Bruce County, Ontario
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Bruce County, Ontario
Bruce County
County of Bruce
Marina in Kincardine
Marina in Kincardine
Motto(s): 
"In Deo Imperium Sed Populus Administrat"(Latin)
"Administration by the People, but under the authority of God"
Bruce County is located in Ontario
Bruce County
Bruce County
Bruce County is located in Canada
Bruce County
Bruce County
Coordinates: 44°30?17?N 81°14?58?W / 44.50472°N 81.24944°W / 44.50472; -81.24944Coordinates: 44°30?17?N 81°14?58?W / 44.50472°N 81.24944°W / 44.50472; -81.24944
CountryCanada
ProvinceOntario
County seatWalkerton, Ontario
Government
 o WardenJanice Jackson
 o Chief Administrative OfficerSandra Datars Bere
Area
 o Land3,978.76 km2 (1,536.21 sq mi)
Population
(2016)
 o Total66,491[1]
 o Density16.7/km2 (43/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 o Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
GNBC CodeFEQQX[2]
Primary Highways21, 9, and 6
Websitehttps://brucecounty.on.ca/
[3]

Bruce County is a county in Southwestern Ontario, Canada comprising eight lower-tier municipalities and with a 2016 population of 66,491. It is named for James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin and 12th Earl of Kincardine, sixth Governor General of the Province of Canada. The Bruce name is also linked to the Bruce Trail and the Bruce Peninsula. It has three distinct areas. The Peninsula is part of the Niagara Escarpment and is known for its views, rock formations, cliffs, and hiking trails. The Lakeshore includes nearly 100 km of fresh water and soft sandy beaches. Finally, the Interior Region has a strong history in farming.

Municipalities

Bruce County comprises eight municipalities (in population order):

Municipality 2016 Population[4] Population Centres[5]
Town of Saugeen Shores 13,715 Port Elgin, Southampton
Municipality of Kincardine 11,389 Kincardine
Municipality of Brockton 9,461 Walkerton
Town of South Bruce Peninsula 8,416 Wiarton
Township of Huron-Kinloss 7,069 Lucknow
Municipality of Arran-Elderslie 6,803 Chesley, Paisley
Municipality of South Bruce 5,639 Mildmay
Municipality of Northern Bruce Peninsula 3,999 Lion's Head, Tobermory

Two First Nations are also included within the Bruce census division, but their lands are separate from the county administration:

History

Cessions of First Nations lands

The territory of the County arose from various surrenders of First Nations lands.[6]

The bulk of the land arose from the Queen's Bush, as a result of the 1836 Saugeen Tract Agreement. This was followed by the cession of the Indian Strip in 1851, for a road between Owen Sound and Southampton that was never constructed.[7] Friction between the Chippewas that arose out of this led to significant delay in later negotiations.[7]

The Saugeen Surrenders of 1854, known as "Treaty 72", transferred the remainder of the Bruce Peninsula to the Crown, reserving the following lands:[8]:195-197

Reserved for Tract Later disposition
Saugeen Indians Saugeen now known as Saugeen 29
Chief's Point now known as Chief's Point 28
Owen Sound Indians Newash Surrendered to the Crown in 1857 under the Peter Jones Treaty (also known as "Treaty 82"),[8]:213-215 becoming Sarawak Township in Grey County.[9] Resulting land sales were for the benefit of the Indians, who would be moved to Cape Croker.[7]
Cape Croker now known as Neyaashiinigmiing 27
Colpoy's Bay Indians Colpoy's Bay Surrendered to the Crown in 1861 under "Treaty 93", becoming part of Keppel Township in Grey County.[8]:233-234 Resulting land sales were for the benefit of the Indians, who would be moved to Christian Island.[7]

Municipal history

Canada West in 1857. Bruce County is marked in light green.

Huron County was organized in the Huron District in 1845,[10] and the District itself (which had been continued for judicial purposes) was abolished at the beginning of 1850.[11] Legislation passed later in the same session of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada provided instead for it to be reconstituted as the United Counties of Huron, Perth and Bruce, with the territory of the Bruce Peninsula (referred to as the "Indian Reserve") withdrawn and annexed to Waterloo County.[12] Bruce County consisted of the following townships:

  • Huron
  • Kinloss
  • Curloss
  • Carrick
  • Kincardine
  • Greenock
  • Brant
  • Bruce
  • Saugeen
  • Elderslie
  • Arran


The Indian Reserve (being that part not otherwise transferred to Grey County) was later withdrawn from Waterloo and transferred to Bruce in 1851.[13] The County of Perth was given its own Provisional Municipal Council at that time,[14] and was separated from the United Counties in 1853.[15]

In 1849, the Huron District Council initially united the area of the county with the United Townships of Wawanosh and Ashfield as a single municipality, which lasted until 1851 when Wawanosh and Ashfield were withdrawn. The area then became known as the "United Townships in the County of Bruce", which lasted until its division into municipalities in 1854.[16]:104

The Bruce Peninsula was later surveyed into townships, starting with Amabel and Albemarle in 1855,[16]:209,234 Eastnor in 1862,[16]:245 Lindsay in 1870,[16]:251 and St. Edmunds in 1871.[16]:256

The following villages and towns would be constituted over the years:

Bruce County urban municipalities (with date of incorporation)
Villages Towns
  • Kincardine (village 1858, town 1875)[b]
  • Southampton (village 1858, town 1904)[16]:511–512
  • Walkerton (1871)[16]:290
  • Chesley (village 1880, town 1906)[16]:377,382
  • Wiarton (village 1880, town 1894)[16]:223,228

Formation of a separate county council (1857-1867)

Townships of Bruce County, Ontario, 1880

A Provisional Municipal Council was established for Bruce County at the beginning of 1857,[17] Walkerton was initially proclaimed as the county seat, in preference to Kincardine,[16]:92 but local opposition[c] forced the proclamation to be deferred until each town and village had presented a case for its selection.[18] A subsequent proclamation confirmed Walkerton's selection.[16]:92

In 1863, the provisional council promoted a bill in the Legislative Assembly to divide the county into the counties of Bruce and Wallace, with Kincardine and Southampton once more proposed as the respective county towns,[16]:95 but it only went as far as second reading and did not proceed further.[16]:95[19]

The provisional council later asked for legislation to provide for a referendum as to whether Walkerton, Paisley, Kincardine or another place would be the most acceptable choice.[20] The referendum was held in September 1864, and Paisley received a plurality of the votes.[16]:99 In early 1865, the provisional council asked for legislation to confirm the result, but changed its mind later in the year in favour of Walkerton.[16]:101 Confirming legislation was passed in 1866 to provide for the dissolution of the United Counties on January 1, 1867, with Huron and Bruce becoming separate counties for all purposes.[21]

Indigenous issues

There have been disputes relating to cottage owners leasing properties on First Nations lands in the County. At Hope Bay, the occupiers of 68 cottages saw their leases revoked in 2007,[22] resulting in a lawsuit that was only settled in 2018, leading to the resulting demolition of the cottages.[23] in the Saugeen and Chief's Point reserves, there are four blocks of land encompassing 1,200 cottages that had been subject to ten-year lease agreements,[22] the latest of which expired at the end of April 2021.[24] A new five-year agreement came into effect in May 2021.[25]

Litigation is underway, in which the Saugeen Ojibway First Nation is claiming the following:[26]

  1. Compensation resulting from the Crown breaching its fiduciary trust to protect and preserve the territory of the Saugeen Ojibway Nation;
  2. Aboriginal title over the water territory around the Bruce Peninsula, from the international boundary with the United States in Lake Huron across to Georgian Bay; and
  3. A declaration that their harvesting (ie, hunting and fishing) rights within their traditional territory were not extinguished by Treaty 72 of 1854.

A decision is expected before August 2021.[27]

The Saugeen First Nation is pursuing separate litigation relating to the determination of the actual reserve boundary. Treaty 72 had originally provided for the following reservation of land:

...for the benefit of the Saugeen Indians we reserve all that block of land bounded on the west by a straight line running due north from the River Saugeen, at the spot where it is entered by a ravine, immediately to the west of the village [of Saugeen],[d] and over which a bridge has recently been constructed, to the shore of Lake Huron; on the south by the aforesaid northern limit of the lately surrendered strip; on the east by a line drawn from a spot upon the coast at a distance of about (9½) nine miles and a half from the western boundary aforesaid, and running parallel thereto until it touches the aforementioned northern limits of the recently surrendered strip; and we wish it to be clearly understood that we wish the Peninsula at the mouth of the Saugeen River to the west of the western boundary aforesaid to be laid out in town park lots and sold for our benefit witnout delay; and we also wish it to be understood that our surrender includes that parcel of land which is in continuation of the strip recently surrendered to the Saugeen River.[8]:195-197

A dispute has arisen because the original survey of Amabel Township appears to be at variance with the treaty's specifications, with the eastern limit being drawn at 8 miles from the western limit, instead of the 9½ stated.[28] The matter had been partially resolved some years earlier, with certain lands running from Sauble Beach down to Southampton reverting to the reserve.[29] However, another part of the public beach in Sauble Beach, approximately 2 km in length, is still in dispute. The matter has been in protracted litigation, with separate claims being filed in 1990 by the federal government and in 1995 by the First Nation.[30] An attempted settlement, arising from mediation overseen by the former Supreme Court of Canada justice Ian Binnie, collapsed in 2014.[28] The case hearing is anticipated to take place in late 2021.[31] In the meantime, some friction has occurred between the First Nation and local authorities over maintenance work being undertaken on the local dunes.[32]

The southern portion of Sauble Beach, known as Sauble Park, is within the limits of the reserve.[33] As of 2018, beach parking is no longer available there, in line with what is already the case at Wasaga Beach and Grand Bend.[34]

Demographics

Citizenship and immigration status
Group 2016 Census 2011 Census 2006 Census
Population % of total Population % of Total Population % of Total
Canadian citizen By birth 61,470 92.1 No data 59,180 91.7
By naturalization 4,180 6.3 4,225 6.5
Permanent resident 955 1.4 1,040 1.6
Non-permanent resident 110 0.2 110 0.2
Total 66,720 100.0 64,555 100.0
Visible Minorities and Aboriginals
Group 2016 Census 2011 Census 2006 Census
Population % of total Population % of Total Population % of Total
Aboriginal First Nations 2,475 3.7 No data 2,185 3.4
Métis 685 1.0
Visible Minority 1,805 2.7 965 1.5
All other 61,755 92.6 61,405 95.1
Total 66,720 100.0 64,555 100.0
Population by mother tongue
Group 2016 Census 2011 Census 2006 Census
Population % of total Population % of Total Population % of Total
English 61,545 91.7 60,015 92.0 59,450 92.1
French 625 1.6 630 1.0 540 0.8
English and French 105 0.2 85 0.1 50 0.1
All other 4,915 6.5 4,510 6.9 4,510 7.0
Total 67,190 100.0 65,240 100.0 64,555 100.0
Mobility over previous five years
Group 2016 Census 2011 Census 2006 Census
Population % of total Population % of Total Population % of Total
At the same address 44,075 70.0 No data 42,645 69.1
In the same municipality 8,245 13.1 7,535 12.2
In the same province 9,720 15.4 10,425 16.9
From another province 485 0.8 485 1.0
From another country 410 0.7 480 0.8
Total aged 5 or over 62,935 100.0 61,675 100.0

Government

Map of Bruce County, on the Lake Huron shoreline of Ontario, Canada.[39]

The County of Bruce is governed by a council consisting of a warden and mayors of the area municipalities. County council meetings are held in the Bruce County Administration building in Walkerton, Ontario.

Environment

Protected Areas

National Parks

Provincial Parks

Conservation Areas

Bruce County is home to a number of conservation areas with the jurisdiction of Saugeen Valley Conservation Authority and Grey Sauble Conservation Authority.

Endangered Species

Massasauga Rattlesnake

Hungerford's crawling water beetle

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Because the village limits were partially in Bruce and partially in Huron, there was controversy as to which county the village should be attached to. This was resolved by a proclamation issued in June 1874.[16]:477–478
  2. ^ Intended name was Penetangore, but was changed to Kincardine in the incorporating bylaw.[16]:458–459
  3. ^ Including an abortive attempt to have the county divided into Bruce and Saugeen, with Kincardine and Southampton contemplated as the respective county towns, and the proposed boundary being the Brant/Elderslie line, the 17th and 18th concessions of Greenock, and the 7th and 8th concessions of Bruce.[16]:93,94
  4. ^ later to become Southampton

References

  1. ^ Sum of Bruce County municipalities from 2016 Census Profile
  2. ^ "FEQQX". Natural Resources Canada. October 6, 2016.
  3. ^ "Bruce County census profile". 2011 Census of Population. Statistics Canada. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Statistics Canada, Census Profile, 2016 Census: Ontario: Census subdivisions (municipalities)
  5. ^ Statistics Canada, Census Profile, 2016 Census: Ontario: Population centres
  6. ^ Surtees, R. (1984). Indian Land Surrenders in Ontario, 1763-1867 (PDF). Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. pp. 89-94, 100-105.
  7. ^ a b c d Marsh, Edith L. (1931). A History of the County of Grey. Owen Sound: Fleming. pp. 34-37.
  8. ^ a b c d Indian treaties and surrenders, from 1680 to 1890. I. Ottawa: King's Printer. 1905.
  9. ^ Marsh, p. 210
  10. ^ An Act for better defining the limits of the Counties and Districts in Upper Canada, for erecting certain new Townships, for detaching Townships from some Counties and attaching them to others, and for other purposes relative to the division of Upper Canada into Townships, Counties and Districts, S.C. 8 Vic., c. 7, s. 8
  11. ^ An Act for abolishing the Territorial Division of Upper-Canada into Districts, and for providing temporary Unions of Counties for Judicial and other purposes, and for the future dissolutions of such Unions, as the increase of wealth and population may require, S.Prov.C. 1849, c. 78, Sch. C
  12. ^ An Act to divide the District of Huron, in the Province of Canada, and for other purposes therein mentioned, S.Prov.C. 1849, c. 96
  13. ^ An Act to make certain alterations in the Territorial Divisions of Upper Canada, S.Prov.C. 1851, c. 5, Sch. A, par. 29
  14. ^ S.Prov.C. 1849, c. 96, s. 3
  15. ^ An Act to authorize to Governor General to issue a Proclamation to declare the County of Perth to be separated from the United Counties of Huron, Perth and Bruce, and for other purposes therein mentioned, S.Prov.C. 1852, c. 31
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Robertson, Norman (1906). The History of the County of Bruce. William Briggs.
  17. ^ An Act to separate the County of Bruce from the County of Huron, S.Prov.C. 1856, c. 19
  18. ^ An Act to provide for the selection of a County Town for the County of Bruce, S.Prov.C. 1856, c. 111
  19. ^ Bill 292, 2nd Session, 7th Parliament (1863)
  20. ^ An Act to avoid the Proclamation declaring Walkerton the County Town of the County of Bruce, and to enable the Municipal Electors of the said County to select a County Town, S.Prov.C. 1864, c. 77
  21. ^ "Proclamation". Canada Gazette. 25 (48): 4606. December 1, 1866., implementing An Act to facilitate the separation of Huron and Bruce, and to appoint Walkerton the County Town of the County of Bruce, S.Prov.C. 1865, c. 66
  22. ^ a b Grant, Kelly (August 16, 2008). "Let us back into our cottages". The Globe and Mail.
  23. ^ Dunn, Scott (August 29, 2018). "Hope Bay cottage demolition closes bitter chapter". Owen Sound Sun-Times.
  24. ^ "About SCOI". scoi.ca. Saugeen Cottager's Organization Incorporated. 2021.
  25. ^ Lindsay, Sancy (February 22, 2021). "New five-year Saugeen land-lease agreement to take effect May 1st". Saugeen Times.
  26. ^ Humphreys, Adrian (April 25, 2019). "First Nation sues for title to massive, scenic swath of Ontario and $90B as landmark trial starts". National Post. Toronto.
  27. ^ Gowan, Rob (July 5, 2021). "Saugeen Ojibway Nation expecting decision on peninsula claim shortly". Owen Sound Sun-Times.
  28. ^ a b Gray, Jeff (August 30, 2015). "Divisive conflict at Sauble Beach is older than Canada itself". The Globe and Mail.
  29. ^ Urquhart, Scot (July 23, 2016). "Sauble Beach is changing but it is still a place for family". Hamilton Spectator.
  30. ^ Johnson, Rhiannon (August 7, 2019). "Saugeen First Nation seeks court ruling on century-old boundary dispute in Sauble Beach". CBC News.
  31. ^ Dunn, Scott (November 9, 2020). "Summary judgment hearing in Sauble land claim delayed". Owen Sound Sun-Times.
  32. ^ Miller, Scott (December 8, 2020). "Sauble Beach, Ont.'s dune dispute reaches boiling point". CTV News. London.
  33. ^ "Sauble Park". Saugeen First Nation.
  34. ^ Bell, Adam (May 9, 2019). "Parking changes this summer at Sauble Beach". BlackburnNews.com.
  35. ^ "2016 Community Profiles". 2016 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. February 21, 2017. Retrieved .
  36. ^ "2011 Community Profiles". 2011 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. July 5, 2013. Retrieved .
  37. ^ "2006 Community Profiles". 2006 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. March 30, 2011. Retrieved .
  38. ^ "2001 Community Profiles". 2001 Canadian Census. Statistics Canada. February 17, 2012.
  39. ^ "Bruce County Maps". brucecounty.on.ca. Retrieved 2018.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Bruce_County,_Ontario
 



 



 
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