Comparison of Standard Mandarin Transcription Systems
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This comparison of Standard Mandarin transcription systems comprises a list of all syllables which are considered phonemically distinguishable within Standard Mandarin.

Gwoyeu Romatzyh employs a different spelling for each tone, whereas other systems employ tone marks or superscript numerals.

Comparison table

Bopomofo Tong-
MPS II Yale EFEO Lessing
Gwoyeu Romatzyh IPA Note
Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4
a ? a a a a a a a ar aa ah a
ai ? ai ai ai ai ngai ai ai air ae ay ai
an ? an an an an ngan an an arn aan ann an
ang ? ang ang ang ang ngang ang ang arng aang anq a?
ao ? ao ao au au ngao au au aur ao aw au
ba ba pa ba ba pa ba ba bar baa bah pa
bai bai pai bai bai pai bai bai bair bae bay pai
ban ban pan ban ban pan ban ban barn baan bann pan
bang bang pang bang bang pang bang bang barng baang banq pa?
bao bao pao bau bau pao bau bau baur bao baw pau
bei bei pei bei bei pei be bei beir beei bey pei [1]
ben ben pên ben ben pen bën ben bern been benn p?n
beng beng pêng beng beng peng bëng beng berng beeng benq p
bi bi pi bi bi pi bi bi byi bii bih pi
bian bian pien bian byan pien biän bian byan bean biann pi?n
biao biao piao biau byau piao biau biau byau beau biaw piau
bie bie pieh bie bye pie biä bie bye biee bieh pie
bin bin pin bin bin pin bin bin byn biin binn pin
bing bing ping bing bing ping bing bing byng biing binq pi?
bo bo po bo bwo po bo bo bor boo boh puo [2]
bu bu pu bu bu pou bu bu bwu buu buh pu
ca ca ts?a tsa tsa ts'a tsa tsa tsar tsaa tsah ts?a
cai cai ts?ai tsai tsai ts'ai tsai tsai tsair tsae tsay ts?ai
can can ts?an tsan tsan ts'an tsan tsan tsarn tsaan tsann ts?an
cang cang ts?ang tsang tsang ts'ang tsang tsang tsarng tsaang tsanq ts?a?
cao cao ts?ao tsau tsau ts'ao tsau tsau tsaur tsao tsaw ts?au
ce ce ts?ê tse tse ts'ö tsö tse tser tsee tseh ts
cen cen ts?ên tsen tsen ts'en tsën tsen tsern tseen tsenn tsn
ceng ceng ts?êng tseng tseng ts'eng tsëng tseng tserng tseeng tsenq ts
cha cha ch?a cha cha tch'a tscha cha char chaa chah a
chai chai ch?ai chai chai tch'ai tschai chai chair chae chay ai
chan chan ch?an chan chan tch'an tschan chan charn chaan chann an
chang chang ch?ang chang chang tch'ang tschang chang charng chaang chanq a?
chao chao ch?ao chau chau tch'ao tschau chau chaur chao chaw au
che che ch?ê che che tch'ö tschö che cher chee cheh ?
chen chen ch?ên chen chen tch'en tschën chen chern cheen chenn ?n
cheng cheng ch?êng cheng cheng tch'eng tschëng cheng cherng cheeng chenq
chi ? chih ch?ih chr chr tch'e tschï chy chyr chyy chyh ?
chong chong ch?ung chung chung tch'ong tschung chong chorng choong chonq
chou chou ch?ou chou chou tch'eou tschou chou chour choou chow ou
chu chu ch?u chu chu tch'ou tschu chu chwu chuu chuh u
chua chua ch?ua chua chwa tch'oua tschua chua chuar chuaa chuah ua
chuai chuai ch?uai chuai chwai tch'ouai tschuai chuai chwai choai chuay uai
chuan chuan ch?uan chuan chwan tch'ouan tschuan chuan chwan choan chuann uan
chuang chuang ch?uang chuang chwang tch'ouang tschuang chuang chwang choang chuanq ua?
chui chuei ch?ui chuei chwei tch'ouei tschui chuei chwei choei chuey uei
chun chun ch?un chuen chwun tch'ouen tschun chuen chwen choen chuenn u?n
chuo chuo ch?o chuo chwo tch'ouo tscho chuo chwo chuoo chuoh uo
ci ? cih tz tsz tsz ts'eu tsï tsy tsyr tsyy tsyh ts
cong cong ts?ung tsung tsung ts'ong tsung tsong tsorng tsoong tsonq ts
cou cou ts?ou tsou tsou ts'eou tsou tsou tsour tsoou tsow ts?ou
cu cu ts?u tsu tsu ts'ou tsu tsu tswu tsuu tsuh ts?u
cuan cuan ts?uan tsuan tswan ts'ouan tsuan tsuan tswan tsoan tsuann ts?uan
cui cuei ts?ui tsuei tswei ts'ouei tsui tsuei tswei tsoei tsuey ts?uei
cun cun ts?un tsuen tswun ts'ouen tsun tsuen tswen tsoen tsuenn ts?u?n
cuo cuo ts?o tsuo tswo ts'o tso tsuo tswo tsuoo tsuoh ts?uo
da da ta da da ta da da dar daa dah ta
dai dai tai dai dai tai dai dai dair dae day tai
dan dan tan dan dan tan dan dan darn daan dann tan
dang dang tang dang dang tang dang dang darng daang danq ta?
dao dao tao dau dau tao dau dau daur dao daw tau
de de de de de der dee deh t?
dei dei tei dei dei tei de dei deir deei dey tei
den den tên den den den dern deen denn t?n [3]
deng deng têng deng deng teng dëng deng derng deeng denq t
di di ti di di ti di di dyi dii dih ti
dian dian tien dian dyan tien diän dian dyan dean diann ti?n
diang diang tiang diang dyang tiang diäng diang dyang deang dianq tia?
diao diao tiao diau dyau tiao diau diau dyau deau diaw tiau
die die tieh die dye tie diä die dye diee dieh tie
ding ding ting ding ding ting ding ding dyng diing dinq ti?
diu diou tiu diou dyou tieou diu diou dyou deou diow tiou
dong dong tung dung dung tong dung dong dorng doong donq t
dou dou tou dou dou teou dou dou dour doou dow tou
du du tu du du tou du du dwu duu duh tu
duan duan tuan duan dwan touan duan duan dwan doan duann tuan
dui duei tui duei dwei touei dui duei dwei doei duey tuei
dun dun tun duen dwun touen dun duen dwen doen duenn tu?n
duo duo to duo dwo to do duo dwo duoo duoh tuo
e ? e ê/o e e ngo o e er ee eh ? [4]
ê ? e eh ê e è èr èe èh ? [5]
ei ? ei ei ei ei ei e ei eir eei ey ei
en ? en ên en en ngen ën en ern een enn ?n
eng ? ong êng eng eng ngeng ëng eng erng eeng enq
er ? er êrh er er eul örl el erl eel ell a?
fa fa fa fa fa fa fa fa far faa fah fa
fan fan fan fan fan fan fan fan farn faan fann fan
fang fang fang fang fang fang fang fang farng faang fanq fa?
fei fei fei fei fei fei fe fei feir feei fey fei
fen fen fên fen fen fen fën fen fern feen fenn f?n
feng fong fêng feng feng feng fëng feng ferng feeng fenq f
fo fo fo fo fwo fo fo fo for foo foh fuo
fou fou fou fou fou feou fou fou four foou fow fou
fu fu fu fu fu fou fu fu fwu fuu fuh fu
ga ga ka ga ga ka ga ga gar gaa gah ka
gai gai kai gai gai kai gai gai gair gae gay kai
gan gan kan gan gan kan gan gan garn gaan gann kan
gang gang kang gang gang kang gang gang garng gaang ganq ka?
gao gao kao gau gau kao gau gau gaur gao gaw kau
ge ge ko ge ge ge ger gee geh k?
gei gei kei gei gei kei ge gei geir geei gey kei
gen gen kên gen gen ken gën gen gern geen genn k?n
geng geng kêng geng geng keng gëng geng gerng geeng genq k
gong gong kung gung gung kong gung gong gorng goong gonq k
gou gou kou gou gou keou gou gou gour goou gow kou
gu gu ku gu gu kou gu gu gwu guu guh ku
gua gua kua gua gwa koua gua gua gwa goa guah kua
guai guai kuai guai gwai kouai guai guai gwai goai guay kuai
guan guan kuan guan gwan kouan guan guan gwan goan guann kuan
guang guang kuang guang gwang kouang guang guang gwang goang guanq kua?
gui guei kuei guei gwei kouei gui guei gwei goei guey kuei
gun gun kun guen gwun kouen gun guen gwen goen guenn ku?n
guo guo kuo guo gwo kouo guo guo gwo guoo guoh kuo
ha ha ha ha ha ha ha ha har haa hah xa
hai hai hai hai hai hai hai hai hair hae hay xai
han han han han han han han han harn haan hann xan
hang hang hang hang hang hang hang hang harng haang hanq xa?
hao hao hao hau hau hao hau hau haur hao haw xau
he he ho he he ho he her hee heh x?
hei hei hei hei hei hei he hei heir heei hey xei
hen hen hên hen hen hen hën hen hern heen henn x?n
heng heng hêng heng heng heng hëng heng herng heeng henq x
hong hong hung hung hung hong hung hong horng hoong honq x
hou hou hou hou hou heou hou hou hour hoou how xou
hu hu hu hu hu hou hu hu hwu huu huh xu
hua hua hua hua hwa houa hua hua hwa hoa huah xua
huai huai huai huai hwai houai huai huai hwai hoai huay xuai
huan huan huan huan hwan houan huan huan hwan hoan huann xuan
huang huang huang huang hwang houang huang huang hwang hoang huanq xua?
hui huei hui huei hwei houei hui huei hwei hoei huey xuei
hun hun hun huen hwun houen hun huen hwen hoen huenn xu?n
huo huo huo huo hwo houo huo huo hwo huoo huoh xuo
ji ji chi ji ji ki dji ji jyi jii jih t?i
jia jia chia jia jya kia djia jia jya jea jiah t?ia
jian jian chien jian jyan kien djiän jian jyan jean jiann t?i?n
jiang jiang chiang jiang jyang kiang djiang jiang jyang jeang jianq t?ia?
jiao jiao chiao jiau jyau kiao djiau jiau jyau jeau jiaw t?iau
jie jie chieh jie jye kie djiä jie jye jiee jieh t?ie
jin jin chin jin jin kin djin jin jyn jiin jinn t?in
jing jing ching jing jing king djing jing jyng jiing jinq t?i?
jiong jyong chiung jiung jyung kiong djiung jiong jyong jeong jionq t?i
jiu jiou chiu jiou jyou kieou djiu jiou jyou jeou jiow t?iou
ju jyu chü jiu jyu kiu djü jiu jyu jeu jiuh t?y
juan jyuan chüan jiuan jywan kiuan djüan jiuan jyuan jeuan jiuann t?y?n
jue jyue chüeh jiue jywe kiue djüä jiue jyue jeue jiueh t?ye
jun jyun chün jiun jyun kiun djün jiun jyun jeun jiunn t?yn
ka ka k?a ka ka k'a ka ka kar kaa kah k?a
kai kai k?ai kai kai k'ai kai kai kair kae kay k?ai
kan kan k?an kan kan k'an kan kan karn kaan kann k?an
kang kang k?ang kang kang k'ang kang kang karng kaang kanq k?a?
