Coordinates: Cleveland is a land of hills and dales from the River Tees to Vale of Pickering, England. The name Cleveland comes from a variant of "cliff-land", referring to the build the area with views of the hills between the River Tees and moorland.[clarification needed]
The area corresponds to the former Langaurgh Wapentake. A national park was established in 1952, it covers part of the area and is called the North York Moors. A non-metropolitan county under the same name existed from 1974 to 1996 leading to ambiguity between the county and the name's historic extent.
Cleveland has centuries-long association with the area from Middlesbrough to Pickering and Thirsk to Whitby, effectively the eastern half of Yorkshire's North Riding. Ralph, Archdeacon of Cleveland, was the area's first archdeacon recorded, before 1174. A Dukedom of Cleveland was first created in the 17th century.
The Cleveland Hills were key suppliers of the ironstone which was essential to running blast furnaces alongside the River Tees. Cleveland's rich ore has created a significant industrial heritage arising from its central role in the 19th century iron boom that led to Middlesbrough growing from a hamlet into a major industrial town in only a matter of decades. Teesport is one of the United Kingdom's main ports, initially due to the iron boom, with between Middlesbrough and Redcar having other heavy industrial plants.
The Cleveland Parliamentary constituency (1885-1974), was the first instance of Cleveland referring to only land around the river Tees. The county of Cleveland and Tees Valley have followed on the same boundaries. The constituency was created by the division of the North Riding constituency, and was succeeded in name by the Cleveland and Whitby for the February 1974 general election.
Unlike multiple towns and cities in North America, Cleveland in Ohio is not named after its English namesake. This is commonly direct or via a toponymic surname. A notable usage of the area as a surname being Grover Cleveland, 22nd and 24th president of the USA.
The area is extremely varied geographically: