Get Deontic Modality essential facts below. View Videos or join the Deontic Modality discussion. Add Deontic Modality to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Deontic modality (abbreviatedDEO) is a linguistic modality that indicates how the world ought to be according to certain norms, expectations, speaker desire, etc. In other words, a deontic expression indicates that the state of the world (where 'world' is loosely defined here in terms of the surrounding circumstances) does not meet some standard or ideal, whether that standard be social (such as laws), personal (desires), etc. The sentence containing the deontic modal generally indicates some action that would change the world so that it becomes closer to the standard or ideal.
This category includes the following subcategories:
Commissive modality (the speaker's commitment to do something, like a promise or threat): "I shall help you."
Directive modality (commands, requests, etc.): "Come!", "Let's go!", "You've got to taste this curry!"
A related type of modality is dynamic modality, which indicates a subject's internal capabilities or willingness as opposed to external factors such as permission or orders given.
Realisation in speech
Deontic moods are a category of grammatical moods that are used to express deontic modality. An example for a deontic mood is the imperative ("Come!").
However, many languages (like English) have additional ways to express deontic modality, like modal verbs ("I shall help you.") and other verbs ("I hope to come soon."), as well as adverbials (hopefully) and other constructions.
Esperanto has a mood formally called volitive which is also used for various directive uses, so it can be seen as a broader deontic mood. However, it is not used to express commissive modality. It is formed by adding -u to the verb stem, and it is used for orders and commands as well as for expressing will, desire, and purpose.
Estu feli?a! "(May you) Be happy!"
Donu al mi panon. "Give me bread."
Ni iru! "Let's go!"
Mi legu tion. "Let me read that."
Mi volas, ke vi helpu min. "I want you to help me."