kao kao k?ao kau kau k'ao kau kau kaur kao kaw k?au
ke ke k?o ke ke k'ö ke ker kee keh k
kei kei k?ei kei kei kei keir keei key k?ei [6]
ken ken k?ên ken ken k'en kën ken kern keen kenn kn
keng keng k?êng keng keng k'eng këng keng kerng keeng kenq k
kong kong k?ung kung kung k'ong kung kong korng koong konq k
kou kou k?ou kou kou k'eou kou kou kour koou kow k?ou
ku ku k?u ku ku k'ou gu ku kwu kuu kuh k?u
kua kua k?ua kua kwa k'oua kua kua kwa koa kuah k?ua
kuai kuai k?uai kuai kwai k'ouai kuai kuai kwai koai kuay k?uai
kuan kuan k?uan kuan kwan k'ouan kuan kuan kwan koan kuann k?uan
kuang kuang k?uang kuang kwang k'ouang kuang kuang kwang koang kuanq k?ua?
kui kuei k?uei kuei kwei k'ouei kue kuei kwei koei kuey k?uei
kun kun k?un kuen kwun k'ouen kun kuen kwen koen kuenn k?u?n
kuo kuo k?uo kuo kwo k'ouo kuo kuo kwo kuoo kuoh k?uo
la la la la la la la lha la laa lah la
lai lai lai lai lai lai lai lhai lai lae lay lai
lan lan lan lan lan lan lan lhan lan laan lann lan
lang lang lang lang lang lang lang lhang lang laang lanq la?
lao lao lao lau lau lao lau lhau lau lao law lau
le le le le lhe le lee leh l?
lei lei lei lei lei lei le lhei lei leei ley lei
leng leng lêng leng leng leng lëng lheng leng leeng lenq l
li li li li li li li lhi li lii lih li
lia lia lia lia lya lea lia lhia lia lea liah lia
lian lian lien lian lyan lien liän lhian lian lean liann li?n
liang liang liang liang lyang leang liang lhiang liang leang lianq lia?
liao liao liao liau lyau liao liau lhiau liau leau liaw liau
lie lie lieh lie lye lie liä lhie lie liee lieh lie
lin lin lin lin lin lin lin lhin lin liin linn lin
ling ling ling ling ling ling ling lhing ling liing linq li?
liu liou liu liou lyou lieou liou lhiou liou leou liow liou
lo lo lo lo lo lo lo lo lor loo loh l?
long long lung lung lung long lung lhong long loong lonq l
lou lou lou lou lou leou lou lhou lou loou low lou
lu lu lu lu lu lou lu lhu lu luu luh lu
lyu liu lyu liu lhiu liu leu liuh ly
luan luan luan luan lwan louan luan lhuan luan loan luann luan
lüan lyuan lüan liuan lwan? liuan lüän lhiuan? liuan? leuan? liuann? ly?n [7]
lüe lyue lüeh liue lywe liue lüä lhiue liue leue liueh lye
lun lun lun luen lwun loun lun lhuen luen loen luenn lu?n
lün lyun lün liun lyun liun lün lhiun liun leun liunn lyn
luo luo lo luo lwo louo lo lhuo luo luoo luoh luo
ma ma ma ma ma ma ma mha ma maa mah ma
mai mai mai mai mai mai mai mhai mai mae may mai
man man man man man man man mhan man maan mann man
mang mang mang mang mang mang mang mhang mang maang manq ma?
mao mao mao mau mau mao mau mhau mau mao maw mau
me me me me mhe me mee meh m?
mei mei mei mei mei mei me mhei mei meei mey mei
men men mên men men men mën mhen men meen menn m?n
meng meng mêng meng meng meng mëng mheng meng meeng menq m
mi mi mi mi mi mi mi mhi mi mii mih mi
mian mian mien mian myan mian miän mhian mian mean miann mi?n
miao miao miao miau myau miao miau mhiau miau meau miaw miau
mie mie mieh mie mye mie miä mhie mie miee mieh mie
min min min min min min min mhin min miin minn min
ming ming ming ming ming ming ming mhing ming miing minq mi?
miu miou miu miou myou mieou miu mhiou miou meou miow miou
mo mo mo mo mwo mo mo mho mo moo moh muo
mou mou mou mou mou meou mou mhou mou moou mow mou
mu mu mu mu mu mou mu mhu mu muu muh mu
na na na na na na na nha na naa nah na
nai nai nai nai nai nai nai nhai nai nae nay nai
nan nan nan nan nan nan nan nhan nan naan nann nan
nang nang nang nang nang nang nang nhang nang naang nanq na?
nao nao nao nau nau nao nau nhau nau nao naw nau
ne ne ne ne nhe ne nee neh n?
nei nei nei nei nei nei ne nhei nei neei ney nei
nen nen nên nen nen nen nën nhen nen neen nenn n?n
neng neng nêng neng neng neng nëng nheng neng neeng nenq n
ni ni ni ni ni ni ni nhi ni nii nih ni
nia nia nia nia nya nia nia nia niar niaa niah nia
nian nian nien nian nyan nien niän nhian nian nean niann ni?n
niang niang niang niang nyang niang niang nhiang niang neang nianq nia?
niao niao niao niau nyau niao niau nhiau niau neau niaw niau
nie nie nieh nie nye nie niä nhie nie niee nieh nie
nin nin nin nin nin nin nin nhin nin niin ninn nin
ning ning ning ning ning ning ning nhing ning niing ninq ni?
niu niou niu niou nyou nieou niu nhiou niou neou niow niou
nong nong nung nung nung nong nung nhong nong noong nonq n
nou nou nou nou nou neou nou nhou nou noou now nou
nu nu nu nu nu nou nu nhu nu nuu nuh nu
nyu niu nyu niu nhiu niu neu niuh ny
nuan nuan nuan nuan nwan nouan nuan nhuan nuan noan nuann nuan
nüe nyue nüeh niue nywe nio nüä nhiue niue neue niueh nye
nun nun nun nuen nwun nouen nun nhuen nuen noen nuenn nu?n
nuo nuo no nuo nwo no no nhuo nuo nuoo nuoh nuo
o ? o o o o? o o o or oo oh [8]
ou ? ou ou ou ou ngeou ou ou our oou ow ou
pa pa p?a pa pa p'a pa pa par paa pah p?a
pai pai p?ai pai pai p'ai pai pai pair pae pay p?ai
pan pan p?an pan pan p'an pan pan parn paan pann p?an
pang pang p?ang pang pang p'ang pang pang parng paang panq p?a?
pao pao p?ao pau pau p'ao pau pau paur pao paw p?au
pei pei p?ei pei pei p'ei pe pei peir peei pey p?ei
pen pen p?ên pen pen p'en pën pen pern peen penn pn
peng peng p?êng peng peng p'eng pëng peng perng peeng penq p
pi pi p?i pi pi p'i pi pi pyi pii pih p?i
pian pian p?ien pian pyan p'ien piän pian pyan pean piann p?i?n
piao piao p?iao piau pyau p'iao piau piau pyau peau piaw p?iau
pie pie p?ieh pie pye p'ie piä pie pye piee pieh p?ie
pin pin p?in pin pin p'in pin pin pyn piin pinn p?in
ping ping p?ing ping ping p'ing ping ping pyng piing pinq p?i?
po po p?o po pwo p'o po po por poo poh p?uo
pou pou p?ou pou pou p'eou pou pou pour poou pow p?ou
pu pu p?u pu pu p'ou pu pu pwu puu puh p?u
qi ci ch?i chi chi k'i tji chi chyi chii chih ti
qia cia ch?ia chia chya k'ia tjia chia chya chea chiah tia
qian cian ch?ien chian chyan k'ien tjiän chian chyan chean chiann ti?n
qiang ciang ch?iang chiang chyang k'iang tjiang chiang chyang cheang chianq tia?
qiao ciao ch?iao chiau chyau k'iao tjiau chiau chyau cheau chiaw tiau
qie cie ch?ieh chie chye k'ie tjiä chie chye chiee chieh tie
qin cin ch?in chin chin k'in tjin chin chyn chiin chinn tin
qing cing ch?ing ching ching k'ing tjing ching chyng chiing chinq ti?
