Statistics Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-11-05. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Guinea-Bissau | History - Geography". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2015-04-19. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-23. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "Sister Cities of Ankara". www.ankara.bel.tr. Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved .

Further reading

  • Lobban, Richard Andrew, Jr.; Mendy, Peter Karibe (1997). Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (3rd ed.). Scarecrow Press. pp. 91-96. ISBN 0-8108-3226-7.

External links

  • Media related to Bissau at Wikimedia Commons
  • Bissau travel guide from Wikivoyage

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Bissau
 



 



 
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