E (Cyrillic)
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E Cyrillic
Cyrillic letter E
Cyrillic letter E - uppercase and lowercase.svg
Phonetic usage:[e], [?]
The Cyrillic script
Slavic letters
Non-Slavic letters
Archaic letters

E (? ?; italics: ? ?; also known as backwards e, from Russian ? ?, e oborótnoye, ['? ?b?'rotn?j?]) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian. It represents the vowels [e] and [?], as the e in the word "editor". In other Slavic languages that use the Cyrillic script, the sounds are represented by Ye (? ?), which represents in Russian and Belarusian [je] in initial and postvocalic position or [e] and palatalizes the preceding consonant. This letter closely resembles and should not be confused with the Cyrillic letter Ukrainian Ye (? ?)

In Cyrillic Moldovan, which was used in the Moldovan SSR during the Soviet Union and is still used in Transnistria, the letter corresponds to ? in the Latin Romanian alphabet, and the phoneme [?]. It is also used in the Cyrillic alphabets used by Mongolian and many Uralic, Caucasian languages and Turkic languages of the former Soviet Union.


The letter ⟨?⟩ originated in the thirteenth century as a variant of ⟨?⟩, at first, according to ?or?i?[1] in superscripted line-final position, but by the end of the century elsewhere as well.[2] In the following centuries it continued to appear sporadically as an uncommon variant of ⟨?⟩, but not later than in the fifteenth century amongst the Eastern Slavs it began to be used to indicate initial (un-iotated) [e]. According to Yefim Karskiy, "Western Russian ustav knows ⟨?⟩, e.g. in Miscellany of the 15th c. from the Public Library (manuscr. #391) ( etc.), chronicles of 15th-16th cc., Miscellany of Pozna? (16th c.),[3] Statut of 1588... It is difficult to say whether it has been developed here independently or it came from South Slavic manuscripts, where ⟨?⟩ occurs as early as in 13-14th cc."[4] Although the revision of Meletius Smotrytsky's grammar published in Moscow in 1648 does not include ⟨?⟩ in its alphabet, it does consistently write (Etymologia), in contrast to in the first edition of 1619. It was by no means confined to this function in the period, however, as the prevalent spellings ?, (beside , ) for modern Russian , demonstrate.

In modern Russian

Specimens of the civil script with annotations by Peter I.

In the specimens of the civil script presented to Peter I in 1708, forms of ⟨?⟩ were included among forms of ⟨?⟩, but the latter was deleted by Peter. The former was used in some early 18th-century Russian texts, but some authorities of the period considered it superfluous, like Mikhail Lomonosov, on the grounds that "the letter ?, having several different pronunciations, could serve in the pronoun and the interjection "[5] and that it was inappropriate to introduce letters solely for use in loanwords. However, the inclusion of ⟨?⟩ in its modern function, in the Russian Academy's Dictionary of 1789-94, marks the point from which it can be considered as an established part of the Russian orthographical standard.

There were still some objections to the letter even as late as 1817, when M. T. Ka?enovskij was questioning whether "yet another hard ?" was necessary when the language already had "a soft ? and a hard ?".[6]

In contemporary Russian, ⟨?⟩ is used to represent [e], [?] in initial position (? 'electricity') and postvocalic position (? 'duel'). Among such words are only a few native Russian roots: - ( 'this is', ?// 'this (m./f./n.)', 'these', ? 'thus' etc.), - (? 'what a'), ?-/?- (?/? 'that way', / 'sort of') and a few interjections like 'hey', ? 'uh, oh', ?-?-? 'uh'.

Even though Russian contains a significant number of loanwords in which [e] occurs after a hard (unpalatalised) consonant, it is still the practice to use the letter ⟨?⟩ for [e], [?]: , (tennis, sepsis). There are few traditional exceptions to that practice among common noun loanwords:

  • the original list (the first half of the 20th century) contained just three words:
    • 'mayor', from French 'maire'
    • 'peer (a noble)', from French 'pair'
    • 'sir', from English or from Old French 'sieur'
  • two later additions (1950s-1960s):
    • ? 'master, skilled artist', from French 'maître'
    • , from French '(en) plein air'
  • new additions (1980s and later) are more numerous:
    • 'racket, racketeering', from English
    • 'rap (music)', from English
    • ? 'fantasy (literature)', from English
    • and several others; spelling of new words sometimes varies and dictionaries often give variants or contradict one another (like ? 'hatchback (car)' in spelling dictionary vs ?/? in explanatory dictionary[1]).

In proper nouns, however, ⟨?⟩ may occur after consonants: ?- 'Ulan-Ude' and ? 'Blair'. However, many such loanwords are spelled with ⟨?⟩: 'Blériot' (a French aviator). That is the case especially for names that entered the language centuries ago like: , 'Berlin'. The use of ⟨?⟩ is much more frequent for names from non-European languages: 'Mao Zedong'.

The letter ⟨?⟩ is also used in Russian to render initial [oe] in foreign words: thus Eure (the river in France) is written . After consonants this is transcribed as ⟨?⟩. In the 19th century, some writers used ⟨?⟩ for that sound in both positions,[7] but that was never accepted as standard orthography. (The letter ⟨?⟩ was re-invented in the 20th century for Kildin Sami.) It is also used to represent a stressed [æ] in languages such as English, which can cause a problem of conflating [æ] with English [?] (for example, "Addison" and "Edison" would be spelled the same). However, in other positions, Russian also uses ⟨?⟩ for [æ] and ⟨?⟩ for [?].

In modern Belarusian

Unlike Russian, Belarusian has many native words in which it occurs after a hard consonant. Moreover, its orthography was standardized later than that of Russian (which reached its present form at the beginning of the 20th century), on the basis of the spoken language rather than historical tradition. Consequently, ⟨?⟩ and ⟨?⟩ are written in accordance with pronunciation: ⟨?⟩ for initial [e] and after hard consonants, ⟨?⟩ for initial and postvocalic [je] and after soft consonants. That also means that ⟨?⟩ is much more frequent in Belarusian than in Russian.

In other languages

In Tuvan the Cyrillic letter can be written as a double vowel.[8][9]

In the Tajik language, the letters ? and ? have the same function, except that ? is used at the beginning of a word (ex. ?, "Iran").[10]

In Mongolian, ? is the standard letter to represent the /?/ phoneme. It is often written doubled to represent the /e:/ phoneme. ?, however, is only used in the few Mongolian words containing it, Russian loanwords and Russian-style transcriptions of foreign names.

Related letters and other similar characters

Computing codes

Character information
Preview Э э
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 1069 U+042D 1101 U+044D
UTF-8 208 173 D0 AD 209 141 D1 8D
Numeric character reference Э Э э э
Named character reference Э э
KOI8-R and KOI8-U 252 FC 220 DC
Code page 855 248 F8 247 F7
Code page 866 157 9D 237 ED
Windows-1251 221 DD 253 FD
ISO-8859-5 205 CD 237 ED
Macintosh Cyrillic 157 9D 253 FD


  1. ^ , , ?, 2-a ., 1987, p.87
  2. ^ Cf ? : XIII , . ? ? ? ?. ? ? ?. , , 1981, pp.13, 341
  3. ^ Published in the vol. 17 of the Complete Collection of Russian Chronicles.
  4. ^ " ?, ?. ? . XV ?. ?. ?. No 391 ( ? .), XV--XVI ., ?. . XVI ?., ? 1588... ?, ? , ? ? XIII--XIV ." (?. ?. ?, , . 1, ?., 1955, ?. 69). See also pp. 165-166 for more details and examples.
  5. ^ ? ? ? ?, ? , ? ?, 1755 ?, p.43
  6. ^ [?. ?.] , " ? ? ?", ?- ? . ? , ?.IX (1817), pp.17-46. He was referring specifically to the spelling in the 1648 grammar mentioned above: " ? ? ?, ? ? , ?, ? ?, ? ? " so how far his remarks extend to the Russian of his own day is debatable. The reference to "a soft ? and a hard ?" was referring to the pronunciation of Church Slavonic current in his day (which is still maintained by the Old Believers). That may have still been regarded as the literary ideal: see ?. ?. , ? ? , , 1968, especially pp.29-35.
  7. ^ ?. ?. ?, ? , 19- ., , 1910, p.78
  8. ^ "Tuvan language, alphabet and pronunciation". omniglot.com. Retrieved 2016.
  9. ^ Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth (24 July 2013). "Compendium of the World's Languages". Routledge. Retrieved 2016 – via Google Books.
  10. ^ "Encyclopedia Irancia, TAJIK PERSIAN". Retrieved 2017.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary
  • The dictionary definition of ? at Wiktionary

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