qiong cyong ch?iung chiung chyung k'iong tjiung chiong chyong cheong chionq ti
qiu ciou ch?iu chiou chyou k'ieou tjiu chiou chyou cheou chiow tiou
qu cyu ch?ü chiu chyu k'iu tjü chiu chyu cheu chiuh ty
quan cyuan ch?üan chiuan chywan k'iuan tjüan chiuan chyuan cheuan chiuann ty?n
que cyue ch?üeh chiue chywe k'iue tjüä chiue chyue cheue chiueh tye
qun cyun ch?ün chiun chyun k'iun tjün chiun chyun cheun chiunn tyn
ran ran jan ran ran jan jan rhan ran raan rann ?an
rang rang jang rang rang jang jang rhang rang raang ranq ?a?
rao rao jao rau rau jao jau rhau rau rao raw ?au
re re re re rhe re ree reh
ren ren jên ren ren jen jën rhen ren reen renn n
reng reng jêng reng reng jeng jëng rheng reng reeng renq
ri ? rih jih r r je rhy ry ryy ryh
rong rong jung rung rung jong jung rhong rong roong ronq
rou rou jou rou rou jeou jou rhou rou roou row ?ou
ru ru ju ru ru jou ju rhu ru ruu ruh ?u
ruan ruan juan ruan rwan jouan juan rhuan ruan roan ruann ?uan
rui ruei jui ruei rwei jouei jui rhuei ruei roei ruey ?uei
run run jun ruen rwun jouen jun rhuen ruen roen ruenn ?u?n
ruo ruo jo ruo rwo jo jo rhuo ruo ruoo ruoh ?uo
sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sa sar saa sah sa
sai sai sai sai sai sai sai sai sair sae say sai
san san san san san san san san sarn saan sann san
sang sang sang sang sang sang sang sang sarng saang sanq sa?
sao sao sao sau sau sao sau sau saur sao saw sau
se se se se se ser see seh s?
sei sei sei sei sei sei seir seei sey sei [9]
sen sen sên sen sen sën sën sen sern seen senn s?n
seng seng sêng seng seng sëng sëng seng serng seeng senq s
sha sha sha sha sha cha scha sha shar shaa shah ?a
shai shai shai shai shai chai schai shai shair shae shay ?ai
shan shan shan shan shan chan schan shan sharn shaan shann ?an
shang shang shang shang shang chang schang shang sharng shaang shanq ?a?
shao shao shao shau shau chao schau shau shaur shao shaw ?au
she she shê she she chö schö she sher shee sheh
shei shei shei shei shei chei schei shei sheir sheei shey ?ei
shen shen shên shen shen chen schën shen shern sheen shenn n
sheng sheng shêng sheng sheng cheng schëng sheng sherng sheeng shenq
shi ? shih shih shr shr che schï shy shyr shyy shyh
shong shong shung shung shung shong shorng shoong shonq [10]
shou shou shou shou shou cheou schou shou shour shoou show ?ou
shu shu shu shu shu chou schu shu shwu shuu shuh ?u
shua shua shua shua shwa choua schua shua shwa shoa shuah ?ua
shuai shuai shuai shuai shwai chouai schuai shuai shwai shoai shuay ?uai
shuan shuan shuan shuan shwan chouan schuan shuan shwan shoan shuann ?uan
shuang shuang shuang shuang shwang chouang schuang shuang shwang shoang shuanq ?ua?
shui shuei shui shuei shwei chouei schui shuei shwei shoei shuey ?uei
shun shun shun shuen shwun chouen schun shuen shwen shoen shuenn ?u?n
shuo shuo shuo shuo shwo chouo scho shuo shwo shuoo shuoh ?uo
si ? sih ss? sz sz sseu sy syr syy syh s?
song song sung sung sung song sung song sorng soong sonq s
sou sou sou sou sou seou sou sou sour soou sow sou
su su su su su sou su su swu suu suh su
suan suan suan suan swan souan suan suan swan soan suann suan
sui suei sui suei swei souei sui suei swei soei suey suei
sun sun sun suen swun souen sun suen swen soen suenn su?n
suo suo so suo swo so so suo swo suoo suoh suo
ta ta t?a ta ta t'a ta ta tar taa tah t?a
tai tai t?ai tai tai t'ai tai tai tair tae tay t?ai
tan tan t?an tan tan t'an tan tan tarn taan tann t?an
tang tang t?ang tang tang t'ang tang tang tarng taang tanq t?a?
