Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.
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Daniel E. Koshland, Jr.

Daniel E. Koshland Jr.
Daniel Koshland 1991.jpg
Koshland in 1991
Born(1920-03-30)March 30, 1920
DiedJuly 23, 2007(2007-07-23) (aged 87)
Alma mater
Known forInduced fit model
Children5, including Douglas Koshland
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsBiochemistry
InstitutionsUniversity of California, Berkeley

Daniel Edward Koshland Jr. (March 30, 1920 – July 23, 2007) was an American biochemist. He reorganized the study of biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and was the editor of the leading U.S. science journal, Science, from 1985 to 1995. He was a Member of the United States National Academy of Sciences.[1]

Early life

Koshland was born to a Jewish family, the son of Daniel E. Koshland Sr. and Eleanor (néeHaas, daughter of the Haas family patriarch Abraham Haas.[2] His great-grandfather was wool merchant Simon Koshland. He has two siblings: Frances "Sissy" Koshland Geballe and Phyllis Koshland Friedman.[2] His father served as C.E.O. of Levi Strauss & Co. from 1955 to 1958[2] and is widely credited with saving the company during the Great Depression.[3]

In 1997, Koshland's private fortune, derived from Levi Strauss, put him at 64th on the list of America's wealthiest people.[4] Rather than relying on his fortune, Koshland chose to pursue a career in science.[5] Koshland wrote in an autobiographical article that he decided to become a scientist in the eighth grade after reading two popular books about science, Microbe Hunters by Paul de Kruif and Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis.[6]

Research career

Attending Phillips Exeter Academy[7] for high school Koshland then became the third generation of his family to matriculate to the University of California, Berkeley, where he majored in chemistry. The next five years, 1941-46, were spent working with Glenn T. Seaborg at the University of Chicago on the top-secret Manhattan project, where his team purified the plutonium that was used to make the atomic bomb at Los Alamos.[8]

In 1949, he received his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the University of Chicago.[9] His early work was in enzyme kinetics at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Long Island, and Rockefeller University, New York. This led him to propose the induced fit model for enzyme catalysis.[10] In the same period he studied the effect of using chemical modification to change the serine residue in the active site of subtilisin to cysteine,[11] (in parallel with a similar experiment done independently and almost simultaneously.[12] This can be regarded as the first example of an artificial enzyme, though Neet and Koshland did not use that term. A little later Koshland and colleagues introduced the principal alternative to the model of Monod, Wyman and Changeux[13] to explain protein cooperativity.[14]

Later Koshland turned to studying how bacteria control their movements in chemotaxis.[15] His laboratory made three major discoveries concerning protein phosphorylation in bacteria:

  1. The first phosphorylated bacterial protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase, was identified.[16]
  2. It was demonstrated that substituting an aspartate residue for the serine residue that was phosphorylated causes the protein to behave as if it were phosphorylated.[17]
  3. The response regulators in the two-component regulatory systems were shown to be phosphorylated on an aspartate residue and to be protein phosphatases with a covalent intermediate.[18][19]

He spearheaded the reorganization of the biological sciences at Berkeley, merging eleven departments into three.[20] In 1992, Koshland Hall was named after him.[5] The building is located next to (and on some floors connected to) Barker Hall. Koshland Hall houses a number of laboratories in both molecular and cell biology as well as plant and microbial biology.[21]

Koshland served as editor of the journal Science from 1985 to 1995.[22] His philosophical essay The Seven Pillars of Life is frequently cited and discussed in terms of extraterrestrial and artificial life as well as biological life.[23][24]

In 1998, Koshland was awarded the Albert Lasker Special Achievement Award given by the Lasker Foundation for medical research in the United States.[25] In 2008, the award was renamed the Lasker-Koshland Special Achievement Award in Medical Science in honor of Koshland.[26]

Personal life

He was married to Marian Koshland (néeElliot), a fellow Berkeley professor, from 1946 until her death in 1997. Marian was a gentile, the daughter of a teacher who had immigrated from Denmark and a hardware salesman father of Southern Baptist background.[27] Daniel and Marian had five children: Ellen Koshland, Phyllis "Phylp" Koshland, James Koshland, Gail Koshland, and Douglas Koshland.[5] Koshland's son Douglas is a professor of genetics at the University of California, Berkeley.[28] Daniel Koshland supported the creation of the Marian Koshland Science Museum by giving a major gift to the National Academy of Sciences in Marian's honor.[5]

After his wife's death in 1997 he reconnected with onetime U.C.B. classmate Yvonne Cyr San Jule and they were married in Lafayette on August 17, 2000.[29] San Jule had four children from previous marriages: conductor Christopher Keene, Philip Keene, Elodie Keene, and Tamsen (néeSan Jule) Calhoon.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ Schekman R (2007). "The nine lives of Daniel E. Koshland Jr. (1920 2007)". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (37): 14551-2. Bibcode:2007PNAS..10414551S. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707644104. PMC 1976236. PMID 17720803.
  2. ^ a b c Butler Koshland Fellowships: "Daniel E. Koshland, Sr. Archived March 23, 2013, at the Wayback Machine retrieved April 21, 2014
  3. ^ JWeekly: "Daniel Koshland, biologist and philanthropist, dies at 87" by Joe Eskenazi Archived April 21, 2014, at the Wayback Machine July 27, 2007
  4. ^ "Richest List Has Gates at No. 1, Plus 83 Californians". Los Angeles Times. September 29, 1997. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ a b c d Maugh, II, Thomas H. (July 26, 2007). "Daniel Koshland Jr., 87; UC Berkeley molecular biologist". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved 2019.
  6. ^ Koshland D (1996). "How to Get Paid for Having Fun". Annu. Rev. Biochem. 65: 1-13. doi:10.1146/annurev.bi.65.070196.000245. PMID 8811172.
  7. ^ "Phillips Exeter Academy | Dr. Daniel E. Koshland '37 to Receive the John Phillips Award". Exeter.edu. Archived from the original on October 22, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  8. ^ "Albert Lasker Award for Special Achievement in Medical Science". laskerfoundation.org. The Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ "Remembrances: Daniel E. Koshland Jr. (1920-2007)". The Wall Street Journal. July 28, 2007. Archived from the original on May 6, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ Thoma, John A.; Koshland, D. E. (1960). "Competitive Inhibition by Substrate during Enzyme Action. Evidence for the Induced-fit Theory". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 82 (13): 3329-3333. doi:10.1021/ja01498a025.
  11. ^ Neet, K. E.; Koshland, D. E. (1966). "The conversion of serine at the active site of subtilisin to cysteine: A "chemical mutation"". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 56 (5): 1606-1611. Bibcode:1966PNAS...56.1606N. doi:10.1073/pnas.56.5.1606. PMC 220044. PMID 5230319.
  12. ^ Polgar, Laszlo; Bender, Myron L. (1967). "The Reactivity of Thiol-subtilisin, an Enzyme Containing a Synthetic Functional Group". Biochemistry. 6 (2): 610-620. doi:10.1021/bi00854a032. PMID 6047645.
  13. ^ Monod, Jacques; Wyman, Jeffries; Changeux, Jean-Pierre (1965). "On the nature of allosteric transitions: A plausible model". Journal of Molecular Biology. 12: 88-118. doi:10.1016/S0022-2836(65)80285-6. PMID 14343300.
  14. ^ Koshland, D. E.; Némethy, G.; Filmer, D. (1966). "Comparison of Experimental Binding Data and Theoretical Models in Proteins Containing Subunits". Biochemistry. 5 (1): 365-385. doi:10.1021/bi00865a047. PMID 5938952.
  15. ^ MacNab, R. M.; Koshland, D. E. (1972). "The Gradient-Sensing Mechanism in Bacterial Chemotaxis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 69 (9): 2509-2512. Bibcode:1972PNAS...69.2509M. doi:10.1073/pnas.69.9.2509. PMC 426976. PMID 4560688.
  16. ^ Wang JY, Koshland DE (October 1, 1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 218 (1): 59-67. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(82)90321-6. PMID 6756316.
  17. ^ Thorsness, P. E.; Koshland Jr, D. E. (1987). "Inactivation of isocitrate dehydrogenase by phosphorylation is mediated by the negative charge of the phosphate". J Biol Chem. 262 (22): 10422-5. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)60975-5. PMID 3112144.
  18. ^ Sanders, DA; Gillece-Castro, BL; Stock, AM; Burlingame, AL; Koshland DE, Jr (1989). "Identification of the site of phosphorylation of the chemotaxis response regulator protein, CheY". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (36): 21770-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(20)88250-7. PMID 2689446.
  19. ^ Sanders, D. A.; Gillece-Castro, B. L.; Burlingame, A. L.; Koshland Jr, D. E. (1992). "Phosphorylation site of NtrC, a protein phosphatase whose covalent intermediate activates transcription". J Bacteriol. 174 (15): 5117-22. doi:10.1128/jb.174.15.5117-5122.1992. PMC 206329. PMID 1321122.
  20. ^ a b Sanders, Robert (July 24, 2007). "Eminent biochemist Daniel Koshland has died". berkeley.edu. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on May 6, 2017. Retrieved 2013.
  21. ^ "Koshland Hall". University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on April 13, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  22. ^ "Dan Koshland, 1920-2007: In Memoriam". Science. AAAS. 2007. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  23. ^ Koshland Jr., D. E. (March 22, 2002). "Special Essay: The Seven Pillars of Life". Science. 295 (5563): 2215-2216. doi:10.1126/science.1068489. PMID 11910092. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  24. ^ Moore, David Moore (2013). Fungal biology in the origin and emergence of life. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-107-65277-4. Archived from the original on July 29, 2020. Retrieved 2016.
  25. ^ "1998 Albert Lasker Special Achievement Award in Medical Science: Science communication and education". Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on April 25, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  26. ^ "Discoverers of Small Regulatory RNAs and Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs to Receive Lasker Awards for Medical Research". MarketWatch. September 13, 2008. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  27. ^ Guyer, Ruth Levy. "Marian E. Koshland Biographical Memoir" (PDF). National Academy of Sciences. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 9, 2009. Retrieved 2012.
  28. ^ "ASCB Profile: Douglas Koshland" (PDF). Ascb Newsletter. American Society for Cell Biology: 12-13. 2005. Archived (PDF) from the original on January 14, 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  29. ^ Tjian, Robert (August 2007). "Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. 1920-2007" (PDF). Cell. 130 (4): 579-580. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.08.011. PMID 17915359. S2CID 29934663. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 17, 2015. Retrieved 2016.

External links


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