Breve
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Breve
Breve
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute?
grave`
double grave ?
circumflex^
caron, há?ek?
breve?
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ?
retroflex hook  ?
hook above ?
horn ?
iota subscript ͅ 
macron?
ogonek, nosin??
perispomene ͂ 
overring?
underring?
rough breathing?
smooth breathing?
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe'
bar
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen?
prime?
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ?
titlo ?
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara? ? ? ?
avagraha? ? ? ? ? ?
chandrabindu? ? ?
nuqta?
virama? ? ? ? ? ?
visarga? ? ? ?
Gurmukh? diacritics
Khmer diacritics
Thai diacritics
IPA diacritics
Japanese kana diacritics
dakuten ?
handakuten ?
Syriac diacritics
Related
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols
Latin
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
C? c?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
K? k?
M? m?
N? n?
? ?
OE? oe?
P? p?
R? r?
T? t?
? ?
V? v?
X? x?
Y? y?
Greek
? ?
? ?
? ?
Cyrillic
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?
? ?

A breve (, less often , neuter form of the Latin brevis "short, brief") is the diacritic mark ?, shaped like the bottom half of a circle. As used in Ancient Greek, it is also called brachy, . It resembles the caron (the wedge or há?ek in Czech) but is rounded, in contrast to the angular tip of the caron.

Breve vs. caron
Breve ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Y? y?
Caron ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Y? y?

Length

The breve sign indicates a short vowel, as opposed to the macron ¯, which indicates long vowels, in academic transcription. It is often used that way in dictionaries and textbooks of Latin, Ancient Greek, Tuareg and other languages. However, there is a frequent convention of indicating only the long vowels. It is then understood that a vowel with no macron is short. If the vowel length is unknown, a breve as well as a macron are used in historical linguistics ( ).

Some typefaces differentiate Cyrillic style (top) and Latin style breve (bottom)
Some typefaces differentiate Cyrillic style (top) and Latin style breve (bottom)

In Cyrillic script, a breve is used for ?. In Belarusian, it is used for both the Cyrillic ? (semivowel U) and in the Latin (?acinka) ?. ? was also used in Cyrillic Uzbek under the Soviet Union. The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet uses a breve on ? to represent a voiced postalveolar affricate /d/ (corresponding to ⟨g⟩ before a front vowel in the Latin script for Moldovan). In Chuvash, a breve is used for Cyrillic letters ? (A-breve) and ? (E-breve). In Itelmen orthography, it is used for ?, and ?. The traditional Cyrillic breve differs in shape and is thicker on the edges of the curve and thinner in the middle, compared to the Latin one,[1] but the Unicode encoding is the same.

Contrastive use of Cyrillic kratka (for consonant [j]) and Latin breve (for short vowel [?]) above ? in Russian-Nenets dictionary

In Emilian, ? ? are used to represent [?, ?] in dialects where also long [?:, ?:] occur.

In Esperanto, u with breve (?) represents a non-syllabic u in diphthongs , analogous to Belarusian ?.

In the transcription of Sinhala, the breve over an m or an n indicates a prenasalized consonant; for example, n?da is used to represent [?da].

In the International Phonetic Alphabet, a breve over a phonetic symbol is used to indicate extra-shortness.

Other uses

In other languages, it is used for other purposes.

Encoding

Unicode and HTML code (decimal numeric character reference) for breve characters.

Name Letter Unicode HTML
Breve (spacing) ? U+02D8 ˘
Combining breve U+0306 ̆
Combining breve below U+032E ̮
Combining double breve U+035D ͝
Combining double breve below U+035C ͜
Breve with inverted breve (spacing) ? U+AB5B ꭛
Latin
A-breve ?
?
U+0102
U+0103
Ă
ă
E-breve ?
?
U+0114
U+0115
Ĕ
ĕ
I-breve ?
?
U+012C
U+012D
Ĭ
ĭ
O-breve ?
?
U+014E
U+014F
Ŏ
ŏ
U-breve ?
?
U+016C
U+016D
Ŭ
ŭ
Azerbaijani, Tatar, Turkish
G-breve ?
?
U+011E
U+011F
Ğ
ğ
Vietnamese
A-s?c-breve ?
?
U+1EAE
U+1EAF
Ắ
ắ
A-huy?n-breve ?
?
U+1EB0
U+1EB1
Ằ
ằ
A-h?i-breve ?
?
U+1EB2
U+1EB3
Ẳ
ẳ
A-ngã-breve ?
?
U+1EB4
U+1EB5
Ẵ
ẵ
A-n?ng-breve ?
?
U+1EB6
U+1EB7
Ặ
ặ
Cyrillic
A-breve ?
?
U+04D0
U+04D1
Ӑ
ӑ
Ye-breve ?
?
U+04D6
U+04D7
Ӗ
ӗ
Zhe-breve ?
?
U+04C1
U+04C2
Ӂ
ӂ
Short I ?
?
U+0419
U+0439
Й
й
O-breve
U+041E U+0306
U+043E U+0306
О̆
о̆
Short U ?
?
U+040E
U+045E
Ў
ў
Greek
Alpha with brachy ?
?
U+1FB8
U+1FB0
Ᾰ
ᾰ
Iota with brachy ?
?
U+1FD8
U+1FD0
Ῐ
ῐ
Upsilon with brachy ?
?
U+1FE8
U+1FE0
Ῠ
ῠ
Arabic, Hittite, Akkadian, Egyptian transliteration[3]
H-breve below ?
?
U+1E2A
U+1E2B
Ḫ
ḫ
Hebrew transliteration[3]
E-cedilla-breve ?
?
U+1E1C
U+1E1D
Ḝ
ḝ

In LaTeX the controls \u{o} and \breve{o} put a breve over the letter o.

Notes

  1. ^ ?, "" [Cyrillic breve ("kratka")] (in Russian). ParaType.
  2. ^ For example, that word han-geul is romanized in McCune-Reischauer as han'g?l. The spelling han-geul is based on South Korea's Revised Romanization of Korean adopted in 2000 in part for ease in computer use, not on McCune-Reischauer. It is common, for convenience, to omit writing all diacritical marks in McCune-Reishchauer including breves, in which case the word is spelled hangul not han'g?l. North Korea uses a variant of McCune-Reischauer that also utilizes breves for those two vowels.
  3. ^ a b "Code chart for Latin Extended Additional (U+1E00-U+1EFF)" (PDF). The Unicode Standard. Retrieved .

See also

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Breve
 



 



 
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