tao tao t?ao tau tau t'ao tau tau taur tao taw t?au
te te t?ê te te t'ö te ter tee teh t
tei tei t?ei tei tei t'ei te tei teir teei tey t?ei
teng teng t?êng teng teng t'eng tëng teng terng teeng tenq t
ti ti t?i ti ti t'i ti ti tyi tii tih t?i
tian tian t?ien tian tyan t'ien tiän tian tyan tean tiann t?i?n
tiao tiao t?iao tiau tyau t'iao tiau tiau tyau teau tiaw t?iau
tie tie t?ieh tie tye t'ie tiä tie tye tiee tieh t?ie
ting ting t?ing ting ting t'ing ting ting tyng tiing tinq t?i?
tong tong t?ung tung tung t'ong tung tong torng toong tonq t
tou tou t?ou tou tou t'eou tou tou tour toou tow t?ou
tu tu t?u tu tu t'ou tu tu twu tuu tuh t?u
tuan tuan t?uan tuan twan t'ouan tuan tuan twan toan tuann t?uan
tui tuei t?ui tuei twei t'ouei tui tuei twei toei tuey t?uei
tun tun t?un tuen twun t'ouen tun tuen twen toen tuenn t?u?n
tuo tuo t?o tuo two t'o to tuo two tuoo tuoh t?uo
wa wa wa wa wa wa wa ua wa waa wah ua
wai wai wai wai wai wai wai uai wai woai way uai
wan wan wan wan wan wan wan uan wan woan wann uan
wang wang wang wang wang wang wang uang wang woang wanq ua?
wei wei wei wei wei wei we uei wei woei wey uei
wen wun wên wen wen wen wën uen wen woen wenn u?n
weng wong wêng weng weng weng wëng ueng weng woeng wenq u
wo wo wo wo wo wo wo uo wo woo woh uo
wu ? wu wu wu wu wou wu u wu wuu wuh u
xi si hsi shi syi hi hsi shi shyi shii shih ?i
xia sia hsia shia sya hia hsia shia shya shea shiah ?ia
xian sian hsien shian syan hie hsiän shian shyan shean shiann ?i?n
xiang siang hsiang shiang syang hiang hsiang shiang shyang sheang shianq ?ia?
xiao siao hsiao shiau syau hiao hsiao shiau shyau sheau shiaw ?iau
xie sie hsieh shie sye hien hsiä shie shye shiee shieh ?ie
xin sin hsin shin syin hin hsin shin shyn shiin shinn ?in
xing sing hsing shing sying hing hsing shing shyng shiing shinq ?i?
xiong syong hsiung shiung syung hiong hsiung shiong shyong sheong shionq ?i
xiu siou hsiu shiou syou hieou hsiu shiou shyou sheou shiow ?iou
xu syu hsü shiu syu hiu hsü shiu shyu sheu shiuh ?y
xuan syuan hsüan shiuan sywan hiuan hsüan shiuan shyuan sheuan shiuann ?y?n
xue syue hsüeh shiue sywe hiue hsüä shiue shyue sheue shiueh ?ye
xun syun hsün shiun syun hiun hsün shiun shyun sheun shiunn ?yn
ya ya ya ya ya ya ya ia ya yea yah ia
yan yan yen yan yan yen yän ian yan yean yann i?n
yang yang yang yang yang yang yang iang yang yeang yanq ia?
yao yao yao yau yau yao yau iau yau yeau yaw iau
ye ye yeh ye ye ye ie ye yee yeh ie
yi ? yi i/yi yi yi yi i i yi yii yih i
yin yin yin yin yin yin yin in yn yiin yinn in
ying ying ying ying ying ying ying ing yng yiing yinq i?
yong yong yung yung yung yong yung iong yong yeong yonq i
you you yu you you yeou yu iou you yeou yow iou
yu ? yu yu yu yu iu yu yeu yuh y
yuan yuan yüan yuan ywan yuan yüan iuan yuan yeuan yuann y?n
yue yue yüeh yue ywe yue yüä iue yue yeue yueh ye
yun yun yün yun yun yun yün iun yun yeun yunn yn
za za tsa tza dza tsa dsa tza tzar tzaa tzah tsa
zai zai tsai tzai dzai tsai dsai tzai tzair tzae tzay tsai
zan zan tsan tzan dzan tsan dsan tzan tzarn tzaan tzann tsan
zang zang tsang tzang dzang tsang dsang tzang tzarng tzaang tzanq tsa?
zao zao tsao tzau dzau tsao dsau tzau tzaur tzao tzaw tsau
ze ze tsê tze dze tsö dsö tze tzer tzee tzeh ts?
zei zei tsei tzei dzei tsei dse tzei tzeir tzeei tzey tsei
zen zen tsên tzen dzen tsen dsën tzen tzern tzeen tzenn ts?n
zeng zeng tsêng tzeng dzeng tseng dsëng tzeng tzerng tzeeng tzenq ts
zha jha cha ja ja tcha dscha ja jar jaa jah a
zhai jhai chai jai jai tchai dschai jai jair jae jay ai
zhan jhan chan jan jan tchan dschan jan jarn jaan jann an
zhang jhang chang jang jang tchang dschang jang jarng jaang janq a?
zhao jhao chao jau jau tchao dschau jau jaur jao jaw au
zhe jhe chê je je tchö dschö je jer jee jeh
zhei jhei chei jei jei tchei dsche jei jeir jeei jey ei
zhen jhen chên jen jen tchen dschën jen jern jeen jenn n
zheng jheng chêng jeng jeng tcheng dschëng jeng jerng jeeng jenq ?
zhi ? jhih chih jr jr tche dschï jy jyr jyy jyh
zhong jhong chung jung jung tchong dschung jong jorng joong jonq ?
zhou jhou chou jou jou tcheou dschou jou jour joou jow ou
zhu jhu chu ju ju tchou dschu ju jwu juu juh u
zhua jhua chua jua jwa tchoua dschua jua jwa joa juah ua
zhuai jhuai chuai juai jwai tchouai dschuai juai jwai joai juay uai
zhuan jhuan chuan juan jwan tchouan dschuan juan jwan joan juann uan
zhuang jhuang chuang juang jwang tchouang dschuang juang jwang joang juanq ua?
zhui jhuei chui juei jwei tchouei dschui juei jwei joei juey uei
zhun jhun chun juen jwun tchouen dschun juen jwen joen juenn u?n
zhuo jhuo cho juo jwo tchouo dscho juo jwo juoo juoh uo
zi ? zih tz? tz dz tseu dsï tzy tzyr tzyy tzyh ts?
zong zong tsung tzung dzung tsong dsung tzong tzorng tzoong tzonq ts
zou zou tsou tzou dzou tseou dsou tzou tzour tzoou tzow tsou
zu zu tsu tzu dzu tsou dsu tzu tzwu tzuu tzuh tsu
zuan zuan tsuan tzuan dzwan tsouan dsuan tzuan tzwan tzoan tzuann tsuan
zui zuei tsui tzuei dzwei tsouei dsue tzuei tzwei tzoei tzuey tsuei
zun zun tsun tzuen dzwun tsouen dsun tzuen tzwen tzoen tzuenn tsu?n
zuo zuo tso tzuo dzwo tso dso tzuo tzwo tzuoo tzuoh tsuo

See also


  1. ^ To verify: lessingothmer.
  2. ^ To verify: ipa.
  3. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  4. ^ To verify: efeo.
  5. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  6. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  7. ^ To verify: all.
  8. ^ To verify: all.
  9. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.
  10. ^ To verify: efeo, lessingothmer.

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