British America and
the British West Indies
Flag of Great Britain and British America (after 1707)
|Status||Colonies of England (1607 -- 1707)|
Colonies of Scotland
(1629 -- 1632)
Colonies of Great Britain (1707 -- 1783)
|Capital||Administered from London, England|
|Common languages||English (de facto official) |
|Religion||Anglicanism, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism, Judaism, American Indian religion, Traditional African religions|
o 1607 -- 1625
|James VI and I (first)|
o 1760 -- 1783
|George III (last)|
|Currency||Pound sterling, Spanish dollar, bills of credit, commodity money, and many local currencies|
British America comprised the colonial territories of the British Empire in the Americas from 1607 to 1783. These colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before the Thirteen Colonies declared their independence in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) and formed the United States of America.
After the American Revolution, the term British North America was used to refer to the remainder of Great Britain's possessions in North America. The term British North America was used in 1783, but it was more commonly used after the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), generally known as the Durham Report.
The English established and expanded a number of colonies in the 17th century in the New World. British America later gained large amounts of territory with the Treaty of Paris (1763), which ended the French and Indian War in America and the Seven Years' War in Europe. At the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, the British Empire included 23 colonies and territories on the North American continent. The Treaty of Paris (1783) ended the war, and Britain lost much of this territory to the newly formed United States. In addition, Britain ceded East and West Florida to the Kingdom of Spain, which in turn ceded them to the United States in 1821. Most of the remaining colonies to the north formed Canada in 1867, with the Dominion of Newfoundland joining in 1949.
A number of English colonies were established in America between 1607 and 1670 by individuals and companies whose investors expected to reap rewards from their speculation. They were granted commercial charters by King James I, King Charles I, Parliament, and King Charles II. The London Company founded the first permanent settlement in 1607 on the James River at Jamestown, Virginia upstream from Chesapeake Bay. This was followed in 1620 when the Pilgrims established the Plymouth settlement in New England. English Catholics settled the Province of Maryland in 1634, under Cecilus Calvert, second Lord Baltimore.
A state department in London known as the Southern Department governed all the colonies beginning in 1660, as well as a committee of the Privy Council called the Board of Trade and Plantations. In 1768, Parliament created a specific state department for America, but it was disbanded in 1782 when the Home Office took responsibility for the remaining possessions of British North America in Eastern Canada, The Floridas, and the West Indies.
The Thirteen Colonies that became the original states of the United States:
Colonies and territories that became part of Canada:
Colonies and territories that were ceded to Spain or the United States in 1783: