Egyptian Arabic
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Egyptian Arabic
Egyptian Arabic
Native toEgypt
Native speakers
76,000,000 (2021)[1]
Arabic alphabet
Language codes
Árabe egipcio.PNG
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Egyptian Arabic, locally known as Colloquial Egyptian (Arabic: ? ?‎,[2][3][4] [el.?æm'mejjæ l.m?s?'?ejj?]), or simply Masri (),[5][6] is the spoken vernacular Arabic dialect of Egypt.[7][8]

Egyptian is a dialect of the Arabic language, which is part of the Afro-Asiatic language family. It originated in the Nile Delta in Lower Egypt. Egyptian Arabic evolved from the Quranic Arabic which was brought to Egypt during the seventh-century AD Muslim conquest that aimed to spread the Islamic faith among the Egyptians.[9] Egyptian Arabic is influenced by the Egyptian Coptic language in its grammar structure which was the native language of the vast majority of Nile Valley Egyptians prior to the Islamic conquest[10][11][12] and later it had influences by European and foreign languages such as French, Italian, Greek,[13] Turkish and English. The 100 million Egyptians speak a continuum of dialects, among which Cairene is the most prominent. It is also understood across most of the Arabic-speaking countries due to broad Egyptian influence on the region. Furthermore, Egyptian media including cinema has had a big influence in the MENA region for more than a century, along with the music industry. These factors help to make it the most widely spoken and by far the most widely studied variety of Arabic.[14][15][16][17][18]

While it is primarily a spoken language, the written form is used in novels, plays and poems (vernacular literature), as well as in comics, advertising, some newspapers and transcriptions of popular songs. In most other written media and in television news reporting, Literary Arabic is used. Literary Arabic is a standardized language based on the language of the Quran, that is, Classical Arabic. The Egyptian vernacular is almost universally written in the Arabic alphabet for local consumption, although it is commonly transcribed into Latin letters or in the International Phonetic Alphabet in linguistics text and textbooks aimed at teaching non-native learners.[19]


Egyptians generally call their vernacular "Arabic" (?, ['r?bi]) when juxtaposed with non-Arabic languages; "Colloquial Egyptian" (? ?, [el.?æm'mejjæ l.m?s?'?ejj?])[note B] or simply "'Aamiyya" (, colloquial) when juxtaposed with Standard Arabic and the Egyptian dialect ( ?, [el'læh?æ l.m?s?'?ejj?])[note C] or simply Masri (, ['m?si], Egyptian) when juxtaposed with other vernacular Arabic dialects.[20] Sometimes it is also called Modern Egyptian language[21] ( ? ?,[21] Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [el'lo?æ l.m?s?'?ejj? l.?æ'di:sæ]).[note A]

The term Egyptian Arabic is usually used synonymously with "Cairene Arabic", which is technically a dialect of Egyptian Arabic. The country's native name, Ma?r, is often used locally to refer to Cairo itself. As is the case with Parisian French, Cairene Arabic is by far the most prevalent dialect in the country.[22]

Geographic distribution

The total number of Egyptian Arabic users in all countries is over 51million, 49million of whom are native speakers in Egypt, including several regional dialects. In addition, there are immigrant Egyptian communities in the Middle East, Europe, North America, Latin America, Australia and Southeast Asia.

Among the spoken varieties of Arabic, Standard Egyptian Arabic[23] (based on the dialect of the Egyptian capital) is the only one to have become a lingua franca in other parts of the Arabic-speaking world primarily for two reasons:[24][25] the proliferation and popularity of Egyptian films and other media in the region since the early 20th century as well as the great number of Egyptian teachers and professors who were instrumental in setting up the education systems of various countries in the Arabian Peninsula and also taught there and in other countries such as Algeria and Libya. Also, many Lebanese artists choose to sing in Egyptian.

Standard Egyptian Arabic when used in documents, broadcast media, prepared speeches and sometimes in liturgical purpose, is heavily influenced by Cairene Arabic with loanwords of Modern Standard Arabic origin or code-switching between Cairene Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic.[better source needed]


Arabic was spoken in parts of Egypt such as the Eastern Desert and Sinai before Islam.[26] However, Nile Valley Egyptians slowly adopted Arabic as a written language following the Muslim conquest of Egypt in the seventh century. Until then, they had spoken either Koine Greek or Egyptian in its Coptic form. A period of Coptic-Arabic bilingualism in Lower Egypt lasted for more than three centuries. The period would last much longer in the south. Arabic had been already familiar to Valley Egyptians since Arabic had been spoken throughout the Eastern Desert and Sinai. Arabic was also a minority language of some residents of the Nile Valley such as Qift in Upper Egypt through pre-Islamic trade with Nabateans in the Sinai Peninsula and the easternmost part of the Nile Delta. Egyptian Arabic seems to have begun taking shape in Fustat, the first Islamic capital of Egypt, now part of Cairo.

One of the earliest linguistic sketches of Cairene Arabic is a 16th-century document entitled Daf? al-?i?r ?an kal?m ahl Mi?r [27]( ? , "The Removal of the Burden from the Language of the People of Cairo") by Yusuf al-Maghribi (? ?). With Misr here meaning Cairo. It contains key information on early Cairene Arabic and the language situation in Egypt in the Middle Ages. The main purpose of the document was to show that while the Cairenes' vernacular contained many critical "errors" vis-à-vis Classical Arabic, according to al-Maghribi, it was also related to Arabic in other respects. With few waves of immigration from the Arabian peninsula such as the Banu Hilal exodus, who later left Egypt and were settled in Morocco and Tunisia, together with the ongoing Islamization and Arabization of the country, multiple Arabic varieties, one of which is Egyptian Arabic, slowly supplanted spoken Coptic. Local chroniclers mention the continued use of Coptic as a spoken language until the 17th century by peasant women in Upper Egypt. Coptic is still the liturgical language of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.


Egyptian Arabic has no official status and is not officially recognized as a language (even though it has its own ISO language code). Standard Arabic is the official language of the state as per constitutional law .[28] Interest in the local vernacular began in the 1800s (in opposition to the language of the ruling class, Turkish), as the Egyptian national movement for self-determination was taking shape. For many decades to follow, questions about the reform and the modernization of Arabic were hotly debated in Egyptian intellectual circles. Proposals ranged from developing neologisms to replace archaic terminology in Modern Standard Arabic to the simplification of syntactical and morphological rules and the introduction of colloquialisms to even complete "Egyptianization" (tamr) by abandoning the so-called Modern Standard Arabic in favor of Masri or Egyptian Arabic.[29]

Proponents of language reform in Egypt included Qasim Amin, who also wrote the first Egyptian feminist treatise, former President of the Egyptian University, Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed, and noted intellectual Salama Moussa. They adopted a modernist, secular approach and disagreed with the assumption that Arabic was an immutable language because of its association with the Qur'an. The first modern Egyptian novel in which the dialogue was written in the vernacular was Muhammad Husayn Haykal's Zaynab in 1913. It was only in 1966 that Mustafa Musharafa's Kantara Who Disbelieved was released, the first novel to be written entirely in Egyptian Arabic.[30] Other notable novelists, such as Ihsan Abdel Quddous and Yusuf Idris, and poets, such as Salah Jahin, Abdel Rahman el-Abnudi and Ahmed Fouad Negm, helped solidify vernacular literature as a distinct literary genre.[29]

Amongst certain groups within Egypt's elite, Egyptian Arabic enjoyed a brief period of rich literary output. That dwindled with the rise of Pan-Arabism, which had gained popularity in Egypt by the second half of the twentieth century, as demonstrated by Egypt's involvement in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War under King Farouk of Egypt. The Egyptian revolution of 1952, led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser, further enhanced the significance of Pan-Arabism, making it a central element of Egyptian state policy. The importance of Modern Standard Arabic was reemphasised in the public sphere by the revolutionary government, and efforts to accord any formal language status to the Egyptian vernacular were ignored. Egyptian Arabic was identified as a mere dialect, one that was not spoken even in all of Egypt, as almost all of Upper Egypt speaks Sa'idi Arabic. Though the revolutionary government heavily sponsored the use of the Egyptian vernacular in films, plays, television programmes, and music, the prerevolutionary use of Modern Standard Arabic in official publications was retained.[]

Linguistic commentators[who?] have noted the multi-faceted approach of the Egyptian revolutionaries towards the Arabic language. Whereas Egypt's first president, Mohammed Naguib exhibited a preference for using Modern Standard Arabic in his public speeches, his successor, Gamal Abdel Nasser was renowned for using the vernacular and for punctuating his speeches with traditional Egyptian words and expressions. Conversely, Modern Standard Arabic was the norm for state news outlets, including newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. That was especially true of Egypt's national broadcasting company, the Arab Radio and Television Union, which was established with the intent of providing content for the entire Arab world, not merely Egypt, hence the need to broadcast in the standard, rather than the vernacular, language. The Voice of the Arabs radio station, in particular, had an audience from across the region, and the use of anything other than Modern Standard Arabic was viewed as eminently incongruous.

In a study of three Egyptian newspapers (Al-Ahram, Al-Masry Al-Youm, and Al-Dustour) Zeinab Ibrahim concluded that the total number of headlines in Egyptian Arabic in each newspaper varied. Al-Ahram did not include any. Al-Masry Al-Youm had an average of 5% of headlines in Egyptian, while Al-Dustour averaged 11%.[31]

As the status of Egyptian Arabic as opposed to Classical Arabic can have such political and religious implications in Egypt,[how?] the question of whether Egyptian Arabic should be considered a "dialect" or "language" can be a source of debate. In sociolinguistics, Egyptian Arabic can be seen as one of many distinct varieties that, despite arguably being languages on abstand grounds, are united[how?][according to whom?] by a common dachsprache in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA).


During the early 1900s many portions of the Bible were published in Egyptian Arabic. These were published by the Nile Mission Press. By 1932 the whole New Testament and some books of the Old Testament had been published in Egyptian Arabic in Arabic script.[32]

Spoken varieties

Sa'?di Arabic is a different variety than Egyptian Arabic in and ISO 639-3 and in other sources,[33] and the two varieties have limited mutual intelligibility. It carries little prestige nationally but continues to be widely spoken, with 19,000,000 speakers.[34]

The traditional division between Upper and Lower Egypt and their respective differences go back to ancient times. Egyptians today commonly call the people of the north ba?arwa ([b?'w?]) and those of the south ?a?ayda ([s'jd?]). The differences throughout Egypt, however, are more wide-ranging and do not neatly correspond to the simple division. The language shifts from the eastern to the western parts of the Nile Delta, and the varieties spoken from Giza to Minya are further grouped into a Middle Egypt cluster. Despite the differences, there are features distinguishing all the Egyptian Arabic varieties of the Nile Valley from any other varieties of Arabic. Such features include reduction of long vowels in open and unstressed syllables, the postposition of demonstratives and interrogatives, the modal meaning of the imperfect and the integration of the participle.[35]

The Western Egyptian Bedawi Arabic variety[36] of the western desert differs from all other Arabic varieties in Egypt in that it linguistically is part of Maghrebi Arabic.[37] Northwest Arabian Arabic is also distinct from Egyptian Arabic.[38]

Regional variation

Egyptian Arabic varies regionally across its sprachraum, with certain characteristics being noted as typical of the speech of certain regions.


The dialect of Alexandria (West Delta) is noted for certain shibboleths separating its speech from that of Cairo (South Delta). The ones that are most frequently noted in popular discourse are the use of the word falafel as opposed to ?a`meyya for the fava-bean fritters common across the country and the pronunciation of the word for the Egyptian pound as ['?eni], rather than the Cairene [?e'ne:] (closer to the pronunciation of the origin of the term, the British guinea). The speech of the older Alexandrian families is also noted for use of the first-person plural even when they speak in the singular, a feature of Maghrebi Arabic.

Port Said

Port Said's dialect (East Delta) is noted for a "heavier", more guttural sound, compared to other regions of the country.

Rural Nile Delta

The dialect of the Fellah in Northern Egypt is noted for a distinct accent, replacing the urban pronunciations of ? [gi:m] and ? [?a:f] with [?i:m] and [ga:f] respectively, but that is not true of all rural dialects, a lot of them do not have such replacement. The dialect also has many grammatical differences when contrasted to urban dialects.[39]


Egyptian Arabic has a phonology that differs significantly from that of other varieties of Arabic, and has its own inventory of consonants and vowels.



In contrast to CA and MSA, Egyptian Arabic nouns are not inflected for case and lack nunation (with the exception of certain fixed phrases in the accusative case, such as ['?okn], "thank you"). As all nouns take their pausal forms, singular words and broken plurals simply lose their case endings. In sound plurals and dual forms, where, in MSA, difference in case is present even in pausal forms, the genitive/accusative form is the one preserved. Fixed expressions in the construct state beginning in abu, often geographic names, retain their -u in all cases.[40]


Most common broken plural patterns
Singular Plural Notes Examples
CVCCVC(a) CaCaaCiC any four-character root with short second vowel maktab, makaatib "desk, office"; markib, maraakib "boat"; ma?bax, ma?aabix "kitchen"; mas?ala, masaa?il "matter"; maa?, ma?aa?i? "place"; mas?a?, masaa?i? "theater"; tazka?a, tazaakir "ticket"; ?iswira, ?asaawir "bracelet"; mu?kila, ma?aakil "problem"; muulid, mawaalid "(holy) birthday"; maktaba, maktabaa "stationary";
CVCCVVC(a) CaCaCiiC any four-character root with long second vowel fustaan, fasatiin "dress"; muftaa?, mafatii? "key"; fingaan, fanagiin "cup"; sikkiina, sakakiin "knife"; tamriin, tamariin "exercise"; siggaada, sagagiid "carpet"; magmuu?, magamii? "total"; ma?ruuf, ma?a?iif "expense"; maskiin, masakiin "poor, pitiable"
CaC(i)C, CiCC, CeeC (< *CayC) CuCuuC very common for three-character roots dars, duruus "lesson"; daxl, duxuul "income"; da?n, du?uun "chin"; ?eef, ?uyuuf "guest"; ?ir?, ?uruu? "molar tooth"; fann, funuun "art"; far?, furuu? "difference"; fa?l, fu?uul "class, chapter"; geeb, guyuub "pocket"; gee?, guyuu? "army"; gild, guluud "leather"; ?all, ?uluul "solution"; ?arb, ?uruub "war"; ?a, ?u?uu? "right"; malik, muluuk "king"
CaC(a)C, CiCC, CuCC, CooC (< *CawC) ?aCCaaC very common for three-character roots durg, ?ad?aag "drawer"; du, ?ad?aa? "shower"; film, ?aflaam "film"; mi, ?am?aa? "comb"; mitr, ?amtaa? "meter"; gism, ?agsaam; guz?, ?agzaa? "part"; muxx, ?amxaax "brain"; nah?, ?anhaa? "river"; door, ?adwaa? "(one's) turn, floor (of building)"; noo?, ?anwaa? "kind, sort"; yoom, ?ayyaam "day"; nu, ?an?aa? "half"; qism, ?aq?aam "division"; wa?t, ?aw?aat "time"; fa?a?, ?af?aa? "joy, wedding"; ga?as, ?ag?aas "bell"; ma?a?, ?am?aa? "rain"; taman, ?atmaan "price"; walad, ?awlaad "boy"
CaaC, CuuC ?aCwaaC variant of previous ?aal, ?a?waal "state, condition"; nuur, ?anwaa? "light"
CaCCa, CooCa (< *CawCa) CiCaC, CuCaC CaCCa < Classical CaCCa (not CaaCiCa) gazma, gizam "shoe"; dawla, duwal "state, country"; ?alla, ?ilal "pot"; ?ooka, ?uwak "fork"; taxta, tuxat "blackboard"
CiCCa CiCaC ?ia, ?i?a? "allotment"; ?ia, ?i?a? "piece"; min?a, mina? "scholarship"; nimra, nimar "number"; qia, qi?a? "story"
CuCCa CuCaC fu?ma, fu?am "shape, form"; fua, fu?a? "chance"; fus?a, fusa? "excursion"; fuu?a, fuwa? "towel"; nukta, nukat "joke"; ?ua, ?u?a? "cat"; mudda, mudad "period (of time)"
CVCVVC(a) CaCaayiC three-character roots with long second vowel sigaa?a, sagaayir "cigarette"; gariida, ga?aayid "newspaper"; gimiil, gamaayil "favor"; ?abiib, ?abaayib "lover"; ?arii?a, ?araayi? "destructive fire"; ?a?ii?a, ?a?aayi? "fact, truth"; natiiga, nataayig "result"; xa?ii?a, xa?aayi? "map"; zibuun, zabaayin "customer"
CaaCiC, CaCCa CawaaCiC CaCCa < Classical CaaCiCa (not CaCCa) ?aamil, ?awaamil "pregnant"; haanim, hawaanim "lady"; gaami?, gawaami? "mosque"; maani?, mawaani? "obstacle"; fakha, fawaakih "fruit"; ?adsa, ?awaadis "accident"; fayda, fawaayid "benefit"; ?aari?, ?awaari? "street"; xaatim, xawaatim "ring"
CaaCiC CuCCaaC mostly occupational nouns kaatib, kuttaab "writer"; saakin, sukkaan "inhabitant"; saayi?, suwwaa? "tourist";
CaCiiC CuCaCa adjectives and occupational nouns fa?iir, fu?a?a "poor"; nabiih, nubaha "intelligent"; na?ii?, nu?a?a "active"; ra?iis, ru?asa "president"; safiir, sufa?a "ambassador"; waziir, wuza?a "minister"; xabiir, xuba?a "expert"; ?aalib, ?alaba "student"
CaCiiC/CiCiiC CuCaaC adjectives gamiil, gumaal "beautiful"; na?ii?, nu?aa? "active"; ni?iif, nu?aaf "clean"; tixiin, tuxaan "fat"
Secondary broken plural patterns
Singular Plural Notes Examples
CVCCVVC CaCaCCa occupational nouns tilmiiz, talamza "student"; ?ustaaz, ?asatza "teacher"; simsaa?, samas?a "broker"; duktoor, dakatra "doctor"
CaCVVC CawaaCiiC qamuus, qawamiis "dictionary"; ma?aad, mawa?iid "appointment"; ?abuu?, ?awabii? "line, queue"; me?war, ma?aweer "Walk, Appointment"
CaCaC CiCaaC gamal, gimaal "camel"; gabal, gibaal "mountain, hill"
CaCC ?aCCuC ?ah?, ?a?hur "month"
CiCaaC, CaCiiC(a) CuCuC kitaab, kutub "book"; madiina, mudun "city"
CaCC(a) CaCaaCi ma?na, ma?aani "meaning"; makwa, makaawi "iron"; ?ahwa, ?ahaawi "coffee"; ?a, ?a?aa?i "ground, land"
CaaCa, CaaCi, CaCya CawaaCi ?aa?a, ?awaa?i "alley"; naadi, nawaadi "club"; na?ya, nawaa?i "side"
CaCaC, CiCaaC ?aCCiCa/?iCCiCa ?izaam, ?a?zima "belt"; masal, ?amsila "example"; sabat, ?isbita "basket"
CiCiyya CaCaaya hidiyya, hadaaya "gift"
CaaC CiCaaC faa?, firaan "mouse"; gaa?, giraan "neighbor"; xaal, xilaan "maternal uncle"

Color/defect nouns

Examples of "color and defect" nouns
Meaning (template) green blue black white deaf blind one-eyed
Masculine ?aCCaC ?ax?a? ?azra? ?iswid ?abya? ?aa? ?a?ma ?a?wa?
Feminine CaCCa xaa zar?a sooda bee?a ?aa ?amya ?oo?a
Plural CuCC xu?r zur? suud bii? ?ur? ?umy ?uur

A common set of nouns referring to colors, as well as a number of nouns referring to physical defects of various sorts (?a?la? "bald"; ?aa? "deaf"; ?ax?as "dumb"), take a special inflectional pattern, as shown in the table. Note that only a small number of common colors inflect this way: ?a?ma? "red"; ?azra? "blue"; ?ax?a? "green"; ?a?fa? "yellow"; ?abya? "white"; ?iswid "black"; ?asma? "brown-skinned, brunette"; ?aa? "blond(e)". The remaining colors are invariable, and mostly so-called nisba adjectives derived from colored objects: bunni "brown" (< bunn "coffee powder"); ?amaadi "gray" (< ?amaad "ashes"); banafsigi "purple" (< banafsig "violet"); burtu?aani "orange" (< burtu?aan "oranges"); zibiibi "maroon" (< zibiib "raisins"); etc., or of foreign origin: bee? "beige" from the French; bamba "pink" from Turkish pembe.[41]


Forms of the independent and clitic pronouns
Meaning Subject Direct object/Possessive Indirect object
After vowel After 1 cons. After 2 cons. After vowel After 1 cons. After 2 cons.
Normal + ? + l- Normal + ? + l- Normal + ? + l- Normal + ? Normal + ? Normal + ?
"my" (nominal) -- - ?ya -i --
"I/me" (verbal) ána - ?ni -íni - ?li -íli
"you(r) (masc.)" ínta - ?k -ak - ?lak -ílak
"you(r) (fem.)" ínti - ?ki -ik -ki -ik -iki - ?lik -lkí -lik -likí -ílik -ilkí
"he/him/his" huwwa - ? -hu -u -hu -u -uhu - ?lu -ílu
"she/her" hiyya - ?ha -áha - ?lha -láha -ílha
"we/us/our" í?na - ?na -ína - ?lna -lína -ílna
"you(r) (pl.)" íntu - ?ku -úku - ?lku -lúku -ílku
"they/them/their" humma - ?hum -úhum - ?lhum -lúhum -ílhum
Examples of possessive constructs
Base Word béet
Construct Base béet- biyúut- bánk- sikkíin(i)t- mi?áat- ?abúu- ?idée-
"my ..." béet-i biyúut-i bánk-i sikkínt-i mi?áat-i ?abúu-ya ?idáy-ya
"your (masc.) ..." béet-ak biyúut-ak bánk-ak sikkínt-ak mi?áat-ak ?abúu-k ?idée-k
"your (fem.) ..." béet-ik biyúut-ik bánk-ik sikkínt-ik mi?áat-ik ?abúu-ki ?idée-ki
"his ..." béet-u biyúut-u bánk-u sikkínt-u mi?áat-u ?abúu-(h) ?idée-(h)
"her ..." bét-ha biyút-ha bank-áha sikkinít-ha mi?át-ha ?abúu-ha ?idée-ha
"our ..." bét-na biyút-na bank-ína sikkinít-na mi?át-na ?abúu-na ?idée-na
"your (pl.) ..." bét-ku biyút-ku bank-úku sikkinít-ku mi?át-ku ?abúu-ku ?idée-ku
"their ..." bét-hum biyút-hum bank-úhum sikkinít-hum mi?át-hum ?abúu-hum ?idée-hum
Suffixed prepositions
Base Word fi
"by, in, with"
"in the
possession of,
to have"
"... me" fíy-ya bíy-ya líy-ya wayyáa-ya ?aláy-ya ?ánd-i mínn-i
"... you (masc.)" fíi-k bíi-k líi-k, l-ak wayyáa-k ?alée-k ?ánd-ak mínn-ak
"... you (fem.)" fíi-ki bíi-ki líi-ki, li-ki wayyáa-ki ?alée-ki ?ánd-ik mínn-ik
"... him" fíi-(h) bíi-(h) líi-(h), l-u(h) wayyáa-(h) ?alée-(h) ?ánd-u mínn-u
"... her" fíi-ha bíi-ha líi-ha, la-ha wayyáa-ha ?alée-ha ?and-áha minn-áha, mín-ha
"... us" fíi-na bíi-na líi-na, li-na wayyáa-na ?alée-na ?and-ína minn-ína
"... you (pl.)" fíi-ku bíi-ku líi-ku, li-ku wayyáa-ku ?alée-ku ?and-úku minn-úku, mín-ku
"... them" fíi-hum bíi-hum líi-hum, li-hum wayyáa-hum ?alée-hum ?and-úhum minn-úhum, mín-hum

Egyptian Arabic object pronouns are clitics, in that they attach to the end of a noun, verb, or preposition, with the result forming a single phonological word rather than separate words. Clitics can be attached to the following types of words:

  • A clitic pronoun attached to a noun indicates possession: béet "house", béet-i "my house"; sikkíina "knife", sikkínt-i "my knife"; ?ább "father", ?abúu-ya "my father". Note that the form of a pronoun may vary depending on the phonological form of the word being attached to (ending with a vowel or with one or two consonants), and the noun being attached to may also have a separate "construct" form before possessive clitic suffixes.
  • A clitic pronoun attached to a preposition indicates the object of the preposition: minno "from it (masculine object)", ?aleyha "on it (feminine object)"
  • A clitic pronoun attached to a verb indicates the object of the verb: ?úft "I saw", ?úft-u "I saw him", ?uft-áha "I saw her".

With verbs, indirect object clitic pronouns can be formed using the preposition li- plus a clitic. Both direct and indirect object clitic pronouns can be attached to a single verb: agíib "I bring", agíb-hu "I bring it", agib-húu-lik "I bring it to you", m-agib-hu-lkíi-? "I do not bring it to you".


Verbs in Arabic are based on a stem made up of three or four consonants. The set of consonants communicates the basic meaning of a verb. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes and/or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as tense, person, and number, in addition to changes in the meaning of the verb that embody grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive or reflexive.

Each particular lexical verb is specified by two stems, one used for the past tense and one used for non-past tenses along with as subjunctive and imperative moods. To the former stem, suffixes are added to mark the verb for person, number, and gender, while to the latter stem, a combination of prefixes and suffixes are added. (Very approximately, the prefixes specify the person and the suffixes indicate number and gender.) The third person masculine singular past tense form serves as the "dictionary form" used to identify a verb, similar to the infinitive in English (Arabic has no infinitive). For example, the verb meaning "write" is often specified as kátab, which actually means "he wrote". In the paradigms below, a verb will be specified as kátab/yíktib (where kátab means "he wrote" and yíktib means "he writes"), indicating the past stem (katab-) and non-past stem (-ktib-, obtained by removing the prefix yi-).

The verb classes in Arabic are formed along two axes. One axis (described as "form I", "form II", etc.) is used to specify grammatical concepts such as causative, intensive, passive, or reflexive, and involves varying the stem form. For example, from the root K-T-B "write" is derived form I kátab/yíktib "write", form II káttib/yikáttib "cause to write", form III ká:tib/yiká:tib "correspond", etc. The other axis is determined by the particular consonants making up the root. For example, defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant, which is often reflected in paradigms with an extra final vowel in the stem (e.g. ráma/yírmi "throw" from R-M-Y); meanwhile, hollow verbs have a W or Y as the middle root consonant, and the stems of such verbs appear to have only two consonants (e.g. gá:b/yigí:b "bring" from G-Y-B).

Strong verbs

Strong verbs are those that have no "weakness" (e.g. W or Y) in the root consonants. Each verb has a given vowel pattern for Past (a or i) and Present (a or i or u). Combinations of each exist.

Regular verbs, form I

Form I verbs have a given vowel pattern for past (a or i) and present (a, i or u). Combinations of each exist:

Vowel patterns Example
Past Present
a a ?árab - yí?rab to beat
a i kátab - yíktib to write
a u ?álab - yí?lub~yú?lub to order, to demand
i a fíhim - yífham to understand
i i misik - yímsik to hold, to touch
i u sikit - yískut~yúskut to be silent, to shut up
Regular verb, form I, fá?al/yíf?il

Example: kátab/yíktib "write"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st katáb-t katáb-na á-ktib ní-ktib bá-ktib bi-ní-ktib ?á-ktib ?á-ní-ktib
2nd masculine katáb-t katáb-tu tí-ktib ti-ktíb-u bi-tí-ktib bi-ti-ktíb-u ?a-tí-ktib ?a-ti-ktíb-u í-ktib i-ktíb-u
feminine katáb-ti ti-ktíb-i bi-ti-ktíb-i ?a-ti-ktíb-i i-ktíb-i
3rd masculine kátab kátab-u yí-ktib yi-ktíb-u bi-yí-ktib bi-yi-ktíb-u ?a-yí-ktib ?a-yi-ktíb-u
feminine kátab-it tí-ktib bi-tí-ktib ?a-tí-ktib

Note that, in general, the present indicative is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of bi- (bi-a- is elided to ba-). Similarly, the future is formed from the subjunctive by the addition of ?a- (?a-a- is elided to ?a-). The i in bi- or in the following prefix will be deleted according to the regular rules of vowel syncope:

  • híyya b-tíktib "she writes" (híyya + bi- + tíktib)
  • híyya bi-t-?ú:f "she sees" (híyya + bi- + ti?ú:f)
  • an-áktib "I write (subjunctive)" (ána + áktib)

Example: kátab/yíktib "write": non-finite forms

Number/Gender Active Participle Passive Participle Verbal Noun
Masc. Sg. ká:tib maktú:b kitá:ba
Fem. Sg. kátb-a maktú:b-a
Pl. katb-í:n maktub-í:n
Regular verb, form I, fí?il/yíf?al

Example: fíhim/yífham "understand"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st fihím-t fihím-na á-fham ní-fham bá-fham bi-ní-fham ?á-fham ?á-ní-fham
2nd masculine fihím-t fihím-tu tí-fham ti-fhám-u bi-tí-fham bi-ti-fhám-u ?a-tí-fham ?a-ti-fhám-u í-fham i-fhám-u
feminine fihím-ti ti-fhám-i bi-ti-fhám-i ?a-ti-fhám-i i-fhám-i
3rd masculine fíhim fíhm-u yí-fham yi-fhám-u bi-yí-fham bi-yi-fhám-u ?a-yí-fham ?a-yi-fhám-u
feminine fíhm-it tí-fham bi-tí-fham ?a-tí-fham

Boldfaced forms fíhm-it and fíhm-u differ from the corresponding forms of katab (kátab-it and kátab-u due to vowel syncope). Note also the syncope in ána fhím-t "I understood".

Regular verb, form II, fáil/yifáil

Example: dárris/yidárris "teach"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st darrís-t darrís-na a-dárris ni-dárris ba-dárris bi-n-dárris ?a-dárris ?a-n-dárris
2nd masculine darrís-t darrís-tu ti-dárris ti-darrís-u bi-t-dárris bi-t-darrís-u ?a-t-dárris ?a-t-darrís-u dárris darrís-u
feminine darrís-ti ti-darrís-i bi-t-darrís-i ?a-t-darrís-i darrís-i
3rd masculine dárris darrís-u yi-dárris yi-darrís-u bi-y-dárris bi-y-darrís-u ?a-y-dárris ?a-y-darrís-u
feminine darrís-it ti-dárris bi-t-dárris ?a-t-dárris

Boldfaced forms indicate the primary differences from the corresponding forms of katab:

  • The prefixes ti-, yi-, ni- have elision of i following bi- or ?a- (all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way).
  • The imperative prefix i- is missing (again, all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant behave this way).
  • Due to the regular operation of the stress rules, the stress in the past tense forms darrís-it and darrís-u differs from kátab-it and kátab-u.
Regular verb, form III, fá:?il/yifá:?il

Example: sá:fir/yisá:fir "travel"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st safír-t safír-na a-sá:fir ni-sá:fir ba-sá:fir bi-n-sá:fir ?a-sá:fir ?a-n-sá:fir
2nd masculine safír-t safír-tu ti-sá:fir ti-sáfr-u bi-t-sá:fir bi-t-sáfr-u ?a-t-sá:fir ?a-t-sáfr-u sá:fir sáfr-u
feminine safír-ti ti-sáfr-i bi-t-sáfr-i ?a-t-sáfr-i sáfr-i
3rd masculine sá:fir sáfr-u yi-sá:fir yi-sáfr-u bi-y-sá:fir bi-y-sáfr-u ?a-y-sá:fir ?a-y-sáfr-u
feminine sáfr-it ti-sá:fir bi-t-sá:fir ?a-t-sá:fir

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of darris (shown in boldface) are:

  • The long vowel a: becomes a when unstressed.
  • The i in the stem sa:fir is elided when a suffix beginning with a vowel follows.

Defective verbs

Defective verbs have a W or Y as the last root consonant.

Defective verb, form I, fá?a/yíf?i

Example: ráma/yírmi "throw away" (i.e. trash, etc.)

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ramé:-t ramé:-na á-rmi ní-rmi bá-rmi bi-ní-rmi ?á-rmi ?a-ní-rmi
2nd masculine ramé:-t ramé:-tu tí-rmi tí-rm-u bi-tí-rmi bi-tí-rm-u ?a-tí-rmi ?a-tí-rm-u í-rmi í-rm-u
feminine ramé:-ti tí-rm-i bi-tí-rm-i ?a-tí-rm-i í-rm-i
3rd masculine ráma rám-u yí-rmi yí-rm-u bi-yí-rmi bi-yí-rm-u ?a-yí-rmi ?a-yí-rm-u
feminine rám-it tí-rmi bi-tí-rmi ?a-tí-rmi

The primary differences from the corresponding forms of katab (shown in boldface) are:

  • In the past, there are three stems: ráma with no suffix, ramé:- with a consonant-initial suffix, rám- with a vowel initial suffix.
  • In the non-past, the stem rmi becomes rm- before a (vowel initial) suffix, and the stress remains on the prefix, since the stem vowel has been elided.
  • Note also the accidental homonymy between masculine tí-rmi, í-rmi and feminine tí-rm-i, í-rm-i.
Defective verb, form I, fí?i/yíf?a

Example: nísi/yínsa "forget"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st nisí:-t nisí:-na á-nsa ní-nsa bá-nsa bi-ní-nsa ?á-nsa ?a-ní-nsa
2nd masculine nisí:-t nisí:-tu tí-nsa tí-ns-u bi-tí-nsa bi-tí-ns-u ?a-tí-nsa ?a-tí-ns-u í-nsa í-ns-u
feminine nisí:-ti tí-ns-i bi-tí-ns-i ?a-tí-ns-i í-ns-i
3rd masculine nísi nísy-u yí-nsa yí-ns-u bi-yí-nsa bi-yí-ns-u ?a-yí-nsa ?a-yí-ns-u
feminine nísy-it tí-nsa bi-tí-nsa ?a-tí-nsa

This verb type is quite similar to the defective verb type ráma/yírmi. The primary differences are:

  • The occurrence of i and a in the stems are reversed: i in the past, a in the non-past.
  • In the past, instead of the stems ramé:- and rám-, the verb has nisí:- (with a consonant-initial suffix) and nísy- (with a vowel initial suffix). Note in particular the |y| in nísyit and nísyu as opposed to rámit and rámu.
  • Elision of i in nisí:- can occur, e.g. ána nsí:t "I forgot".
  • In the non-past, because the stem has a instead of i, there is no homonymy between masculine tí-nsa, í-nsa and feminine tí-ns-i, í-ns-i.

Note that some other verbs have different stem variations, e.g. mí?i/yím?i "walk" (with i in both stems) and bá?a/yíb?a "become, remain" (with a in both stems). The verb lá?a/yilá:?i "find" is unusual in having a mixture of a form I past and form III present (note also the variations lí?i/yíl?a and lá?a/yíl?a).

Verbs other than form I have consistent stem vowels. All such verbs have a in the past (hence form stems with -é:-, not -í:-). Forms V, VI, X and IIq have a in the present (indicated by boldface below); others have i; forms VII, VIIt, and VIII have i in both vowels of the stem (indicated by italics below); form IX verbs, including "defective" verbs, behave as regular doubled verbs:

  • Form II: wádda/yiwáddi "take away"; ?áwwa/yi?áwwi "strengthen"
  • Form III: ná:da/yiná:di "call"; dá:wa/yidá:wi "treat, cure"
  • Form IV (rare, classicized): ?ár?a/yír?i "please, satisfy
  • Form V: it?áwwa/yit?áwwa "become strong"
  • Form VI: itdá:wa/yitdá:wa "be treated, be cured"
  • Form VII (rare in the Cairene dialect): in?áka/yin?íki "be told"
  • Form VIIt: itnása/yitnísi "be forgotten"
  • Form VIII: i?tára/yi?tíri "buy"
  • Form IX (very rare): i?láww/yi?láww "be/become sweet"
  • Form X: istákfa/yistákfa "have enough"
  • Form Iq: need example
  • Form IIq: need example

Hollow verbs

Hollow have a W or Y as the middle root consonant. Note that for some forms (e.g. form II and form III), hollow verbs are conjugated as strong verbs (e.g. form II ?áyyin/yi?áyyin "appoint" from ?-Y-N, form III gá:wib/yigá:wib "answer" from G-W-B).

Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifí:l

Example: gá:b/yigí:b "bring"

Tense/mood Past Present subjunctive Present indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st gíb-t gíb-na a-gí:b ni-gí:b ba-gí:b bi-n-gí:b ?a-gí:b ?a-n-gí:b
2nd masculine gíb-t gíb-tu ti-gí:b ti-gí:b-u bi-t-gí:b bi-t-gí:b-u ?a-t-gí:b ?a-t-gí:b-u gí:b gí:b-u
feminine gíb-ti ti-gí:b-i bi-t-gí:b-i ?a-t-gí:b-i gí:b-i
3rd masculine gá:b gá:b-u yi-gí:b yi-gí:b-u bi-y-gí:b bi-y-gí:b-u ?a-y-gí:b ?a-y-gí:b-u
feminine gá:b-it ti-gí:b bi-t-gí:b ?a-t-gí:b

This verb works much like dárris/yidárris "teach". Like all verbs whose stem begins with a single consonant, the prefixes differ in the following way from those of regular and defective form I verbs:

  • The prefixes ti-, yi-, ni- have elision of i following bi- or ?a-.
  • The imperative prefix i- is missing.

In addition, the past tense has two stems: gíb- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and gá:b- elsewhere (third person).

Hollow verb, form I, fá:l/yifú:l

Example: ?á:f/yi?ú:f "see"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ?úf-t ?úf-na a-?ú:f ni-?ú:f ba-?ú:f bi-n-?ú:f ?a-?ú:f ?a-n-?ú:f
2nd masculine ?úf-t ?úf-tu ti-?ú:f ti-?ú:f-u bi-t-?ú:f bi-t-?ú:f-u ?a-t-?ú:f ?a-t-?ú:f-u ?ú:f ?ú:f-u
feminine ?úf-ti ti-?ú:f-i bi-t-?ú:f-i ?a-t-?ú:f-i ?ú:f-i
3rd masculine ?á:f ?á:f-u yi-?ú:f yi-?ú:f-u bi-y-?ú:f bi-y-?ú:f-u ?a-y-?ú:f ?a-y-?ú:f-u
feminine ?á:f-it ti-?ú:f bi-t-?ú:f ?a-t-?ú:f

This verb class is identical to verbs such as gá:b/yigí:b except in having stem vowel u in place of i.

Doubled verbs

Doubled verbs have the same consonant as middle and last root consonant, e.g. ?ább/yi?íbb "love" from ?-B-B.

Doubled verb, form I, fá/yifí

Example: ?ább/yi?íbb "love"

Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Present Indicative Future Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st ?abbé:-t ?abbé:-na a-?íbb ni-?íbb ba-?íbb bi-n-?íbb ?a-?íbb ?a-n-?íbb
2nd masculine ?abbé:-t ?abbé:-tu ti-?íbb ti-?íbb-u bi-t-?íbb bi-t-?íbb-u ?a-t-?íbb ?a-t-?íbb-u ?íbb ?íbb-u
feminine ?abbé:-ti ti-?íbb-i bi-t-?íbb-i ?a-t-?íbb-i ?íbb-i
3rd masculine ?ább ?ább-u yi-?íbb yi-?íbb-u bi-y-?íbb bi-y-?íbb-u ?a-y-?íbb ?a-y-?íbb-u
feminine ?ább-it ti-?íbb bi-t-?íbb ?a-t-?íbb

This verb works much like gá:b/yigí:b "bring". Like that class, it has two stems in the past, which are ?abbé:- before consonant-initial suffixes (first and second person) and ?ább- elsewhere (third person). Note that é:- was borrowed from the defective verbs; the Classical Arabic equivalent form would be *?abáb-, e.g. *?abáb-t.

Other verbs have u or a in the present stem: ba/yibú "to look", ?a/yi?á "be right, be proper".

As for the other forms:

  • Form II, V doubled verbs are strong: ?áddid/yi?áddid "limit, fix (appointment)"
  • Form III, IV, VI, VIII doubled verbs seem non-existent
  • Form VII and VIIt doubled verbs (same stem vowel a in both stems): inbáll/yinbáll "be wetted", it?ádd/yit?ádd
  • Form VIII doubled verbs (same stem vowel a in both stems): ihtámm/yihtámm "be interested (in)"
  • Form IX verbs (automatically behave as "doubled" verbs, same stem vowel a in both stems): i?márr/yi?márr "be red, blush", i?láww/yi?láww "be sweet"
  • Form X verbs (stem vowel either a or i in non-past): ista?á/yista?á "deserve" vs. ista?ádd/yista?ídd "be ready", istamárr/yistamírr "continue".

Assimilated verbs

Assimilated verbs have W or Y as the first root consonant. Most of these verbs have been regularized in Egyptian Arabic, e.g. wázan/yíwzin "to weigh" or wí?íl/yíw?al "to arrive". Only a couple of irregular verbs remain, e.g. wí?if/yú?af "stop" and wí?i?/yú?a? "fall" (see below).

Doubly weak verbs

"Doubly weak" verbs have more than one "weakness", typically a W or Y as both the second and third consonants. This term is in fact a misnomer, as such verbs actually behave as normal defective verbs (e.g. káwa/yíkwi "iron (clothes)" from K-W-Y, ?áwwa/yi?áwwi "strengthen" from ?-W-Y, dá:wa/yidá:wi "treat, cure" from D-W-Y).

Irregular verbs

The irregular verbs are as follows:

  • ídda/yíddi "give" (endings like a normal defective verb)
  • wí?if/yú?af "stop" and wí?i?/yú?a? "fall" (á?af, bá?af, ?á?af "I (will) stop"; ú?af "stop!")
  • kal/yá:kul "eat" and xad/yá:xud "take" (kalt, kal, kálit, kálu "I/he/she/they ate", also regular ákal, etc. "he/etc. ate"; á:kul, bá:kul, ?á:kul "I (will) eat", yáklu "they eat"; kúl, kúli, kúlu "eat!"; wá:kil "eating"; mittá:kil "eaten")
  • gé/yí:gi "come". This verb is extremely irregular (with particularly unusual forms in boldface):
Tense/Mood Past Present Subjunctive Imperative
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st gé:-t or gí:-t gé:-na or gí:-na á:-gi ní:-gi
2nd masculine gé:-t or gí:-t gé:-tu or gí:-tu tí:-gi tí:-g-u ta?á:la ta?á:l-u
feminine gé:-ti or gí:-ti tí:-g-i ta?á:l-i
3rd masculine or (also ?íga)
  gá:-ni (or -li)
"he came to me"
but not *gé:-ni
  but gú:-ni (or -li)
"they came to me" and magú:-? "they didn't come"
yí:-gi yí:-g-u
feminine gat (also ?ígat) tí:-gi

Example: gé/yí:gi "come": non-finite forms

Number/Gender Active Participle Verbal Noun
Masc. Sg. gayy nigíyy
Fem. Sg. gáyy-a
Pl. gayy-í:n

Table of verb forms

In this section all verb classes and their corresponding stems are listed, excluding the small number of irregular verbs described above. Verb roots are indicated schematically using capital letters to stand for consonants in the root:

  • F = first consonant of root
  • M = middle consonant of three-consonant root
  • S = second consonant of four-consonant root
  • T = third consonant of four-consonant root
  • L = last consonant of root

Hence, the root F-M-L stands for all three-consonant roots, and F-S-T-L stands for all four-consonant roots. (Traditional Arabic grammar uses F-?-L and F-?-L-L, respectively, but the system used here appears in a number of grammars of spoken Arabic dialects and is probably less confusing for English speakers, since the forms are easier to pronounce than those involving ?.)

The following table lists the prefixes and suffixes to be added to mark tense, person, number and gender, and the stem form to which they are added. The forms involving a vowel-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAv or NPv, are highlighted in silver. The forms involving a consonant-initial suffix, and corresponding stem PAc, are highlighted in gold. The forms involving a no suffix, and corresponding stem PA0 or NP0, are unhighlighted.

Tense/Mood Past Non-Past
Person Singular Plural Singular Plural
1st PAc-t PAc-na a-NP0 ni-NP0
2nd masculine PAc-t PAc-tu ti-NP0 ti-NPv-u
feminine PAc-ti ti-NPv-i
3rd masculine PA0 PAv-u yi-NP0 yi-NPv-u
feminine PAv-it ti-NP0

The following table lists the verb classes along with the form of the past and non-past stems, active and passive participles, and verbal noun, in addition to an example verb for each class.


  • Italicized forms are those that follow automatically from the regular rules of vowel shortening and deletion.
  • Multisyllabic forms without a stress mark have variable stress, depending on the nature of the suffix added, following the regular rules of stress assignment.
  • Many participles and verbal nouns have acquired an extended sense. In fact, participles and verbal nouns are the major sources for lexical items based on verbs, especially derived (i.e. non-Form-I) verbs.
  • Some verb classes do not have a regular verbal noun form; rather, the verbal noun varies from verb to verb. Even in verb classes that do have a regular verbal noun form, there are exceptions. In addition, some verbs share a verbal noun with a related verb from another class (in particular, many passive verbs use the corresponding active verb's verbal noun, which can be interpreted in either an active or passive sense). Some verbs appear to lack a verbal noun entirely. (In such a case, a paraphrase would be used involving a clause beginning with inn.)
  • Outside of Form I, passive participles as such are usually non-existent; instead, the active participle of the corresponding passive verb class (e.g. Forms V, VI, VIIt/VIIn for Forms II, III, I respectively) is used. The exception is certain verbs in Forms VIII and X that contain a "classicized" passive participle that is formed in imitation of the corresponding participle in Classical Arabic, e.g. mistá?mil "using", mustá?mal "used".
  • Not all forms have a separate verb class for hollow or doubled roots. When no such class is listed below, roots of that shape appear as strong verbs in the corresponding form, e.g. Form II strong verb ?áyya?/yi?áyya? "waste, lose" related to Form I hollow verb ?á:?/yi?í:? "be lost", both from root ?-Y-?.
Form Root Type Stem Participle Verbal Noun Example
Past Non-Past Active Passive
Person of Suffix 1st/2nd 3rd
Suffix Type Cons-Initial None Vowel-Initial None Vowel-Initial
Suffix Name PAc PA0 PAv NP0 NPv
I Strong FaMaL FMaL Fá:MiL maFMú:L (varies, e.g.
fáta?/yífta? "open"
FMiL kátab/yíktib "write"
FMuL dáxal/yúdxul "enter"
FiMiL FiML FMaL fíhim/yífham "understand"
FMiL mísik/yímsik "hold, catch"
FMuL síkin/yúskun "reside"
I Defective FaMé: FáMa FaM FMa FM Fá:Mi máFMi (varies, e.g.
FaMy, máFMa)
bá?a/yíb?a "remain"
FMi FM ráma/yírmi "throw"
FiMí: FíMi FíMy FMa FM nísi/yínsa "forget"
FMi FM mí?i/yím?i "walk"
I Hollow FíL Fá:L Fí:L Fá:yiL (mitFá:L, properly
Form VIIt)
(varies, e.g.
Fe:L, Fo:L)
ga:b/yigí:b "bring"
FúL Fú:L ?a:f/yi?ú:f "see"
FíL Fá:L na:m/yiná:m "sleep"
FúL xa:f/yixá:f "fear"
I Doubled FaMMé: FáMM FíMM Fá:MiM maFMú:M (varies, e.g.
?abb/yi?íbb "love"
FúMM ?a/yi?ú "put"
II Strong FaMMaL miFáMMaL taFMí:L ?áyya?/yi?áyya? "change"
FaMMiL miFáMMiL dárris/yidárris "teach"
II Defective FaMMé: FáMMa FáMM FáMMi FáMM miFáMMi taFMíya wárra/yiwárri "show"
III Strong FaMíL Fá:MiL FáML Fá:MiL FáML miFá:MiL miFáMLa zá:kir/yizá:kir "study"
III Defective FaMé: Fá:Ma Fá:M Fá:Mi Fá:M miFá:Mi miFáMya ná:da/yiná:di "call"
IV Strong ?áFMaL FMiL míFMiL iFMá:L ?áab/yí?rib "go on strike"
IV Defective ?aFMé: ?áFMa ?áFM FMi FM míFMi (uncommon) ?áa/yíi "please"
IV Hollow ?aFáL ?aFá:L Fí:L miFí:L ?iFá:La ?afá:d/yifí:d "inform"
IV Doubled ?aFaMMé: ?aFáMM FíMM miFíMM iFMá:M
V Strong itFaMMaL tFaMMaL mitFáMMaL taFáMMuL (or Form II) itmáan/yitmáan "practice"
itFaMMiL tFaMMiL mitFáMMiL itkállim/yitkállim "speak"
V Defective itFaMMé: itFáMMa itFáMM tFáMMa tFáMM mitFáMMi (use Form II) it?áwwa/yit?áwwa "become strong"
VI Strong itFaMíL itFá:MiL itFáML tFá:MiL tFáML mitFá:MiL taFá:MuL (or Form III) it?á:win/yit?á:win "cooperate"
VI Defective itFaMé: itFá:Ma itFá:M tFá:Ma tFá:M mitFá:Mi (use Form III) iddá:wa/yiddá:wa "be treated, be cured"
VIIn Strong inFáMaL nFíMiL nFíML minFíMiL inFiMá:L (or Form I) inbá?a?/yinbí?i? "enjoy oneself"
VIIn Defective inFaMé: inFáMa inFáM nFíMi nFíM minFíMi (use Form I) in?áka/yin?íki "be told"
VIIn Hollow inFáL inFá:L nFá:L minFá:L inFiyá:L (or Form I) inbá:?/yinbá:? "be sold"
VIIn Doubled inFaMMé: inFáMM nFáMM minFáMM inFiMá:M (or Form I) inbáll/yinbáll "be wetted"
VIIt Strong itFáMaL tFíMiL tFíML mitFíMiL itFiMá:L (or Form I) itwágad/yitwígid "be found"
VIIt Defective itFaMé: itFáMa itFáM tFíMi tFíM mitFíMi (use Form I) itnása/yitnísi "be forgotten"
VIIt Hollow itFáL itFá:L tFá:L mitFá:L itFiyá:L (or Form I) itbá:?/yitbá:? "be sold"
VIIt Doubled itFaMMé: itFáMM tFáMM mitFáMM itFiMá:M (or Form I) it?ádd/yit?ádd "be counted"
VIII Strong iFtáMaL FtíMiL FtíML miFtíMiL, muFtáMiL (classicized) muFtáMaL (classicized) iFtiMá:L (or Form I) istálam/yistílim "receive"
VIII Defective iFtaMé: iFtáMa iFtáM FtíMi FtíM miFtíMi, muFtáMi (classicized) (use Form I) i?tára/yi?tíri "buy"
VIII Hollow iFtáL iFtá:L Ftá:L miFtá:L, muFtá:L (classicized) iFtiyá:L (or Form I) ixtá:?/yixtá:? "choose"
VIII Doubled iFtaMMé: iFtáMM FtáMM miFtáMM, muFtáMM (classicized) iFtiMá:M (or Form I) ihtámm/yihtámm "be interested (in)"
IX Strong iFMaLLé: iFMáLL FMáLL miFMíLL iFMiLá:L i?má/yi?má "be red, blush"
X Strong istáFMaL stáFMaL mistáFMaL, mustáFMaL (classicized) istiFMá:L istáab/yistáab "be surprised"
istáFMiL stáFMiL mistáFMiL, mustáFMiL (classicized) mustáFMaL (classicized) istá?mil/yistá?mil "use"
X Defective istaFMé: istáFMa istáFM stáFMa stáFM mistáFMi, mustáFMi (classicized) (uncommon) istákfa/yistákfa "be enough"
X Hollow istaFáL istaFá:L staFí:L mistaFí:L, mistaFí:L (classicized) istiFá:L a ista?á:l/yista?í:l "resign"
X Doubled istaFaMMé: istaFáMM staFáMM mistaFáMM, mustaFáMM (classicized) istiFMá:M ista?á/yista?á "deserve"
staFíMM mistaFíMM, mustaFíMM (classicized) istamá/yistamírr "continue"
Iq Strong FaSTaL miFáSTaL FaSTáLa láxba?/yiláxba? "confuse"
FaSTiL miFáSTiL xárbi?/yixárbi? "scratch"
Iq Defective FaSTé: FáSTa FáST FáSTi FáST miFáSTi (uncommon)
IIq Strong itFaSTaL tFaSTaL mitFáSTaL itFaSTáLa itláxba?/yitláxba? "be confused"
itFaSTiL tFaSTiL mitFáSTiL it?á?lil/yit?á?lil "flare up"
IIq Defective itFaSTé: itFáSTa itFáST tFáSTa tFáST mitFáSTi (uncommon)


One characteristic feature of Egyptian syntax is the two-part negative verbal circumfix /ma-...-?(i)/, which it shares with other North African dialect areas as well as some southern Levantine dialect areas, probably as a result of the influence of Egyptian Arabic on these areas:

  • Past: /'katab/ "he wrote" /ma-katab-?(i)/ "he didn't write"
  • Present: /'bijik-tib/ "he writes" /ma-bjik-tib-?(i)/ "he doesn't write" ?

/ma-/ probably comes from the Arabic negator /ma:/. This negating circumfix is similar in function to the French circumfix ne ... pas. It should also be noted that Coptic and Ancient Egyptian both had negative circumfix.

The structure can end in a consonant /?/ or in a vowel /i/, varying according to the individual or region. Nowadays speakers use /?/. However, /?i/ was sometimes used stylistically, specially in the past, as attested in old films.

The negative circumfix often surrounds the entire verbal composite including direct and indirect object pronouns:

  • /ma-katab-hum-'li:-?/ "he didn't write them to me"

However, verbs in the future tense can instead use the prefix /mi?/:

  • /mi?-?a-'jiktib/ (or /ma-?a-jik'tib?/ "he won't write"

Interrogative sentences can be formed by adding the negation clitic "(mi?)" before the verb:

  • Past: /'katab/ "he wrote"; /mi?-'katab/ "didn't he write?"
  • Present: /'jiktib/ "he writes"; /mi?-bi-'jiktib/ "doesn't he write?"
  • Future: /?a-'jiktib/ "he will write"; /mi?-?a-'jiktib/ "won't he write?"

Addition of the circumfix can cause complex changes to the verbal cluster, due to the application of the rules of vowel syncope, shortening, lengthening, insertion and elision described above:

  • The addition of /ma-/ may trigger elision or syncope:
    • A vowel following /ma-/ is elided: (ixtá:r) "he chose" -> (maxtár?).
    • A short vowel /i/ or /u/ in the first syllable may be deleted by syncope: (kíbir) "he grew" -> (makbír?).
  • The addition of /-?/ may result in vowel shortening or epenthesis:
    • A final long vowel preceding a single consonant shortens: (ixtá:r) "he chose" -> (maxtár?).
    • An unstressed epenthetic /i/ is inserted when the verbal complex ends in two consonants: /kunt/ "I was" -> (makúnti?).
  • In addition, the addition of /-?/ triggers a stress shift, which may in turn result in vowel shortening or lengthening:
    • The stress shifts to the syllable preceding /?/: (kátab) "he wrote" -> (makatáb?).
    • A long vowel in the previously stressed syllable shortens: (?á:fit) "she saw" -> (ma?afít?); (?á:fu) "they saw" or "he saw it" -> (ma?afú:?).
    • A final short vowel directly preceding /?/ lengthens: (?á:fu) "they saw" or "he saw it" -> (ma?afú:?).

In addition, certain other morphological changes occur:

  • (?afú:) "they saw him" -> (ma?afuhú:?) (to avoid a clash with (ma?afú:?) "they didn't see/he didn't see him").
  • (?á:fik) "He saw you (fem. sg.)" -> (ma?afkí:?).
  • (?úftik) "I saw you (fem. sg.)" -> (ma?uftikí:?).


In contrast with Classical Arabic, but much like the other varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic prefers subject-verb-object (SVO) word order; CA and to a lesser extent MSA prefer verb-subject-object (VSO). For example, in MSA "Adel read the book" would be ? ? Qara?a dilu l-kit?b IPA: ['q '?æ:del ol ke'tæ:b] whereas EA would say ? dil ?ara l-kit?b IPA: ['?æ:del '? lke'tæ:b].

Also in common with other Arabic varieties is the loss of unique agreement in the dual form: while the dual remains productive to some degree in nouns, dual nouns are analyzed as plural for the purpose of agreement with verbs, demonstratives, and adjectives. Thus "These two Syrian professors are walking to the university" in MSA (in an SVO sentence for ease of comparison) would be "? ?" Han al-?ustn as-S?riyy?n yam?iy?n ?il? l-mi?ah IPA: [hæ:'zæ:n æl ?ostæ:'zæ:n as su:rej'jæ:n jæm?e'jæ:n '?elæ l?æ:'me?æ], which becomes in EA " ?" il-?ustaz?n il-Suriyy?n d?l biyim?u lil-gam?a, IPA: [el ?ostæ'ze:n el so?ej'ji:n 'do:l be'jem?o lel'?æm?æ].

Unlike most other forms of Arabic, however, Egyptian prefers final placement of question words in interrogative sentences. This is a feature characteristic of the Coptic substratum of Egyptian Arabic.

Coptic substratum

Egyptian Arabic appears to have retained a significant Coptic substratum in its lexicon, phonology, and syntax. Coptic is the latest stage of the indigenous Egyptian language spoken until the mid-17th century when it was finally completely supplanted among Egyptian Muslims and a majority of Copts by the Egyptian Arabic. Some features that Egyptian Arabic shares with the original ancient Egyptian language include certain prefix and suffix verbal conjugations, certain emphatic and glottalized consonants, as well as a large number of biliteral and triliteral lexical correspondences.

A syntactic feature particular[][dubious ] to Egyptian Arabic arguably inherited from Coptic[42] is:

  • Wh words (i.e. "who", "when", "why" remain in their "logical" positions in a sentence rather than being preposed, or moved to the front of the sentence, as in Literary Arabic or English).
    • /r?a:? mas?rI ?imta/ ( ) "When (/?imta/) did he go to Egypt?" (lit. "He went to Egypt when?")
    • /r?a:? mas?rI le:h/ ( ?) "Why (/le:h/) did he go to Egypt? (lit. "He went to Egypt why?")
    • /mi:n r?a:? mas?r/ or /mi:n illi r?a:? mas?r/ ( [?] ?) "Who (/mi:n/) went to Egypt/Cairo? (literally - same order)
The same sentences in Literary Arabic (with all the question words (wh-words) in the beginning of the sentence) would be:
    • ?  /mata: ðahaba ?ila: mis?r/
    • ? ?  /lima ðahaba ?ila: mis?r/
    • ?  /man ðahaba ?ila: mis?r/

Also since Coptic lacked interdental consonants it could possibly have influenced the manifestation of their occurrences in Classical Arabic as their dental counterparts and the emphatic dental respectively. (see consonants)

Sociolinguistic features

Egyptian Arabic is used in most social situations, with Modern Standard and Classical Arabic generally being used only in writing and in highly-religious and/or formal situations. However, within Egyptian Arabic, there is a wide range of variation. El-Said Badawi identifies three distinct levels of Egyptian Arabic based chiefly on the quantity of non-Arabic lexical items in the vocabulary: mmiyyat al-Musaqqaf?n (Cultured Colloquial or Formal Spoken Arabic), mmiyyat al-Mutanawwir?n (Enlightened or Literate Colloquial), and mmiyyat al-'Ummiy?n (Illiterate Colloquial).[43] Cultured Colloquial/Formal Spoken Arabic is characteristic of the educated classes and is the language of discussion of high-level subjects, but it is still Egyptian Arabic; it is characterized by use of technical terms imported from foreign languages and MSA and closer attention to the pronunciation of certain letters (particularly q?f). It is relatively standardized and, being closer to the standard, it is understood fairly well across the Arab world.[43] On the opposite end of the spectrum, Illiterate Colloquial, common to rural areas and to working-class neighborhoods in the cities, has an almost-exclusively Arabic vocabulary; the few loanwords generally are very old borrowings (e.g. gambari, [?æm'bæ?i] "shrimp", from Italian gamberi, "shrimp" (pl.)) or refer to technological items that find no or poor equivalents in Arabic (e.g. ? tel(e)vezy?n/tel(e)fezy?n [tel(e)vez'jo:n, tel(e)fez'jo:n], television).[43] Enlightened Colloquial (mmiyyat al-Mutanawwir?n) is the language of those who have had some schooling and are relatively affluent; loanwords tend to refer to items of popular culture, consumer products, and fashions. It is also understood widely in the Arab world, as it is the lingua franca of Egyptian cinema and television.[43]

In contrast to MSA and most other varieties of Arabic, Egyptian Arabic has a form of the T-V distinction. In the singular, enta/enti is acceptable in most situations, but to address clear social superiors (e.g. older persons, superiors at work, certain government officials), the form ?a?retak/?a?retek, meaning "Your Grace" is preferred (compare Spanish usted).

This use of ?a?retak/?a?retek is linked to the system of honorifics in daily Egyptian speech. The honorific taken by a given person is determined by their relationship to the speaker and their occupation.

Examples of Egyptian honorifics
Honorific IPA Origin/meaning Usage and notes
seyattak [se'jættæk] Standard Arabic siy?datuka, "Your Lordship" Persons with a far higher social standing than the speaker, particularly at work. Also applied to high government officials, including the President. Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency" or "The Most Honourable".
sa?attak [sæ'?ættæk] Standard Arabic sadatuka, "Your Happiness" Government officials and others with significantly higher social standing. Equivalent in governmental contexts "Your Excellency", or "Your Honor" when addressing a judge.
ma?al?k [mæ?æ'li:k] Standard Arabic mal?ka, "Your Highness" Government ministers. Equivalent in practical terms to "Your Excellency" or "The Right Honourable".
?agg/?agga ['?æ?(?)]/['?ææ] Standard Arabic Traditionally, any Muslim who has made the Hajj, or any Christian who has made pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Currently also used as a general term of respect for all elderly.
b?sha ['bæ:?æ] Ottoman Turkish pasha Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Roughly equivalent to "man" or "dude" in informal English speech.
b?h [be:] Ottoman Turkish bey Informal address to a male of equal or lesser social status. Essentially equivalent to but less current than b?sha.
afandi [æ'fændi] Ottoman Turkish efendi Largely archaic address to a male of a less social standard than b?h and b?sha; can be used humorously to social equals or to younger male members of the same family.
h?nem ['hæ:nem] Ottoman Turkish han?m/khanum, "Lady" Address to a woman of high social standing, or esteemed as such by the speaker. Somewhat archaic.
sett ['set(t)] Standard Arabic sayyida(t) "mistress" The usual word for "woman". When used as a term of address, it conveys a modicum of respect.
mad?m [mæ'dæ:m] French madame Respectful term of address for an older or married woman.
?nesa [?æ'nesæ] Standard Arabic ?nisah, "young lady" Semi-formal address to an unmarried young woman.
ost?z [?os'tæ:z] Standard Arabic ust?dh, "professor", "gentleman" Besides actual university professors and schoolteachers, used for experts in certain fields. May also be used as a generic informal reference, as b?h or b?sha.
os?a/as?a ['ost]/['?st] Turkish usta, "master" Drivers and also skilled laborers.
rayyes ['jjes] Standard Arabic ras, "chief" Skilled laborers. The term predates the use of the same word to mean "president", and traditionally referred to the chief of a village.
bash-mohandes [bæ?mo'hændes] Ottoman Turkish ba? mühendis, "chief engineer" Certain types of highly skilled laborers (e.g. electricians).
me?allem [me'?ællem] Standard Arabic mu?allim, "teacher" Most working class men, particularly semi-skilled and unskilled laborers.
?amm ['?æm(m)] Standard Arabic ?amm, "paternal uncle" Older male servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship. It can also be used as a familiar term of address, much like basha. The use of the word in its original meaning is also current, for third-person reference. The second-person term of address to a paternal uncle is ?ammo ['?æmmo]; onkel ['?onkel], from French oncle, may also be used, particularly for uncles unrelated by blood (including spouses of aunts, uncles-in-law, and "honorary" uncles).
d?da ['dæ:dæ] Turkish dad?, "nanny" Older female servants or social subordinates with whom the speaker has a close relationship.
ab? [?æ'be:] Ottoman Turkish abi/a?abey, "elder brother" Male relatives older than the speaker by about 10-15 years. Upper-class, and somewhat archaic.
abla ['bl?] Ottoman Turkish abla, "elder sister" Female relatives older than the speaker by about 10-15 years.

Other honorifics also exist.

In usage, honorifics are used in the second and third person.


Egyptian Arabic has been a subject of study by scholars and laypersons in the past and the present for many reasons, including personal interest, egyptomania, business, news reporting, and diplomatic and political interactions. Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) is now a field of study in both graduate and undergraduate levels in many higher education institutions and universities in the world. When added to academic instruction, Arabic-language schools and university programs provide Egyptian Arabic courses in a classroom fashion, and others facilitate classes for online study.

Sample text

Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Egyptian/Masri (Arabic script; spelling not standardised):

? ? ?,
? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ?.

Franco/Arabic Chat Alphabet (has no strict standard):

el e3lan el 3alami le 72u2 el ensan, el band el awalani
el bani2admin kollohom mawlodin 7orrin we metsawyin fel karama wel 7o2u2. Etwahablohom el 3a2l wel damir, wel mafrud ye3amlo ba3dihom be ro7 el akhaweya.

IPA Phonemic transcription (for comparison with Literary Arabic):

/il ?i?'la:n il ?a:'lami li ?'?u:? il ?in'sa:n | il 'band il ?awwa'la:ni/
/il bani ?ad'mi:n kul'luhum mawlu'di:n ?ur'ri:n wi mitsaw'ji:n fik ka'r?a:ma wil ?u'?u:? || ?etwahab'lohom il'?a?le we dd?a'mi:r wel maf'ru:d? je?amlo ba?'d?i:hom bi'ro:? el ?axa'wejja/

IPA phonemic transcription (for a general demonstration of Egyptian phonology):

/el ?e?'la:n el ?a:'lami le ?'?u:? el ?en'sa:n | el 'band el ?awwa'la:ni/
/el bani ?ad'mi:n kol'lohom mawlo'di:n ?or'ri:n we metsaw'ji:n fel ka'r?a:ma wel ?o'?u:? || ?etwahab'lohom el'?a?le we dd?a'mi:r wel maf'ru:d? je'?amlu ba?'d?i:hom be'ro:? el ?axa'wejja/

IPA phonetic transcription morphologically (in fast speech, long vowels are half-long or without distinctive length):

[el ?e?'læ:n el ?æ'læmi le ?'?u:? el ?en'sæ:n | el 'bænd el ?æwwæ'læ:ni]
[el bæni?æd'mi:n kol'lohom mæwl?'di:n r'ri:n we metsæw'ji:n fel k?':m? wel '?u:? || ?etwæhæb'lohom el'?æ?le we dd?'mi:? wel m?f'?u:d je'?æmlu b'di:hom be'?o:? el ?æxæ'wejjæ]

A suggested alphabet:[44]

El-E?lan el-?alami le ?oquq el-Ensan, el-band el-awwalani:

El-bani?admin kollohom mawludin ?orrin we metsawjin fek-karama wel-?oquq. Etwahablohom el-?aql we?-?amir, wel-mafru? je?amlo baihom be ro? el-acawejja.


Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in the spirit of brotherhood.

Sample words and sentences

  • ? [ez'zæjjæk] ("How are you [m.]")
  • ? [ez'zæjjek] ("How are you [f.]")
  • [ezzæj'joko] ("How are you [pl.]")
  • ['?e: 'dæ] ("What's all this?", "What's the point", "What's this?" - expression of annoyance)
    • Ex.: ? , [entæ bet?ol'lohom ?æ'læjjæ 'kedæ 'le: '?e: dæ] ("Why are you telling them such things about me, what's all this?")
  • ? [x?'l?:s?]: several meanings, though its main meaning is "enough", often adverbial
    • "Stop it!" Ex.: ?, ? [ze'he?te x?'l?:s?] ("I'm annoyed, stop it!")
    • "It's over!", "finally, eventually" ? ? ?, ? Ex.: ['m?mti kæ:net ?aj'jæ:næ w'mæ:tet x?'l?:s?]| ("My mother was ill and died finally." [or "...and it's over now"])
    • "Ok, then!" Ex.: ?, ? [x?'l?:s? ?æ'?u:fæk 'bok] ("I'll see you tomorrow then")
  • ? ['x?:les?] ("at all")
    • ? ? [mæ?ænde'næ:? '?æ:?æ n'?olhæ 'x?:les?] ("We have nothing at all to say")
  • [ke'fæ:jæ] ("It's enough!" or "That's enough")
  • ? ['jæ?ni] ("that's to say" or "meaning" or "y'know")
    • As answer to ? ? [entæ '?æ:mel '(?)e:] ("How do you do [m.]?") (as an answer: [me? '?ædde 'kedæ] "I am so so" or ['nos?se 'nos?] "half half" = ? [me? tæ'mæ:m] "not perfect")
    • ? ? [jæ?ni '?e:] ("What does that mean?")
    • ? ['emtæ h?t'x?ll?s? 'jæ?ni] ("When are you finishing exactly, then?)
  • ['bæ?æ] (particle of enforcement -> "just" in imperative clauses and "well,...then?" in questions)
    • ? ['hæ:to 'bæ?æ] ("Just give it to me!)" ? ['?æmæl '(?)e: 'bæ?æ] or  ['?æmæl '(?)e: 'bæ?æ] ("Well, what did he do then?")

See also

Explanatory notes


  1. ^ Egyptian Arabic at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
  2. ^ (1999). ? ? - ? (in Arabic). .
  3. ^ .. ? ? ? ?. (in Arabic). Retrieved .
  4. ^ Musa, Heba (15 November 2016). ?.. ? ? ? ? ?. . Retrieved .
  5. ^ "Different Arabic Dialects Spoken Around the Arab World". April 15, 2018.
  6. ^ "Disney returns to using Egyptian dialect in dubbing movies". Enterprise.
  7. ^ "Languages Spoken In Egypt". WorldAtlas. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Ondras, Frantisek (2005-04-26). Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Czech Institute of Egyptology. ISBN 9788086277363.
  9. ^ Conversion, Exemption, and Manipulation: Social Benefits and Conversion to Islam in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages: Forcing taxes on those who refuse to convert (PDF), ?Umar is depicted as having ordered that "the poll-tax should be taken from all men who would not become Muslims"
  10. ^ Nishio, Tetsuo. "Word order and word order change of wh-questions in Egyptian Arabic: The Coptic substratum reconsidered". Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference of L'Association Internationale pour la Dialectologie Arabe. Cambridge: University of Cambridge. 1996, pp. 171-179
  11. ^ Bishai, Wilson B. "Coptic grammatical influence on Egyptian Arabic". Journal of the American Oriental Society. No.82, pp. 285-289.
  12. ^ Youssef (2003), below.
  13. ^ 13 ? ? ? [13 foreign languages within the Egyptian Arabic dialect]. ? 22. May 31, 2017.
  14. ^ Dick, Marlin. "TBS 15 The State of the Musalsal: Arab Television Drama and Comedy and the Politics of the Satellite Era by Marlin Dick". Arab Media & Society. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Mahmoud Gaafar, Jane Wightwick (2014).Colloquial Arabic of Egypt: The Complete Course for Beginners.
  16. ^ Ostergren, Robert C.; Bossé, Mathias Le (2011-06-15). The Europeans, Second Edition: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-60918-244-1.
  17. ^ Richardson, Dan (2007-08-02). The Rough Guide to Egypt. Rough Guides UK. ISBN 978-1-84836-798-2.
  18. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). Culture and Customs of Egypt. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-313-31740-8. egyptian arabic influence.
  19. ^ ? ?| | ? ? | e-Learning Al-Azhar University | Learn Arabic. Retrieved .
  20. ^ Islam online on Mahmoud Timor Archived July 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ a b Present Culture in Egypt (in Arabic) and (in Egyptian Arabic) (PDF) by Bayoumi Andil.
  22. ^ Kerstin, Odendahl (August 2015), "World Natural Heritage", Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/e1950, ISBN 978-0-19-923169-0
  23. ^ standard Egyptian Arabic
  24. ^ Haeri (2003)
  25. ^ Jenkins, Siona. Egyptian Arabic Phrasebook. Lonely Planet Publications, 2001. p. 205
  26. ^ The History of Herodotus by George Rawlinson, p.e 9
  27. ^ Zack, Liesbeth. Edition of Daf' al-Isr ? .
  28. ^ "? 2019". ? ? (in Arabic). 2017-04-03. Retrieved .
  29. ^ a b Gershoni, I.; J. Jankowski (1987). Egypt, Islam, and the Arabs. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  30. ^ "Book Review: First novel written in colloquial Arabic republished - Review - Books - Ahram Online".
  31. ^ Ibrahim, Zeinab (1 January 2011). "Cases Of Written Code-Switching In Egyptian Opposition Newspapers". Arabic and the Media. BRILL. pp. 23-45. doi:10.1163/ej.9789004182585.i-303.17. ISBN 9789004187610.
  32. ^ Binder |, Adrian. "The British Civil Engineer who made Jesus speak like an Egyptian: William Willcocks and al-Khabar al-?ayyib bit Yas al-Mas - Biblia Arabica". Retrieved .
  33. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere Register, The Linguasphere Observatory
    William Bright, 1992, The International Encyclopedia of Linguistics, Oxford.
  34. ^ "Arabic, Sa'idi Spoken". Ethnologue.
  35. ^ Versteegh, p. 162
  36. ^ "Arabic, Libyan Spoken".
  37. ^ David Dalby, 1999/2000, The Linguasphere Register, The Linguasphere Observatory
  38. ^ "Arabic, Eastern Egyptian Bedawi Spoken".
  39. ^ Woidich, Manfred (1996-12-31). "Rural Dialect of Egyptian Arabic: An Overview". Égypte/Monde arabe (27-28): 325-354. doi:10.4000/ema.1952. ISSN 1110-5097.
  40. ^ See e.g. Behnstedt & Woidich (2005)
  41. ^ Hinds, Martin (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. Beirut: Librairie du Liban. p. 104.
  42. ^ Nishio, 1996
  43. ^ a b c d Badawi, El-Said; Hinds, Martin (1986). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. Libraire du Liban. pp. VII-X. ISBN 978-1-85341-003-1.
  44. ^

General sources

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T.; A. Fathy Bahig (1978). Comprehensive Study of Egyptian Arabic: Conversation Texts, Folk Literature, Cultural Ethnological and Socio Linguistic Notes. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan. ISBN 0-932098-11-8.
  • Peter, Behnstedt; Manfred Woidich (1985). Die ägyptisch-arabischen Dialekte, vols. I, II. Wiesbaden: L. Reichert.
  • Gary, Judith Olmsted, & Saad Gamal-Eldin. 1982. Cairene Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Lingua Descriptive Studies 6. Amsterdam: North Holland.
  • Haeri, Niloofar (2003). Sacred Language, Ordinary People: Dilemmas of Culture and Politics in Egypt. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-312-23897-5.
  • Harrell, Richard S. 1957. The Phonology of Colloquial Egyptian Arabic. American Council of Learned Societies Program in Oriental Languages Publications Series B, Aids, Number 9. New York: American Council of Learned Societies.
  • Hinds, Martin; El-Said Badawi (1987). A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. French & European Pubns. ISBN 0-8288-0434-6.
  • Mitchell, T. F. 1956. An Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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