Close Back Unrounded Vowel
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Close Back Unrounded Vowel
Close back unrounded vowel
?
IPA Number316
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɯ
Unicode (hex)U+026F
X-SAMPAM
Braille? (braille pattern dots-256)? (braille pattern dots-136)
Audio sample

The close back unrounded vowel, or high back unrounded vowel,[1] is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨?⟩. Typographically a turned letter ⟨m⟩, given its relation to the sound represented by the letter ⟨u⟩ it can be considered a ⟨u⟩ with an extra "bowl".

Features

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned close to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is back, which means the tongue is positioned back in the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant. Unrounded back vowels tend to be centralized, which means that often they are in fact near-back.
  • It is unrounded, which means that the lips are not rounded.

Occurrence

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Acehnese[2] eu [?] 'see' Also described as closer to .[3][4]
Azerbaijani bahal? [b?h?'] 'expensive'
Bashkir ???/qy? [q?ð] 'girl'
Chinese Hokkien Quanzhou dialect ?/tu [t?] 'pig' Allophone of . Written 'tir' in Pe?h-?e-j?.
Some Wu dialects ?/vu [v?] 'father'
Xiang ?/xu [x?] 'fire'
Chuvash ? [ra] 'garlic'
Crimean Tatar ??? [d?an?m] 'please'
English African-American[5] hook [hk] 'hook' Near-close; possible realization of .[5]
Tidewater[6] Near-close; may be rounded instead.[6]
California[7] goose [s] 'goose' Corresponds to in other dialects.
New Zealand[8][9] treacle ['ti:k?] 'treacle' Possible realization of the unstressed vowel /?/, which is variable in rounding and ranges from central to (more often) back and close to close-mid.[8][9] Corresponds to /?l/ in other accents. Develops from dark L; See New Zealand English phonology
Some Philadelphia speakers[10] plus [ps] 'plus' Used by some speakers; the exact height and backness is variable.[10] It corresponds to in other accents. See English phonology
South African[11] pill [p?] 'pill' Near-close; possible allophone of /?/ before the velarised allophone of /l/.[11] See South African English phonology
Estonian[12] kõrv [k?rv] 'ear' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩; can be close-mid central or close-mid back instead, depending on the speaker.[12] See Estonian phonology
Irish Ulster caol [k:l] 'narrow' See Irish phonology
Japanese[13] / k?ki 'air' May be compressed .[14] See Japanese phonology
Korean[15] eumsik [?:mik?] 'food' See Korean phonology
Kurdish Kurmanji (Northern) tir? [t?] 'sour' See Kurdish phonology. The "i" after "t" always uses this sound if the "t" is "t?". However, it can also appear at other places.
Sorani (Central) ‎/tir?
Kyrgyz ???/qyz [q?z] 'girl' See Kyrgyz phonology
Portuguese European[16] pegar [p'?ä?] 'to grab' Reduced vowel. Near-close.[16] Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨?⟩. See Portuguese phonology
Scottish Gaelic caol [k:l] 'thin' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sob düm [d?m] 'tree' See Sop language
Tamil ?/a?agu [x?] 'beauty'
Thai Standard[17] ?/khuen [kn] 'to go up'
Turkish[18] s?? [s?:] 'shallow' Described variously as close back [?],[18] near-close near-back [][19] and close central .[20] See Turkish phonology
Turkmen ýa?yl [jä:'l] 'green'
Uyghur ?????/tulum [t?l?m] 'my language' In complementary distribution with . See Uyghur phonology
Vietnamese t? [t?] 'fourth' See Vietnamese phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the International Phonetic Association prefers the terms "close" and "open" for vowel height, many linguists use "high" and "low".
  2. ^ Mid-vowels in Acehnese Archived 2010-07-14 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ "Agreement System in Acehnese" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-07-30. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Acehnese Coda Condition
  5. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 557.
  6. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 536.
  7. ^ Ladefoged (1999), pp. 42-43.
  8. ^ a b "NZE Phonology" (PDF). Victoria University of Wellington. p. 3.
  9. ^ a b Bauer & Warren (2004), p. 585.
  10. ^ a b Gordon (2004), p. 290.
  11. ^ a b Bowerman (2004), p. 936.
  12. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 369.
  13. ^ Labrune (2012), p. 25.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Lee (1999), p. 122.
  16. ^ a b Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ Tingsabadh & Abramson (1993), p. 24.
  18. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:10)
  19. ^ K?l?ç & Ö?üt (2004)
  20. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)

References

  • Asu, Eva Liina; Teras, Pire (2009). "Estonian". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 39 (3): 367-372. doi:10.1017/s002510030999017x.
  • Bauer, Laurie; Warren, Paul (2004), "New Zealand English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 580-602, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Bowerman, Sean (2004), "White South African English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 931-942, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • Ladefoged, Peter (1999), "American English", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 41-44
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90-94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Göksel, Asli; Kerslake, Celia (2005), Turkish: a comprehensive grammar, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415114943
  • Gordon, Matthew J. (2004), "New York, Philadelphia, and other northern cities: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W.; Burridge, Kate; Kortmann, Bernd; Mesthrie, Rajend; Upton, Clive (eds.), A handbook of varieties of English, 1: Phonology, Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 282-299, ISBN 3-11-017532-0
  • International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Labrune, Laurence (2012), The Phonology of Japanese, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-954583-4
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120-123, ISBN 0-521-63751-1
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117-119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993). "Thai". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 23 (1): 24-26. doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746.
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i-xx, 467-674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan (1999), "Turkish" (PDF), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 154-158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7

External links


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