|Varying depending on time (4th-18th centuries), currently none (all languages are extinct)|
Until late 4th century:
Central and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)
late 4th--early 10th centuries:
Much of southern, western, southeastern, and eastern Europe (as far as Crimea) and North Africa
early 10th--late 18th centuries:
Isolated areas in eastern Europe (as far as Crimea)
The only East Germanic languages of which texts are known are from Gothic, although a word list survives from its possible relative Crimean Gothic. Other languages that are assumed to be East Germanic include Vandalic and Burgundian, though no texts in these languages are known. Crimean Gothic is believed to have survived until the 18th century in isolated areas of Crimea.
Since many years, the least controversial theory of the origin of the Germanic languages (and the East Germanic) is that they originate in the Nordic Bronze Age of Southern Scandinavia and along the coast of northernmost Germany.
By the 1st century AD, the writings of Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, and Tacitus indicate a division of Germanic-speaking peoples into large groupings with shared ancestry and culture. (This division has been taken over in modern terminology about the divisions of Germanic languages.)
Based on accounts by Jordanes, Procopius, Paul the Deacon and others, as well as linguistic, toponymic, and archaeological evidence, the East Germanic tribes, the speakers of the East Germanic languages related to the North Germanic tribes, had migrated from Scandinavia into the area lying east of the Elbe. In fact, the Scandinavian influence on Pomerania and today's northern Poland from c. 1300-1100 BC (Nordic Bronze Age sub-period III) onwards was so considerable that this region is sometimes included in the Nordic Bronze Age culture (Dabrowski 1989:73).
There is also archaeological and toponymic evidence which has been taken as suggesting that Burgundians lived on the Danish island of Bornholm (Old Norse: Burgundaholmr), and that Rugians lived on the Norwegian coast of Rogaland (Old Norse: Rygjafylki).
However, the so-called Gotho-Nordic hypothesis is considered outdated, and East Germanic is thought to be a primary branch of Germanic (presumably native to the north of Central Europe, especially modern Poland), and likely even the first branch to split off Proto-Germanic in the first millennium BC.
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Possible East Germanic-speaking tribes include: