December Solstice
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December Solstice

UT date and time of
equinoxes and solstices on Earth[1][2]
event equinox solstice equinox solstice
month March June September December
year day time day time day time day time
2016 20 04:31 20 22:35 22 14:21 21 10:45
2017 20 10:29 21 04:25 22 20:02 21 16:29
2018 20 16:15 21 10:07 23 01:54 21 22:22
2019 20 21:58 21 15:54 23 07:50 22 04:19
2020 20 03:50 20 21:43 22 13:31 21 10:03
2021 20 09:37 21 03:32 22 19:21 21 15:59
2022 20 15:33 21 09:14 23 01:04 21 21:48
2023 20 21:25 21 14:58 23 06:50 22 03:28
2024 20 03:07 20 20:51 22 12:44 21 09:20
2025 20 09:02 21 02:42 22 18:20 21 15:03
2026 20 14:46 21 08:25 23 00:06 21 20:50
Illumination of Earth by the Sun on the day of the December solstice

The December solstice, also known as the southern solstice, is the solstice that occurs each December - typically on 21 December, but may vary by one day in either direction according to the Gregorian calendar. In the Northern Hemisphere, the December solstice is the winter solstice (the day with the shortest period of daylight), whilst in the Southern Hemisphere it is the summer solstice (the day with the longest period of daylight).

Solar year

The December solstice solar year is the solar year based on the December solstice. It is thus the length of time between adjacent December solstices.

The length of the December solstice year has been relatively stable between 6000 BC and 2000 at 49:30 (minutes:seconds) to 50:00 in excess of 365 days and 5 hours. After 2000, it is getting shorter. In 4000, the excess time will be 48:52 and, in 10000, 46:45.[3]

The length of the day near the December solstice

The following tables contain information on the length of the day on December 22nd, close to the winter solstice of the Northern Hemisphere and the summer solstice of the Southern Hemisphere (i.e. December solstice). The data was collected from the website of the Finnish Meteorological Institute on 22 December 2015, as well as from certain other websites.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

The data is arranged geographically and within the tables from the shortest day to the longest one.

The Nordic countries and the Baltic states
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
Russia Murmansk -- -- 0 h
Norway Bodø 11:36 12:25 0 h 49 min
Finland Rovaniemi 11:08 13:22 2 h 14 min
Sweden Luleå 9:55 13:04 3 h 08 min
Iceland Reykjavík 11:22 15:29 4 h 07 min
Norway Trondheim 10:01 14:31 4 h 30 min
Faroe Islands Tórshavn 9:51 14:59 5 h 08 min
Finland Helsinki 9:24 15:13 5 h 49 min
Norway Oslo 9:18 15:12 5 h 54 min
Estonia Tallinn 9:17 15:20 6 h 02 min
Sweden Stockholm 8:43 14:48 6 h 04 min
Latvia Riga 9:00 15:43 6 h 43 min
Denmark Copenhagen 8:37 15:38 7 h 01 min
Lithuania Vilnius 8:40 15:54 7 h 14 min
Europe
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
United Kingdom Edinburgh 8:42 15:40 6 h 57 min
Russia Moscow 8:57 15:58 7 h 00 min
Germany Berlin 8:15 15:54 7 h 39 min
Poland Warsaw 7:43 15:25 7 h 42 min
United Kingdom London 8:04 15:53 7 h 49 min
Ukraine Kyiv 7:56 15:56 8 h 00 min
France Paris 8:41 16:56 8 h 14 min
Austria Vienna 7:42 16:03 8 h 20 min
Hungary Budapest 7:28 15:55 8 h 26 min
Italy Rome 7:34 16:42 9 h 07 min
Spain Madrid 8:34 17:51 9 h 17 min
Portugal Lisbon 7:51 17:18 9 h 27 min
Greece Athens 7:37 17:09 9 h 31 min
Africa
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
Egypt Cairo 6:47 16:59 10 h 12 min
Spain Tenerife 7:53 18:13 10 h 19 min
Senegal Dakar 7:30 18:46 11 h 15 min
Ethiopia Addis Ababa 6:35 18:11 11 h 36 min
Kenya Nairobi 6:25 18:37 12 h 11 min
Democratic Republic of the Congo Kinshasa 5:45 18:08 12 h 22 min
Tanzania Dar es Salaam 6:05 18:36 12 h 31 min
Angola Luanda 5:46 18:24 12 h 38 min
Madagascar Antananarivo 5:10 18:26 13 h 16 min
Namibia Windhoek 6:04 19:35 13 h 31 min
South Africa Johannesburg 5:12 18:59 13 h 47 min
South Africa Cape Town 5:32 19:57 14 h 25 min
Middle East
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
Iran Tehran 7:10 16:55 9 h 44 min
Lebanon Beirut 6:39 16:33 9 h 54 min
Iraq Baghdad 7:02 16:59 9 h 57 min
Israel Jerusalem 6:35 16:39 10 h 04 min
Bahrain Manama 6:21 16:51 10 h 30 min
Qatar Doha 6:15 16:49 10 h 34 min
United Arab Emirates Dubai 7:00 17:34 10 h 34 min
Saudi Arabia Riyadh 6:32 17:10 10 h 37 min
Oman Muscat 6:43 17:23 10 h 41 min
Yemen Sana'a 6:25 17:38 11 h 13 min
Americas
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
Canada Inuvik -- -- 0 h
United States Fairbanks 10:58 14:40 3 h 41 min
Greenland Nuuk 10:22 14:28 4 h 06 min
United States Anchorage 10:14 15:42 5 h 27 min
Canada Edmonton 8:48 16:15 7 h 27 min
Canada Vancouver 8:05 16:16 8 h 11 min
United States Seattle 7:55 16:20 8 h 25 min
Canada Ottawa 7:39 16:22 8 h 42 min
Canada Toronto 7:48 16:43 8 h 55 min
United States New York City 7:16 16:32 9 h 15 min
United States Washington, D.C. 7:23 16:49 9 h 26 min
United States Los Angeles 6:55 16:48 9 h 53 min
United States Dallas 7:25 17:25 9 h 59 min
United States Miami 7:03 17:35 10 h 31 min
United States Honolulu 7:04 17:55 10 h 50 min
Mexico Mexico City 7:06 18:03 10 h 57 min
Nicaragua Managua 6:01 17:26 11 h 24 min
Colombia Bogotá 5:59 17:50 11 h 51 min
Ecuador Quito 6:08 18:16 12 h 08 min
Brazil Recife 5:00 17:35 12 h 35 min
Peru Lima 5:41 18:31 12 h 50 min
Bolivia La Paz 5:57 19:04 13 h 06 min
Brazil Rio de Janeiro 6:04 19:37 13 h 33 min
Brazil São Paulo 6:17 19:52 13 h 35 min
Brazil Porto Alegre 6:20 20:25 14 h 05 min
Chile Santiago 6:29 20:52 14 h 22 min
Argentina Buenos Aires 5:37 20:06 14 h 28 min
Argentina Ushuaia 4:51 22:11 17 h 19 min
Asia and Oceania
City Sunrise
22 Dec 2015
Sunset
22 Dec 2015
Length of the day
Russia Magadan 8:54 14:55 6 h 00 min
Russia Petropavlovsk 9:36 17:10 7 h 33 min
Russia Khabarovsk 8:48 17:07 8 h 18 min
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar 8:39 17:02 8 h 22 min
Russia Vladivostok 8:40 17:40 8 h 59 min
China Beijing 7:32 16:52 9 h 20 min
South Korea Seoul 7:44 17:17 9 h 34 min
Japan Tokyo 6:47 16:31 9 h 44 min
China Shanghai 6:48 16:55 10 h 07 min
China Lhasa 8:46 19:01 10 h 14 min
India Delhi 7:09 17:28 10 h 19 min
Hong Kong Hong Kong 6:58 17:44 10 h 46 min
Philippines Manila 6:16 17:32 11 h 15 min
Thailand Bangkok 6:36 17:55 11 h 19 min
Singapore Singapore 7:01 19:04 12 h 03 min
Indonesia Jakarta 5:36 18:05 12 h 28 min
Indonesia Denpasar 5:58 18:36 12 h 37 min
Australia Darwin 6:19 19:10 12 h 51 min
French Polynesia Papeete 5:21 18:32 13 h 10 min
Australia Brisbane 4:49 18:42 13 h 52 min
Australia Perth 5:07 19:22 14 h 14 min
Australia Sydney 5:41 20:05 14 h 24 min
New Zealand Auckland 5:58 20:39 14 h 41 min
Australia Melbourne 5:54 20:42 14 h 47 min
New Zealand Invercargill 5:50 21:39 15 h 48 min

References

  1. ^ United States Naval Observatory (4 January 2018). "Earth's Seasons and Apsides: Equinoxes, Solstices, Perihelion, and Aphelion". Archived from the original on 24 December 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ "Solstices and Equinoxes: 2001 to 2100". AstroPixels.com. 20 February 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ Bromberg, Irv. "Solar Year Length Variations on Earth" (PDF). University of Toronto, Canada. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ "Paikallissää Helsinki" ['Local weather in Helsinki'] (in Finnish). Finnish Meteorological Institute. 22 December 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ "Perth, Australia". Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "São Paulo, Brazil". Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ "Denpasar, Indonesia". Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "Edmonton, Canada". Retrieved 2019.
  9. ^ "Inuvik, Canada". Retrieved 2020.

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