Crimean Karaites
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Crimean Karaites
Crimean Karaites
, karajlar
Karaite men in traditional garb, Crimea, 19th century.
Total population
 Ukraine (including Crimea)1,196[1]
Karaim, Lithuanian, Polish, Russian, Romanian
Karaite Judaism, Christianity[7][8]
Related ethnic groups
Karaite Jews, Samaritans, Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, Turkic peoples

The Crimean Karaites or Krymkaraylar (Crimean Karaim?, Qr?mqaraylar, singular , qaray; Trakai dialect: karajlar, singular karaj; Hebrew: ? ? ‎; Crimean Tatar: Qaraylar), also known as Karaims and Qarays, are an ethnicity derived from Turkic-speaking adherents of Karaite Judaism in Central and Eastern Europe, especially in the territory of the former Russian Empire. "Karaim" is a Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Polish and Lithuanian name for the community.[]


Cemetery near Feodosia (Crimea)

Turkic-speaking Karaites (in the Crimean Tatar language, Qaraylar) have lived in Crimea for centuries. Their origin is a matter of great controversy. Most[9][10] modern scientists regard them as descendants of Karaite Jews who settled in Crimea and adopted a form of the Kypchak tongue (see Karaim language). Others [11] view them as descendants of Khazar or Cuman, Kipchak converts to Karaite Judaism. Today many Crimean Karaites reject ethnic Semitic origins theories and identify as descendants of the Khazars.[12] Some specialists in Khazar history question the Khazar theory of Karaim origins,[13][14] noting the following:

  • the Karaim language belongs to the Kipchak linguistic group, and the Khazar language belongs to the Bulgar group; there is no close relationship between these two Turkic languages;[15]
  • According to the Khazar Correspondence, Khazar Judaism was, most likely, Talmudic.[16] The tradition of Karaite Judaism ranks only the Tanakh as a holy book and does not recognize the Talmud;
  • Khazars disappeared in the 11th century. But, the first written mention of the Crimean Karaites was in the 14th century;[17]
  • Anthropologic researches show similarity between Crimean Karaites of Lithuania and Egyptian Karaite Jews;[18]

In 19th century Crimea, Karaites began to distinguish themselves from other Jewish groups, sending envoys to the czars to plead for exemptions from harsh anti-Jewish legislation. These entreaties were successful, in large part due to the czars' wariness of the Talmud, and in 1863 Karaites were granted the same rights as their Christian and Tatar neighbors. Exempted from the Pale of Settlement, later they were considered non Jews by Nazis. This left the community untouched by Holocaust, unlike other Turkic-speaking Jews, like the Krymchak Jews that were almost wiped out.[19]

Miller says that Crimean Karaites did not start claiming a distinct identity apart from the Jewish people before the 19th century, and that such leaders as Avraham Firkovich and Sima Babovich encouraged this position to avoid the strong anti-Semitism of the period.[20]

From the time of the Golden Horde onward, Karaites were present in many towns and villages throughout Crimea and around the Black Sea. During the period of the Crimean Khanate, they had major communities in the towns of Çufut Qale, Sudak, Kefe, and Bakhchisaray.[]


Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Showcase of the Crimean Karaites traditional lifestyle in Trakai, Lithuania

According to Karaite tradition,[21] Grand Duke Vytautas of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania relocated one branch of the Crimean Karaites to Lithuania ordering to build them a town, called today Trakai. There they continued to speak their own language. This legend originally referring to 1218 as the date of relocation contradicts the fact that the Lithuanian dialect of the Karaim language differs significantly from the Crimean one.[22] The Lithuanian Karaites settled primarily in Vilnius and Trakai, as well as in Bir?ai, Pasvalys, Naujamiestis and Upyt? - smaller settlements throughout Lithuania proper.[]

The Lithuanian Karaites also settled in lands of modern Belarus and Ukraine, which were part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Karaite communities emerged in Halych and Kukeziv (near Lviv) in Galicia, as well as in Lutsk and Derazhne in Volhynia.[23][24][25] Jews (Rabbinites and Karaites) in Lithuanian territory were granted a measure of autonomy under Michel Ezofovich Senior's[26] management. The Trakai Karaim refused to comply, citing differences in faith. Later all Jews, including Karaites,[27] were placed under the authority of the Rabbinite "Council of Four Lands" (Vaad)[28] and "Council of the Land of Lithuania" taxation (1580-1646). The Yiddish-speaking Rabbinites considered the Turkic-speaking Karaites to be apostates, and kept them in a subordinate and depressed position. The Karaites resented this treatment. In 1646, the Karaites obtained the expulsion of the Rabbinical Jews from Trakai. Despite such tensions, in 1680, Rabbinite community leaders defended the Karaites of Shaty (near Trakai) against an accusation of blood libel. Representatives of both groups signed an agreement in 1714 to respect the mutual privileges and resolve disputes without involving the Gentile administration.[]

According to Crimean Karaite tradition, which developed in the 20th century inter-war Poland[29] their forefathers were mainly farmers and members of the community who served in the military forces of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth,[30] as well as in the Crimean Khanate.But according to the historical documents of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the chief occupation of the Crimean Karaites was usury.[31] They were granted special privileges, including exemption from the military service.[32] In the Crimean Khanate, the Karaites were repressed like other Jews, with prohibitions on behavior extended to riding horses.[33]

Some famous Karaim scholars in Lithuania included Isaac b. Abraham of Troki (1543-1598), Joseph ben Mordecai Malinovski, Zera ben Nathan of Trakai, Salomon ben Aharon of Trakai, Ezra ben Nissan (died in 1666) and Josiah ben Judah (died after 1658). Some of the Karaim became quite wealthy.[]

During the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Karaim suffered severely during the Chmielnicki Uprising of 1648 and the wars between Russia and Commonwealth in the years 1654-1667. The many towns plundered and burnt included Derazhne and Trakai, where only 30 families were left in 1680. The destruction of the Karaite community in Derazhne in 1649 is described in a poem (both in Hebrew and Karaim language) by a leader of the congregation, Hazzan Joseph ben Yesh'uah Ha-Mashbir.[34] Catholic missionaries worked to convert the local Karaim to Christianity, but were largely unsuccessful.

Russian Empire

Karaim kenesa in Trakai (modern day Lithuania).

19th century leaders of the Karaim, such as Sima Babovich and Avraham Firkovich, were driving forces behind a concerted effort to alter the status of the Karaite community in eyes of the Russian legal system. Firkovich in particular was adamant in his attempts to connect the Karaim with the Khazars, and has been accused of forging documents and inscriptions to back up his claims.[35]

Ultimately, the Tsarist government officially recognized the Karaim as being innocent of the death of Jesus. So they were exempt from many of the harsh restrictions placed on other Jews. They were, in essence, placed on equal legal footing with Crimean Tatars. The related Krymchak community, which was of similar ethnolinguistic background but which practiced rabbinical Judaism, continued to suffer under Tsarist anti-Jewish laws.[]

Solomon Krym (1864-1936), a Crimean Karaite agronomist, was elected in 1906 to the First Duma (1906-1907) as a Kadet (National Democratic Party). On November 16, 1918 he became the Prime Minister of a short-lived Crimean Russian liberal, anti-separatist and anti-Soviet government also supported by the German army.[36]

Since the incorporation of Crimea into the Russian Empire the main center of the Qarays is the city of Yevpatoria. Their status under Russian imperial rule bore beneficial fruits for the Karaites decades later.[]

During the Holocaust

In 1934, the heads of the Karaite community in Berlin asked the Nazi authorities to exempt Karaites from the anti-Semitic regulations based on their legal status as Russians in Russia. The Reich Agency for the Investigation of Families determined that, from the standpoint of German law, the Karaites were not to be considered Jews. The letter from the Reichsstelle für Sippenforschung (de) officially ruled:

The Karaite sect should not be considered a Jewish religious community within the meaning of paragraph 2, point 2 of the First Regulation to the Reich Citizenship Law. However, it cannot be established that Karaites in their entirety are of blood-related stock, for the racial categorization of an individual cannot be determined without ... his personal ancestry and racial biological characteristics

-- [37]

This ruling set the tone for how the Nazis dealt with the Karaite community in Eastern Europe. At the same time, the Nazis had serious reservations about the Karaites. SS Obergruppenfuhrer Gottlob Berger wrote on November 24, 1944:

"Their Mosaic religion is unwelcome. However, on grounds of race, language and religious dogma... Discrimination against the Karaites is unacceptable, in consideration of their racial kinsmen [Berger was here referring to the Crimean Tatars]. However, so as not to infringe the unified anti-Jewish orientation of the nations led by Germany, it is suggested that this small group be given the opportunity of a separate existence (for example, as a closed construction or labor battalion)..."

Despite having exempt status, groups of Karaites were massacred in the early phases of the war. German soldiers who came across Karaites in Russia during the invasion of Operation Barbarossa, unaware of their legal status under German law, attacked them; 200 were killed at Babi Yar alone. German allies such as Vichy France began to require the Karaites to register as Jews, but eventually granted them non-Jewish status after getting orders by Berlin.[38]

When interrogated, Ashkenazi rabbis in Crimea told the Germans that Karaites were not Jews, in an effort to spare the Karaite community the fate of their Rabbanite neighbors.[39] Many Karaites risked their lives to hide Jews, and in some cases claimed that Jews were members of their community. The Nazis impressed many Karaites into labor battalions.[40]

According to some sources, Nazi racial theory asserted that the Karaites of Crimea were actually Crimean Goths who'd adopted the Crimean Tatar language and their own distinct form of Judaism.[41]

Karaim cemetery in Warsaw, established in 1890.
Karaim cemetery in Trakai.
Karaim cemetery in Bakhchisaray Crimea.

In Vilnius and Trakai, the Nazis forced Karaite Hakham Seraya Shapshal to produce a list of the members of the community. Though he did his best, not every Karaite was saved by Shapshal's list.


After the Soviet recapture of Crimea from Nazi forces in 1944, the Soviet authorities counted 6,357 remaining Karaites. Karaites were not subject to mass deportation, unlike the Crimean Tatars, Greeks, Armenians and others the Soviet authorities alleged had collaborated during the Nazi German occupation. Some individual Karaites were deported.[]

Assimilation and emigration greatly reduced the ranks of the Karaite community. A few thousand Karaites remain in Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, Russia and Poland. Nowadays, the largest communities exist in Israel and the United States. They are also in Turkey.[42]

In the 1990s, about 500 Crimean Karaites, mainly from Ukraine, emigrated to Israel under the Law of Return.[43] The Israeli Chief Rabbinate has ruled that Karaites are Jews under Jewish law.[44]

Geographic distribution

The name "Crimean Karaites" has often been considered as something of a misnomer, as many branches of this community found their way to locations throughout Europe.[]

As time went on, some of these communities spread throughout the region, including to Crimea. According to Karaite tradition, all the Eastern European Karaite communities were derived from those in the Crimea,[45] but some modern historians doubt the Crimean origin of Lithuanian Karaites.[22][46] Nevertheless, this name, "Crimean Karaites" is used for the Turkic-speaking Karaites community supposed to have originated in Crimea, distinguishing it from the historically Aramaic, Hebrew, and Arabic-speaking Karaites of the Middle East. For the purposes of this article, the terms "Crimean Karaites", "Karaim", and "Qarays" are used interchangeably, while "Karaites" alone refers to the general Karaite branch of Judaism.[]


Kenesa in Vilnius

The local Karaim communities still exist in Lithuania (where they live mostly in Panevys and Trakai regions) and Poland. The 1979 census in the USSR showed 3,300 Karaim. Lithuanian Karaim Culture Community was founded in 1988.

According to the Lithuanian Karaim website the Statistics Department of Lithuania carried out an ethno-statistic research entitled "Karaim in Lithuania" in 1997. It was decided to question all adult Karaim and mixed families, where one of the members is a Karaim. During the survey, for the beginning of 1997, there were 257 people of Karaim ethnicity, 32 of whom were children under 16.[]


Until the 20th century, Karaite Judaism was the only religion of the Karaim,[47] During the Russian Civil War a significant number of Karaim emigrated to Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary and then France and Germany.[48][49] Most of them converted to Christianity. The Karaim's modern national movement philanthropist M.S. Sarach was one of them.[50]

The Crimean Karaites' emancipation in the Russian Empire caused cultural assimilation followed by secularization. This process continued in the USSR when most of the kenesas were closed.[42]

In 1932 Star of David was removed from the Trakai Kenesa cupola by Shapshal's' order.[51] Some years later it was also removed from the iron gate.[52]

In 1928 secular Karaim philologist Seraya Shapshal was elected as Hacham of Polish and Lithuanian Karaim. Being a strong adopter of Russian orientalist V. Grigorjev's theory about the Khazarian origin of the Crimean Karaites, Shapshal developed the Karaim's religion and "historical dejudaization" doctrine.[53]

In the mid 1930s, he began to create a theory describing the Altai-Turkic origin of the Karaim and the pagan roots of Karaite religious teaching (worship of sacred oaks, polytheism, led by the god Tengri, the Sacrifice). Shapshal's doctrine is still a topic of critical research and public debate.

He made a number of other changes aimed at the Karaim's Turkification and at erasing the Karaite Jewish elements of their culture and language.[54][55] He issued an order canceling the teaching of Hebrew in Karaite schools and replaced the names of the Jewish holidays and months with Turkic equivalents (see the table below).

According to Shapshal, Crimean Karaites were pagans who adopted the law of Moses, but continued to adhere to their ancient Turkic beliefs. In addition, he claimed that the Karaites had revered Jesus and Mohammed as prophets for centuries. In the Post-Soviet period, Shapshal's theory was further developed in modern Karaylar publications[56] (e.g. "Crimean Karaite legends") and was officially adopted by the Crimean Karaim Association "Krymkaraylar" (? "") as the only correct view of the Karaim's past in 2000.[57]

The ideology of de-Judaization, pan-Turkism and the revival of Tengrism is imbued with the works of the contemporary leaders of the Karaites in Crimea. At the same time, some part of the people retained Jewish customs, several Karaite congregations have registered.[58]

Evolution of Crimean Karaite holiday names in the 20th century

Traditional Hebrew name (1915)[59][60] Secondary name Modern Turkic name[61] Turkic name translated to English.[62][63]
Pesach Hag ha-Machot (Unleavened bread festival) Tymbyl Chyd?y Unleavened bread ("Tymbyl") festival
Omer Sefira (Counting of the Omer)
San Ba?y Counting Beginning
Jarty San Counting Middle
Shavuot Hag Shavuot (Feast of Weeks) Aftalar Chyd?y Feast of Weeks
The 9th of Tammuz Fast Chom Hareviyi (4th month fast) Burunhu Oru? First Fast
The 7th of Av Fast Chom Hahamishi (5th month fast) Ortan?y Oru? Middle Fast
The 10th of Av Fast Nedava (sacrifice) Kurban Sacrifice
Rosh HaShana Yom Teru'ah (The blowing of horns day) Byrhy Kiuniu Horns Day
Yom Kippur literally "The Day of Atonement" Bo?atlych Kiuniu The Day of Atonement
Fast of Gedalia Chom Hashviyi (7th month fast) Omitted
Sukkot literally "Tabernacles". The other name: "Hag Ha Asif" ("Harvest festival") Ala?ych Chyd?y or Oraq Toyu Tabernacles festival or Harvest festival
Tenth of Tevet fast Chom Haasiri (10th month fast) Oru? Fast
Purim "Lots". Kyny? Three-cornered shaped sweet filled-pocket cookie.[64]
Was not considered a holiday Jyl Ba?y The beginning of the Year


Leon Kull and Kevin Alan Brook led the first scientific study of Crimean Karaites using genetic testing of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA and their results claimed to showed that, the Crimean Karaites are indeed partially of Middle Eastern origin and closely related to other Jewish communities (Ashkenazi, Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews), while finding that the Crimean Karaites are genetically unrelated to non-Jewish Turkic-speaking peoples of the region.[65][66]



Karaim is a Kypchak Turkic language being closely related to Crimean Tatar, Armeno-Kipchak etc. Among the many different influences exerted on Karaim, those of Arabic, Hebrew, and Persian were the first to change the outlook of the Karaim lexicon. Later, due to considerable Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian influence, many Slavic and Baltic words entered the language of Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian, and Russian Karaim. Hebrew remained in use for liturgical purposes. Following the Ottoman occupation of Crimea, Turkish was used for business and government purposes among Karaim living on the Crimean peninsula. Three different dialects developed: the Trakai dialect, used in Trakai and Vilnius (Lithuania), the Lutsk or Halych dialect spoken in Lutsk (until World War II), and Halych, and the Crimean dialect. The last forms the Eastern group, while Trakai and Halych Karaim belong to the Western group. Currently only small minority of Karaim can speak the Karaim language (72 Crimean dialect speakers,[1] 118 Trakai dialect speakers, and about 20 Halych dialect speakers).



The most famous Crimean Karaite food is Kybyn (Russian: pl. , Karaim: kybyn pl. kybynlar, Lithuanian: Kibinai). Kybynlar are half moon shaped pies of leavened dough with a stuffing of chopped beef or mutton, baked in dutch oven or baking sheet. Other meals common for Crimean Karaites and Tatars are Chiburekki, Pelmeni, Shishlik (These are most often made from mutton).[67]

Ceremony dishes, cooked for religious holidays and weddings are:

  • Tymbyl is Pesach round cakes flat of unleavened[68] dough, knead with cream and butter or butter and eggs, reflected in the modern name of this festival (Tymbyl Chyd?y[69]),
  • Qatlama is Shavuot (Aftalar Chyd?y[69]) cottage cheese pie, which seven layers symbolizing seven weeks after Pesach, four layers of yeast dough, three of pot cheese,[]
  • Wedding pies are Kiyovliuk (on the part of the groom) and Kelin'lik (on the part of the bride).[]

See also


  1. ^ a b 1,196 Karaites in the Ukraine as a whole (including the Crimea) ? ? ? ? Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Ukraine (Russian language version)
  2. ^ Population in Autonomous Republic of the Crimea = 671, population in Sevastopol city council area = 44. 671+44 = 715. ? ? ? , ? ? ? (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Autonomous Republic of the Crimea )
    ? ? ? , ?. () (Distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue, Sevastopol city council)
  3. ^ The Karaites of Galicia : an ethnoreligious minority among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772-1945. Brill. 2008. ISBN 978-90-47-44288-2.
  4. ^ Ludno. Stan i struktura demograficzno-spo?eczna.Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludno?ci i Mieszka? 2011.
  5. ^ "Gyventojai pagal tautyb?, gimt?j? kalb? ir tikyb?". Statistics Lithuania. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ Russian Census 2010: Population by ethnicity Archived April 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine (in Russian)
  7. ^ Album "Archive of the Dmitri Penbeck's family" - compiled by V. Penbek -- Simferopol-Slippery Rock, 2004. -- C. 24
  8. ^ ?. ?. ? -- , 2004. -- C. 75
  9. ^ "The first direction that dominates present-day scientific circles says the Karaites are Jews both in the religious and the ethnic respect. Representatives of the second direction claim that ethnically Karaites are not Jewish but descendants of the Khazars, Polovets, and other Turkic nations. In the opinion of the followers of this theory, the Karaites have their own religion based upon ancient Turkic beliefs that have only indirect relation to Judaism. ..." T.Schegoleva Karaites of Crimea: History and Present-Day Situation in Community
  10. ^ "The second avenue of approach, which, due to the specificity of the activities of Karaite community, is mostly supported by researchers in Eastern Europe, is related with the transformation of Karaite identity. Researchers tend to accept the theory of Karaite Khazarian origins, and apply it in their studies.Because of its limitations -- the critical application of this approach to the Karaites history before the 20th c. is logically almost impossible -- the Karaite studies are not sufficiently developed in this region. And in the last decades this approach attracts even less adherents -- with an exception of more of descriptive nature, journalistic initiatives, which are supported by Lithuanian Karaite community. While the Khazarian approach is rather critically assessed by the academic community» Dovile Troskovaite.Identity in Transition: The Case of Polish Karaites in the first half of the 20th century.//University of Klaipeda (Lithuania) 2013 p. 210
  11. ^ See e.g Inscription in Khazarian Rovas script
  12. ^ Blady 113-130.
  13. ^ Golden 2007a, p. 9
  14. ^ Brook 2006 p. 110-111, 231.
