Eid Al-Fitr
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Eid Al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr
Eid al-Fitr prayer, Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul - Aug 30, 2011.jpg
Eid m.jpg
Hari Raya lantern.jpg
Clockwise from top: Muslims performing the Eid prayer at Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey; cakes and sweets, which are popularly consumed during the celebration in Algeria; a sparkler being lit during Eid celebrations in Indonesia
Official nameArabic: ‎, romanized'?d al-Fi?r
Also calledFestival of Breaking the Fast, Lesser Eid, Sweet Eid, Sugar Feast
Observed byMuslims
TypeIslamic
SignificanceMarks the end of fasting in Ramadan
CelebrationsEid prayers, charity, social gatherings, festive meals, gift-giving
Date1 Shawwal[1]
2021 date13 May
2022 date3 May
Related toRamadan, Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Fitr ( EED ?l FIT-?r, -⁠r?; Arabic: ‎, romanizedd al-Fi?r, lit.'Feast of Breaking the Fast', IPA: [?i:d al 'fit?r]),[3] is the earlier of the two official holidays celebrated within Islam (the other being Eid al-Adha). The religious holiday is celebrated by Muslims worldwide because it marks the end of the month-long dawn-to-sunset fasting of Ramadan.[4] It falls on the first day of Shawwal in the Islamic calendar; this does not always fall on the same Gregorian day, as the start of any lunar Hijri month varies based on when the new moon is sighted by local religious authorities. The holiday is known under various other names in different languages and countries around the world. The day is also called Lesser Eid, or simply Eid,[5][6]

Eid al-Fitr has a particular salat (Islamic prayer) that consists of two rakats (units) generally performed in an open field or large hall. It may only be performed in congregation (jamat) and features six additional Takbirs (raising of the hands to the ears while saying "All?hu ?Akbar", meaning "God is the greatest") in the Hanafi school of Sunni Islam: three at the start of the first rakat and three just before ruk in the second rakat.[7] Other Sunni schools usually have 12 Takbirs, similarly split in groups of seven and five. In Shia Islam, the salat has six Takbirs in the first rakat at the end of qira'a, before ruk, and five in the second.[8] Depending on the juristic opinion of the locality, this salat is either far? (, obligatory), musta?abb (strongly recommended) or mand?b (, preferable). After the salat, Muslims celebrate the Eid al-Fitr in various ways[9] with food ("Eid cuisine") being a central theme, which also gives the holiday the nickname "Sweet Eid" or "Sugar Feast".[10][11]

History

Eid al-Fitr was originated by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. According to certain traditions, these festivals were initiated in Medina after the migration of Muhammad from Mecca. Anas, a well-known companion of the Islamic prophet, narrated that, when Muhammad arrived in Medina, he found people celebrating two specific days in which they entertained themselves with recreation and merriment. At this, Muhammad remarked that Allah had fixed two days of festivity: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.[12]

Native names

  • Acehnese: Uroë Raya Puasa Rojar Eid ("Fastival of breaking fasting")
  • Albanian: Fitër Bajrami or, Bajrami i madh ("Big festival")
  • Arabic: ; 'Id al-Fitr ("Happiness of breaking fasting")
  • Bengali? ; Rojar Eid ("Eid of the fasting")
  • Bosnian: Bajram
  • Chinese: traditional- , simple: ; K?i zh?i jié ("Festival for the end of fasting")
  • Greek? ?
  • Hebrew: -?
  • Hausa : Karamar Sallah ("Little Eid")
  • Hindi? -; Eid ul fitr ("Happiness of breaking fasting")
  • Sylheti (Bengali-Assamese script)? ; Rozar Id ("Eid of the fasting")
  • Tamil: ; Npu perun
  • Turkish: Ramazan Bayrami ("Festival of Ramadan") or ?eker Bayrami ("Festival of Sweets")
  • Urdu: ?
  • Kashmiri ? ? ("Little Eid")
  • Malay: Raya Aidilfitri

General rituals

Traditionally, Eid al-Fitr begins at sunset on the night of the first sighting of the crescent moon. If the moon is not observed immediately after the 29th day of the previous lunar month (either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets), then the holiday is celebrated the following day.[13] Eid al-Fitr is celebrated for one to three days, depending on the country.[14] It is forbidden to fast on the Day of Eid, and a specific prayer is nominated for this day.[15] As an obligatory act of charity, money is paid to the poor and the needy (Zakat-ul-fitr) before performing the 'Eid prayer.[16]

Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Istiqlal Mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia

Eid prayer and eidgah

The Eid prayer is performed by the congregation in an open area such as a field, community center, or mosque.[14] No call to prayer is given for this Eid prayer, and it consists of only two units of prayer, with a variable amount of Takbirs and other prayer elements depending on the branch of Islam observed. The Eid prayer is followed by the sermon and then a supplication asking for Allah's forgiveness, mercy, peace and blessings for all living beings across the world. The sermon also instructs Muslims as to the performance of rituals of Eid, such as the zakat.[17] The sermon of Eid takes place after the Eid prayer, unlike Friday prayer which comes first before prayer. Some imams believe that listening to the sermon at Eid is optional.[18] After the prayers, Muslims visit their relatives, friends, and acquaintances or hold large communal celebrations in homes, community centers, or rented halls.[14]

Many Muslims often bring prayer rugs to the Mosque on Eid al-Fitr.

Sunni procedure

As ritual dictates, Sunnis praise Allah in a loud voice while going to the Eid prayer:

All?hu Akbar, All?hu Akbar, All?hu Akbar. L? il?ha illà l-L?h wal-L?hu akbar, Allahu akbar walil-L?hi l-?amd

Recitation ceases when they get to the place of Eid or once the Imam commences activities.[19]

The prayer starts by doing "Niyyat" for the prayer, before the Takbir is said by the Imam and his followers. Next, "Takbeer-e-Tehreema" is recited, followed by Allahu Akbar three times, raising hands to the ears and dropping them each time, except for the last when the hands are folded. The Imam then reads the Surah-e-Fatiha, as well as other Surah. The congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. This completes the first rakat.

The congregation rises up and folds their hands for the second rakat, during which the Imam recites Surah Fatiha and another Surah. After this, three Takbirs are called out just before the Ruku, each time raising hands to the ears and dropping them. For the fourth time, the congregation says Allah o Akbar and subsequently goes into the Ruku. The rest of the prayer is completed in the regular manner. This completes the Eid prayer. After the prayer, there is a khutbah.[20]

Shia procedure

Prayer starts with the Niyyat followed by five Takbirs. During every Takbir of the first rakat, a special Dua is recited. Then, the Imam recites S?rat al-F?ti?ah and Surat Al-'A`lá and the congregation performs Ruku and Sujud as in other prayers. In the second Rakat, the same above steps (five Takbeers, S?rat al-F?ti?ah and Surat Al-'A`lá, Ruku and Sujud) are repeated. After the prayer, Khutbah starts.[21]

Post-prayer celebration

A panorama in 12 folds showing an imperial Eid al-Fitr procession by Bahadur Shah II (Mughal Empire, present day Indian subcontinent/Afghanistan)

During the Eid celebration, Muslims greet each other by saying 'Eid Mubarak', which is Arabic for "Blessed Eid". As it comes after a month of fasting, sweet dishes and foods are often prepared and consumed during the celebration. Muslims typically decorate their homes, and are also encouraged to forgive each other and seek forgiveness. In countries with large Muslim populations, it is normally a public holiday with most schools and businesses closed for the day. Practices differ by country and region.[22]

Practices and culture by country

Russia

Illuminated lights of Qolsharif Mosque on Eid al-Fitr in the city of Kazan, Russia

In Russia where 10 million Muslims reside, less than 1% of total following, Eid al-Fitr is often known as Uraza Bayram (Russian: -) and is a public holiday in the republics of Adygea, Bashkortostan, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia, Tatarstan, Chechnya and Crimea.[23] Most festive dishes consist of mutton, but salads and various soups are also popular. As the Muslim population is diverse, traditional festive dishes differ between regions - for example in Tatarstan pancakes are popularly baked.[24]

Russian Muslims go to festive worships at mosques in the morning of Eid al-Fitr, after which they often visit older relatives as a sign of respect. In the North Caucasian republics, children popularly go past various houses with a bag to get it filled with candy, specially stored by locals for the celebration. In Dagestan, eggs with bright stickers is a popular traditional dish served there during Eid al-Fitr. People generally dress more during this day - women choose bright dresses with beads while older people would wear papakhas.[25]

In many places in the country master classes are also hosted where families take part in activities such as embroidery and clay making.[25]

North and South America

United States

Muslim US soldiers performing the Eid prayer

In New York City, alternate side parking (street cleaning) regulations are suspended on Eid. Beginning in 2016, New York City public schools also remain closed on Eid.[26] In Houston, Texas, the annual prayers are offered at the George R. Brown Convention Center in downtown Houston, organised by the Islamic Society of Greater Houston (ISGH).[] In other states, with smaller Muslim populations, it is common that schools will remain open on Eid al-Fitr.

The United States Postal Service (USPS) has issued several Eid postage stamps, across several years--starting in 2001--honoring "two of the most important festivals in the Islamic calendar: Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha." Eid stamps were released in 2001-2002, 2006-2009, and 2011.[27][28][29][30]

Trinidad and Tobago

The Muslim population of Trinidad and Tobago popularly eat Sawine/Vermicelli, a sweet dessert, to mark the celebration,[31] but the feast also consists of curries, rotis, and chicken and curry goat.[32]

Suriname, Guyana

Eid al-Fitr is a public holiday in Suriname and Guyana.[33]

Argentina

In Argentina, Eid (Spanish: Fiesta del Fin del Ayuno) is officially a non-working holiday for Muslims.

