Cardinals Created by Francis
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Cardinals Created by Francis

Pope Francis (r. 2013-present) has created cardinals at seven consistories held at roughly annual intervals beginning in 2014, most recently on 28 November 2020. He has created 101 cardinals from 58 countries, 19 of which had never been represented in the College of Cardinals, and the first Scandinavian since the Reformation.[a]

Following the 2020 consistory, 73 of the cardinal electors had been appointed by Francis, 39 by Pope Benedict XVI, and 16 by Pope John Paul II.[1] Each of Francis' consistories has increased the number of cardinal electors beyond the set limit of 120, as high as 128 in 2019 and 2020. The number exceeded 120 for almost a year following the 5 October 2019 consistory (until 29 September 2020), to date the longest such time period during Francis' papacy.[2][b]

Cardinal electors

Francis' consistories have all brought the number of cardinal electors above the maximum of 120, as did several consistories held by John Paul II and Benedict XVI.[c] The February 2014 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 122,[3] but the 80th birthday of Cardinal Jean-Baptiste Ph?m Minh M?n and the death of Cardinal José da Cruz Policarpo reduced the number to 120 in less than a month. The February 2015 consistory increased the number to 125,[4] but the 80th birthdays of Cardinals Antonios Naguib and Justin Francis Rigali, the announcement on 20 March that Cardinal Keith O'Brien would no longer participate in a conclave,[5] and the deaths of Cardinals Jean-Claude Turcotte and Francis George reduced the number of cardinal electors to 120 on 19 April, just two months after the consistory. The November 2016 consistory resulted in 121 electors,[6] which fell to 120 with the 80th birthday of Cardinal Théodore-Adrien Sarr at the end of the month. The June 2017 consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 121,[7] and it declined to 120 when Cardinal Carlo Caffarra died ten weeks later on 6 September. In the June 2018 consistory, Francis increased the number of cardinal electors to 125,[8] which resulted in a count above 120 for ten months.[9][d] The October 2019 consistory increased the number of electors to 128, with the 80th birthdays of four electors reducing that number to 124 by mid-October.[10] The number of cardinal electors fell to 120 on 29 September 2020, following the resignation of rights and privileges of a cardinal on 24 September 2020 by Cardinal Giovanni Angelo Becciu and the 80th birthday of Cardinal Lorenzo Baldisseri on 29 September 2020.[2] The November 2020 consistory raised the number of electors to 128 again.[11]

22 February 2014

On 31 October 2013, Pope Francis announced plans to name new cardinals in a consistory on 22 February 2014.[12] In December 2013, he said that rumors that he might name a woman cardinal were not to be taken seriously.[13] He announced the names of 19 new cardinals on 12 January 2014.[14] Sixteen were under the age of 80, eligible to vote in papal conclaves.[15] Observers attempting to interpret Francis' approach to naming cardinals noted the absence of certain names, including the heads of the dioceses of Venice and Turin and the Vatican Librarian and Archivist.[16] Others noted a preference for clerics with pastoral experience and only a single theologian, Müller.[17] John L. Allen said the choices made the February meeting the "Consistory of the Periphery", noting the "broad global distribution" of the new cardinals.[18] Of the nomination of the archbishop of Perugia rather than those of more prestigious dioceses like Turin and Venice, La Stampa said: "Any career planners in the Church who had the path from the seminary to the cardinalship set out very clearly in their minds will have to think again."[19]

Pope Francis sent a letter to each cardinal-designate that said:[20]

The cardinalship does not imply promotion; it is neither an honour nor a decoration; it is simply a service that requires you to broaden your gaze and open your hearts.... Therefore I ask you, please, to receive this designation with a simple and humble heart. And, while you must do so with pleasure and joy, ensure that this sentiment is far from any expression of worldliness or from any form of celebration contrary to the evangelical spirit of austerity, sobriety and poverty.