  15. ^ Erdal, Marcel (1999). "The Khazar Language". In: Golden et al., 1999:75-107
  16. ^ "...After the days of Bulan there arose one of his descendants, a king Obadiah by name, who reorganized the kingdom and established the Jewish religion properly and correctly. He built synagogues and yeshiva/yeshivot, brought in Jewish scholars, and rewarded them with gold and silver. ... They explained to him the Bible, Mishnah, Talmud and the order of divine services. The King was a man who revered and loved the Torah. He was one of the true servants of God. May the Divine Spirit give him rest!..." Khazar Correspondence text
  17. ^ A. Harkavy, Altjudische Denkmaler aus der Krim, mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, SPb., 1876.
  18. ^ A. Fried, K. Landau, J. Cohen and E.Goldschmidt (1968). Some genetic polymorphic characters of the Karaite community. Harefuiah, 75, 507-509.
  19. ^ "Somewhat Jewish, Fully Russian: Crimea Karaites Recall Past Glory". Haaretz. 2014-03-30. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Miller, Philip. Karaite Separatism in 19th Century Russia, pp xv-xvi, 3, 47
  21. ^ : "... 1218 ?"? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 483 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 330 ......"‎ ( "... At 1218 Witold, Grand Duke of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania made war against the Tatars, reached the Crimea island, fought, captured and took with him 483 Karaite families and led to Lithuania and ordered to build for them a town, called New Troki and gave them the freedom and the fields and the lands and settled in this town 330 families ...") .Abraham Firkovich // The Hebrew Monuments of the Crimea, p. 252-- Wilna 1872 ( ? ? ? ?... ? ?.‎)
  22. ^ a b "Karaites of Crimea: History and Present-Day Situation in Community". Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ Nosonovsky, M.; Shabarovsky, V. (2005). "? XVI-XVIII ? ". Vestnik EUM. 9: 31-52.
  24. ^ , ?. ? (Shabarovsky, V.V.) (2013). ? (Karaites in Volhynia, in Ukrainian). Lutsk: Tverdynya.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  25. ^ Shapira, Dan; Lasker, Daniel, J. (2011). Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations. Jerusalem: Ben-Zvi Institute and the Center for the Study of Polish Jewry and its Culture.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  26. ^ Jews and Heretics in Catholic Poland - A Beleaguered Church in the Post-Reformation Era - by Magda Teter
  27. ^ "He-Avar" ("-?") Magazine, Petrograd, No 1, 1918
  28. ^ Jacob Mann, "Karaica", Texts and Studies in Jewish History and Literature, no. 11, Philadelphia, 1935; Jurgita ?iau?i?nait? - Verbickien?, ?ydai Lietuvos Did?iosios Kunigaik?tyst?s visuomen?je: samb?vio aspektai, Vilnius, 2009; Idem, K? rado Trakuose ?iliberas de Lanua, arba kas yra Trak? ?ydai, in Lietuvos istorijos studijos, no. 7, 1999.
  29. ^ ? ?. ? ? ? , ? ?[permanent dead link], (?. Kizilov. Ilyash Karaimovich and Timofey Khmelnitsky: the blood feud that never took place) Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences in publication ? ? ? Archived 2013-01-27 at the Wayback Machine."? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ? " ? ? ", ? , ? ? ? ? ".
  30. ^ "Universitas Helsingiensis". Retrieved 2016.
  31. ^ ? ? - , ? 1791 ?" ? ? ? , ? ? ? ? ? ?; , ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ? , , ? ? ".
  32. ^ ? ? - , ? 1791 ?"? ? ? ?, ? ? ? ? ? ? ?, ? [?] (i.e Karaite Jews) ? ? ".
  33. ^ P. S. Pallas Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die Südlichen Statthalterschaften des Russischen Reichs (1799-1801)
  34. ^ Nosonovsky, M. (2011). "The Karaite Community in Dera?ne and its Leader Hazzan Joseph ben Yeshu'ah". Eastern European Karaites in the Last Generations: 17-35.
  35. ^ Harkavy, Albert. "Altjudische Denkmaller aus der Krim mitgetheilt von Abraham Firkowitsch, 1839-1872." In Memoires de l'Academie Imperiale de St.-Peterboug, VIIe Serie, 24, 1877; reprinted Wiesbaden, 1969.
  36. ^ Fisher, Alan W. (1978). The Crimean Tatars. Hoover Press. p. 264. ISBN 978-0-8179-6662-1. Retrieved .
  37. ^ YIVO archives, Berlin Collection, Occ E, 3, Box 100, letter dated January 5, 1939.
  38. ^ Semi passim.
  39. ^ Blady 125-126.
  40. ^ Green passim.
  41. ^ Wixman 1984 p. 94.
  42. ^ a b Kizilov, Mikhail. "Karaites and Karaism: Recent Developments". Religion and Democracy: An Axchange of Experiences between East and West. The CESNUR 2003 International Conference organized by CESNUR, Center for Religious Studies and Research at Vilnius University, and New Religions Research and Information Center. Vilnius, Lithuania, April 9-12, 2003. CESNUR.
  43. ^ Mikhail Kizilov. The Karaites of Galicia: An Ethnoreligious Minority Among the Ashkenazim, the Turks, and the Slavs, 1772--1945 (Studia Judaeoslavica, 2009)] 340
  44. ^ ? ?, ? ? ?"?; ? ? , , ? "?, ' 139; ? : , ' ? ', - (?), ? , 1999, 226
  45. ^ The Karaite Encyclopedia by Nathan Schur (Frankfurt, 1995) Archived 2007-12-28 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^ Ahiezer, G. and Shapira, D. 2001.'Karaites in Lithuania and in Volhynia-Galicia until the Eighteenth Century' [Hebrew]. Peamin 89: 19-60
  47. ^ , . - . -- ., 1890.
  48. ^ Album "Archive of the Dmitri Penbeck's family" - compiled by V. Penbek -- Simferopol-Slippery Rock, 2004. -- C. 24
  49. ^ ?. ?. ? -- , 2004. -- C. 75
  50. ^ Virtual Karaim Museum
  51. ^ "...its cupola was originally surmounted by a shield of David, but the removal of this emblem was ordered some ten years ago by the local hakham [i.e. Szapsza?] as smacking too much of traditional Judaism. The offending symbol, however, still remains on the iron gate, from which it could hardly be removed without causing a conspicuous blemish..."Published in : ISRAEL COHEN, Vilna, Philadelphia 1943, pp. 463-464
  52. ^ Seraphim, Peter Heinz. Das Judentum im Osteuropäischen Raum, 1938 "...126. Das Wappen der Karaimen am Eingang zu ihrer "Kenessa" in Troki bei Wilna..."
  53. ^ Roman Freund, Karaites and Dejudaization (Acta Universitas Stockholmiensis. 1991. - No30).
  54. ^ ?. ?, ? ?// ? ? ? (2002), ?. 255--273.
  55. ^ E.g compare the Trakai kenassa gate in 1932 [1] and today File:Trakai Kenesa.JPG
  56. ^ "A. Malgin. . ? ? ? [Jews or Turks. New elements in the identity of the Karaites and Krypchaks in modern Crimea] (2002)". Archived from the original on 2013-05-23. Retrieved .
  57. ^ "? ? ?, ? ? ?, ? -- ? ? ? ? ? ?." ("Attempts to attribute the Crimean Karaites alien ethnicity and religion, mixing ethnic Crimean Karaites with the Karaites on religion, the distortion of history - offend the national feelings and create the conditions for national and religious conflicts") ( ?). ?, , ? (in Russian). -- , 2000.
  58. ^ Moroz, Eugeny (2004). " ? . ? ? ? »" [From Judaism to Tengrism. Once again about the spiritual quest of the contemporary Krymchaks and Crimean Karaites]. ? ? ? [People of the Book in the world of books] (in Russian) (52): 1-6.
  59. ^ ? ?/ ?. ?. ?. . -- ?:1915?( Karaite Catechism briefly/ M.J Firchovich. - Melitopol 1915 )
  60. ^ THE BRIEF CATECHISM -THE INSTRUCTIONS for basic education of karaite children in the Law of God and the brief history of karaism //Y B. Shamash(Translation from Russian of ? / ?. ?. ?. )
  61. ^ Lithuanian Karaim Calendar('ch' pronounced as IPA /x/) Archived 2008-03-28 at the Wayback Machine
  62. ^ -- ? / ?. ?. , ?. ?, ?. ?. , 1974,
  63. ^ "? ". Retrieved 2016.
  64. ^ " - ()". Retrieved 2016.
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