The Cologne Mark was a unit of weight equivalent to 233.856 grams (about 3,609 grains). The Cologne mark was in use from the 11th century onward. It came to be used as the base unit for a number of currency standards, including the Lübeck monetary system, which was important in northern Europe in the late Middle Ages, and the coinage systems of the Holy Roman Empire, most significantly the conventionsthaler, which was defined as one tenth of a Cologne Mark and replaced the reichsthaler which had been 1⁄9 of a Cologne mark.
The Mark was defined as half a Pfund (pound). A Pfund was divided into 16 Unzen (ounces), each of which was subdivided into 2 Lot, 8 Quentchen, 32 Pfennig or 36 Gran, with the Gran equal to 0.812 grams.