Those made cardinal at the consistory were:[21]

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI attended the consistory. He doffed his zucchetto when Pope Francis came down the nave of St. Peter's Basilica to greet him,[21][22] and took a seat in a row with several cardinals using a chair the same as theirs.[23] Loris Francesco Capovilla was granted a dispensation and did not attend the consistory.[24]

Prior to this consistory, there were 106 cardinals under the age of 80 and eligible to participate in the election of a pope, and the addition of 16 new cardinals under age 80 brought the total to 122,[3] although another 10 were due to turn 80 in the remainder of 2014. Because the maximum number of cardinals allowed to participate in a papal conclave is set at 120, the number of cardinals below 80 is usually limited to 120, although that limit has occasionally been exceeded.[25] The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 218.[e]

14 February 2015

On 11 December 2014, the Vatican announced that new cardinals would be created at a consistory on 14 February 2015.[26] On 4 January 2015, Pope Francis announced the names of 20 cardinals-designate, including 15 who were under the age of 80.[27] Vatican spokesman, Rev. Federico Lombardi, said the list "confirms that the pope doesn't feel tied to the traditional 'cardinal sees'", like Turin and Venice, "which reflected historic reasons in various countries. Instead we have various nominations of archbishops or bishops of sees in the past that wouldn't have had a cardinal."[28] The selections continued the pattern Pope Francis established the previous year, showing a "preference for diocesan bishops" and for the southern hemisphere.[4] Of those under the age of 80, only one is a member of the Curia (Mamberti); three are bishops rather than archbishops; four are the first cardinals from their countries (Cape Verde, Myanmar, Panama, Tonga) and others from a diocese that has not had one for decades (Agrigento, Italy, not since 1786; Ancona, Italy, not in more than a century; Montevideo, Uruguay, not since 1979; Valladolid, Spain, not since 1919) or never had one (Morelia, Mexico).[4][29] Nine have been elected by their peers as president of a national or regional episcopal conference.[30] These appointments brought the number of cardinal electors to 125, while two electors would turn 80 in April.[4] The total number of cardinals reached 227 after the consistory.[f]

On 23 January 2015, Pope Francis advised each nominee how to respond to his appointment: "Accept it with humility. Only do so in a way that in these celebrations there does not creep in a spirit of worldliness that intoxicates more than grappa on an empty stomach, disorienting and separating one from the cross of Christ."[31]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Dominique Mamberti (b. 1952) Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
2. Manuel José Macário do Nascimento Clemente (b. 1948) Patriarch of Lisbon, Portugal
3. Berhaneyesus Demerew Souraphiel, CM (b. 1948) Archbishop of Addis Abeba, Ethiopia
4. John Atcherley Dew (b. 1948) Archbishop of Wellington, New Zealand
5. Edoardo Menichelli (b. 1939) Archbishop of Ancona-Osimo, Italy
6. Pierre Nguy?n V?n Nh?n (b. 1938) Archbishop of Hanoi, Vietnam
7. Alberto Suárez Inda (b. 1939) Archbishop of Morelia, Mexico
8. Charles Maung Bo, SDB (b. 1948) Archbishop of Yangon, Myanmar
9. Francis Xavier Kriengsak Kovitvanit (b. 1949) Archbishop of Bangkok, Thailand
10. Francesco Montenegro (b. 1946) Archbishop of Agrigento, Italy
11. Daniel Fernando Sturla Berhouet, SDB (b. 1959) Archbishop of Montevideo, Uruguay
12. Ricardo Blázquez Pérez (b. 1942) Archbishop of Valladolid, Spain
13. José Luis Lacunza Maestrojuán, OAR (b. 1944) Bishop of David, Panama
14. Arlindo Gomes Furtado (b. 1949) Bishop of Santiago de Cabo Verde, Cape Verde
15. Soane Patita Paini Mafi (b. 1961) Bishop of Tonga, Tonga
16. José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez (1919-2019) Archbishop emeritus of Manizales, Colombia
17. Luigi De Magistris (b. 1926) Pro-Major Penitentiary emeritus, Italy
18. Karl-Josef Rauber (b. 1934) Apostolic Nuncio (retired), Germany
19. Luis Héctor Villalba (b. 1934) Archbishop emeritus of Tucumán, Argentina
20. Júlio Duarte Langa (b. 1927) Bishop emeritus of Xai-Xai, Mozambique

Pope emeritus Benedict XVI again attended the consistory and was greeted by Pope Francis before and after the ceremony. The only new cardinal unable to attend was Archbishop José de Jesús Pimiento Rodríguez, whose health prevented him from traveling to Rome.[32]

19 November 2016

On 9 October 2016, the Pope announced that he planned to create new cardinals at a consistory on 19 November 2016,[33] including 13 cardinals under the age of 80 and four over the age of 80. His selections continued to demonstrate his preference for the peripheries and places not previously represented in the College of Cardinals. Several are the first named cardinals from their countries. Of those who are under the age of 80, only Farrell is a member of the Roman Curia. In choosing Simoni, Francis named his first cardinal who was not a bishop;[34] Simoni, who was one of the appointments over age 80, received a papal dispensation from the requirement of episcopal consecration. The appointments brought the total number of cardinals to 228 and the number of cardinal electors to 121.[6]

Asked a year later at a meeting with Jesuits in Bangladesh why he named a cardinal from "a nation where there is such a small Christian community", Francis said:[35]

Naming the cardinals, I tried to look at small Churches, those that grow in the peripheries, at the edges. Not to give consolation to those Churches, but to launch a clear message: the small Churches that grow in the periphery and are without ancient Catholic traditions today must speak to the universal Church, to the whole Church. I clearly feel that they have something to teach us.

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Mario Zenari (b. 1946) Apostolic Nuncio to Syria
2. Dieudonné Nzapalainga, C.S.Sp. (b. 1967) Archbishop of Bangui, Central African Republic
3. Carlos Osoro Sierra (b. 1945) Archbishop of Madrid, Spain
4. Sérgio da Rocha (b. 1959) Archbishop of Brasília, Brazil
5. Blase Joseph Cupich (b. 1949) Archbishop of Chicago, United States of America
6. Patrick D'Rozario, C.S.C. (b. 1943) Archbishop of Dhaka, Bangladesh
7. Baltazar Enrique Porras Cardozo (b. 1944) Archbishop of Mérida, Venezuela
8. Jozef De Kesel (b. 1947) Archbishop of Mechelen-Brussels, Belgium
9. Maurice Piat, C.S.Sp. (b. 1941) Bishop of Port-Louis, Mauritius
10. Kevin Joseph Farrell (b. 1947) Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
11. Carlos Aguiar Retes (b. 1950) Archbishop of Tlalnepantla, Mexico
12. John Ribat, M.S.C. (b. 1957) Archbishop of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
13. Joseph William Tobin, C.Ss.R. (b. 1952) Archbishop of Indianapolis,[g] United States of America
14. Anthony Soter Fernandez (1932–2020) Archbishop emeritus of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
15. Renato Corti (1936-2020) Bishop emeritus of Novara, Italy
16. Sebastian Koto Khoarai, O.M.I. (1929-2021) Bishop emeritus of Mohale's Hoek, Lesotho
17. Ernest Simoni (b. 1928) Priest of the Archdiocese of Shkodrë-Pult, Albania

All the new cardinals attended the consistory on 19 November except Lesotho Bishop Khoarai, who was 87 and unable to travel. For the first time since his retirement Pope emeritus Benedict XVI did not attend.[38][39] The new cardinals were given the rank of Cardinal Priest except for Zenari, Farrell, and Simoni, who were made Cardinal Deacons.[40] Cardinal Nzapalainga became the youngest member of the College of Cardinals and the first born after the Second Vatican Council.[41] Following the consistory ceremony, Pope Francis and the 16 new cardinals present visited the Pope emeritus as a group at his residence in Mater Ecclesiae Monastery and received his blessing.[42]

28 June 2017

On 21 May 2017, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of five new cardinals on 28 June. He adhered to his established pattern of appointing cardinals from the peripheries, including the first cardinals from El Salvador, Laos, Mali, and Sweden, the latter of whom will also be the first cardinal from Scandinavia. All five are under the age of 80.[43][7] According to the National Catholic Reporter, Gregorio Rosa Chávez is "believed to be the first auxiliary bishop to have been made a cardinal in at least the modern era."[44] It has also been claimed that Rosa is the first parish pastor to be named cardinal in decades.[45][better source needed] With these new cardinals, the number of cardinal electors reached 121[7] and the total number of cardinals amounted to 225.[h]

Following the consistory on 28 June, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict XVI, who did not attend the ceremony.[46][47]

Name Title when named cardinal
1. Jean Zerbo (b. 1943) Archbishop of Bamako, Mali
2. Juan José Omella i Omella (b. 1946) Archbishop of Barcelona, Spain
3. Anders Arborelius, O.C.D. (b. 1949) Bishop of Stockholm, Sweden
4. Louis-Marie Ling Mangkhanekhoun, I.V.D. (b. 1944) Apostolic Vicar of Paksé, Laos
5. Gregorio Rosa Chávez (b. 1942) Auxiliary Bishop of San Salvador, El Salvador

28 June 2018

On 20 May 2018, Pope Francis announced a consistory for the elevation of fourteen new cardinals on 29 June, which was later changed to 28 June.[48] The list of new cardinals included 11 young enough to participate in a papal election.[49] Those named were an international group, as is typical of Francis, including prelates from Pakistan, Japan, and Madagascar, countries unrepresented in the College since 1994, 2007, and 2010, respectively.[50] He also named two members of the Roman Curia, an official of the papal household and another of the Diocese of Rome. With this consistory Francis again raised the number of cardinal electors to 125.[51][52] The number of electors declined to 120 on 27 April 2019.[9] The total number of cardinals reached 226 after the consistory.[i]

At the consistory, Sako addressed Francis on behalf of the new cardinals, thanking him for the concern he has shown for the small, persecuted Catholic population of the Middle East. Francis warned the new cardinals against "palace intrigues that take place, even in curial offices".[54] Sako did not receive the same red biretta as the others, but a rounder red "shash" traditionally worn by cardinals of the Chaldean Catholic Church.[55] Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict following the consistory.[56]

5 October 2019

On 1 September 2019, Pope Francis announced that he would hold a consistory to create thirteen new cardinals on 5 October, including ten who are young enough to participate in a papal conclave.[57] This brought the number of cardinal electors to 128, eight more than the limit set by Pope Paul VI, but often ignored.[10] The number of cardinal electors returned to 120 on 29 September 2020.[2] The total number of cardinals reached 225 after the consistory.[k]

The individuals named represent the international character of the Church, including prelates from Guatemala and Indonesia, as well as those with expertise on the care of migrants and relations with Islam; those from Luxembourg and Morocco are the first cardinals from those countries. Three of those named are Curial officials, including the only new cardinal (Czerny) of this consistory not already a bishop (but he was soon raised to that rank). .[58][59]

Following the consistory, Pope Francis and the new cardinals visited Pope emeritus Benedict, who spoke to them briefly and gave them his blessing.[61]

28 November 2020

On 25 October 2020, Pope Francis announced he would create thirteen new cardinals, nine of them young enough to be cardinal electors, at a consistory scheduled for 28 November 2020.[62] The list included the first cardinals from Brunei (Cornelius Sim) and Rwanda (Antoine Kambanda);[63][64] the first Conventual Franciscan to become a cardinal in almost 160 years (Mauro Gambetti);[65][m] the first African American cardinal (Wilton Daniel Gregory);[67] the first Archbishop of Capiz to be made a cardinal (Jose Fuerte Advincula);[68] and the first Archbishop of Siena to be made a cardinal since 1801 (Augusto Paolo Lojudice).[69][n] Enrico Feroci, a parish priest, was consecrated a bishop on 15 November.[70] Mauro Gambetti's service as Custos ended on 12 November[71] and he was consecrated a bishop on 22 November.[72] Raniero Cantalamessa was granted a dispensation from the requirement that he be consecrated a bishop.[73]

Travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic affected attendance at the consistory. Eleven of the thirteen new cardinals attended the consistory in person at Saint Peter's Basilica; Jose Advincula and Cornelius Sim viewed the ceremony via a digital link. After traveling to Rome, those cardinal-designates who did attend the consistory in person self-quarantined at the Vatican's Casa Santa Marta. A hundred other guests were allowed in the basilica. Everyone but Pope Francis and the servers wore masks. The kiss of peace was omitted as were the customary receptions following the ceremony. Francis and the eleven new cardinals in attendance visited Pope Emeritus Benedict XVI after the ceremony.[11][74] This consistory brought the number of cardinal electors to 128 and the total number of cardinals to 229.[11]

See also


  1. ^ Countries first represented among cardinals created by Francis, by consistory, with those represented in the College for the first time in italics:
    • 2014: Argentina, Brazil, Burkina Faso, Canada, Chile, Côte d'Ivoire, Germany, Haiti, Italy, Nicaragua, Philippines, St. Lucia, South Korea, Spain, United Kingdom (15);
    • 2015: Cape Verde, Colombia, Ethiopia, Mexico, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Zealand, Panama, Thailand, Tonga, Uruguay, Vietnam (12);
    • 2016: Albania, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Central African Republic, Lesotho, Malaysia, Mauritius, Papua New Guinea, United States of America, Venezuela (11);
    • 2017: El Salvador, Laos, Mali, Sweden (4);
    • 2018: Bolivia, Iraq, Japan, Malta, Madagascar, Pakistan, Peru, Poland (8);
    • 2019: Cuba, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guatemala, Indonesia, Luxembourg, Morocco (6);
    • 2020: Brunei, Rwanda (2).
  2. ^ The number of electors has been lower than 120 before each of Francis' consistories:
    • 2014 106
    • 2015 110
    • 2016 108
    • 2017 116
    • 2018 114
    • 2019 118
    • 2020 119
  3. ^ The number of cardinal electors has been as high as 135 on two occasions, following Pope John Paul II's consistories on 21 February 2001 and 21 October 2003.
  4. ^ It might have exceeded 120 for 13 months had Cardinal Jean-Louis Tauran not died on 5 July 2018.
  5. ^ 207 cardinals at 2013 conclave minus 1 cardinal elected pope (Bergoglio) minus 7 cardinals who died before the 2014 consistory (Antonetti, Nagy, Pimenta, Tonini, Mazombwe, Bartolucci, Carles Gordó) plus 19 newly-appointed cardinals.
  6. ^ 218 cardinals at previous consistory minus 11 cardinals who died before the 2015 consistory (Policarpo, Delly, , Lourdusamy, Agré, Marchisano, Clancy, Szoka, Angelini, Mejía, Becker) plus 20 newly-appointed cardinals.
  7. ^ Tobin was appointed Archbishop of Newark on 7 November 2016, but was not installed there until 6 January 2017. He was nevertheless identified as Archbishop of Newark in the consistory service booklet[36] and on the day following the consistory by L'Osservatore Romano.[37]
  8. ^ 228 cardinals at previous consistory minus 8 cardinals who died before the 2017 consistory (Arns, Agustoni, Connell, Vlk, Keeler, Nicora, Husar, Dias) plus 5 newly-appointed cardinals.
  9. ^ 225 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2018 consistory (Meisner, Tettamanzi, Murphy-O'Connor, Caffarra, De Paolis, Vidal, Panafieu, Lanza di Montezemolo, Law, Lehmann, O'Brien, Castrillón Hoyos, Obando Bravo) plus 14 newly-appointed cardinals.
  10. ^ He was consecrated a bishop on 16 June 2018.[53]
  11. ^ 226 cardinals at previous consistory minus 13 cardinals who died before the 2019 consistory (Tauran, Sebastián Aguilar, Danneels, Sfeir, Sgreccia, Sardi, Estepa Llaurens, Ortega y Alamino, Obeso Rivera, Silvestrini, Pimiento Rodríguez, Etchegaray, Levada) minus 1 cardinal who resigned (McCarrick) plus 13 newly-appointed cardinals.
  12. ^ He was consecrated a bishop on 4 October 2019.[60]
  13. ^ The last was Fr. Antonio Maria Panebianco, elevated on 27 September 1861 by Pope Pius IX.[66]
  14. ^ The last cardinal archbishop of Siena was Antonio Felice Zondadari, who was elevated on 23 February 1801 by Pope Pius VII.


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