Middle East

A girl with henna on her hand, during the Eid prayer

Arab States of the Persian Gulf

In the United Arab Emirates and other Persian Gulf countries like Qatar, men would typically buy new Kandora (traditional white long robe) or dye their existing Kandoras with walnut oil. Women would wear special clothes for the occasion along with special perfumes and braids. Most majlises would offer fruits, dates, tea or coffee to visitors. Those who live in rural areas tend to celebrate more modestly.[34] Buildings, shops, roads and houses in UAE cities get decorated in bright festive lights.[35] Many shows such as theatres would also occur.[36]

In Bahrain, families often celebrate the festival with an eid dinner consisting of quzi or machboos rice dishes, while popular sweets include halwa or khanfroosh (see Bahraini cuisine). Men typically wear thawbs and women wear abayas, the latter also painting Arabic henna tattoos on their hands or feet.[37]

Saudis decorate their homes and prepare sumptuous meals for family and friends. They prepare new clothes and shoes for the festival. Eid festivities in Saudi Arabia may vary culturally depending on the region, but one common thread in all celebrations is generosity and hospitality. It is a common Saudi tradition for families to gather at the patriarchal home after the Eid prayers. Before the special Eid meal is served, young children will line up in front of each adult family member, who dispense money as gifts to the children.[38]

Omanis would typically eat foods such as shuwa with kahwa coffee (see Omani cuisine). In some places such as Ibri, folklore songs and traditional dancing are often performed.[39]

Iran

Eid al-Fitr feast postage stamp of Iran (1984)

In Iran, at the last days of the month of Ramadan, several groups of experts representing the office of Ayatollah Khamenei go to the different zones of the country to determine the date of Eid al-Fitr.[40] Iranian Muslims take part in the Eid al-Fitr prayer and pay the Zakat al-Fitr.[41] The Eid al-Fitr prayer, and the following sermon, has been led by Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei, Supreme Leader of Iran, at Tehran's Imam Khomeini Grand Prayer Grounds (Mossalla).[42] The celebration is typically marked by a one- or two-day national holiday.[43]

Turkey

Traditional Bayram wishes from the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, stating "Let us love, Let us be loved", in the form of mahya lights stretched across the minarets of the Blue Mosque in Istanbul

In Turkey, nationwide celebrated holidays are referred to as bayram, and Eid al-Fitr is referred to as both Ramazan Bayram? ("Ramadan Bayram") and ?eker Bayram? ("Bayram of Sweets/Sugar"). It is a time for people to attend prayer services, put on their best clothes (referred to as bayraml?k, often purchased just for the occasion), visit all their loved ones (such as relatives, neighbors, and friends), and pay their respects to the deceased with organised visits to cemeteries. It is also customary for young children to go around their neighborhood, door to door, and wish everyone a "Happy Bayram", for which they are awarded candy, chocolates, traditional sweets such as baklava and Turkish Delight, or a small amount of money at every door.[44]

Mosques, minarets and public fountains tend to be lighted up for the occasion, and popular events such as Sufi music concerts and dervish dancing ceremonies are held in the nights.[45]

Egypt

Colorful Ramadan lanterns (fanous) at a souk in Egypt

Egyptians spend the first day of Eid al-Fitr to gather all family members and celebrate the Eid at public gardens. It is customary for children to also receive an Eidi, a small sum of money to be spent on activities throughout the Eid.[46] Egyptians like to celebrate with others, so the streets are always crowded during the days and nights of Eid.[47]

Allegations of heightened incidence of sexual assault during Eid

There were several accounts of a heightened number of sexual assaults and rapes during the 2006 Egyptian Eid.[48][49][50][51] Subsequent reports indicated that the phenomenon continued to grow in following years.[52][53][54][55] One Egyptian journalist wrote "The Eid al-Fitr holiday following this year's Ramadan brought its usual share of sexual harassment".[56] Operation Anti Sexual Harassment, an Egyptian organisation founded to protect against sexual assaults, described Eid al-Fitr as a "season for harassment",[57] and the prevalence of such attacks "a trend that has become associated with Eid al-Fitr celebrations in recent years".[54] Despite this rise, sexual assault and "intrigue" with women during Eid al-Fitr dates back to the early 19th century, as Edward Lane alludes to.[58] In 2013, allegations, the discussion of which was considered taboo,[59] surfaced in Cairo and Tanta.[60][61][62] 2014 saw lower rates of attempted harassment, and activists reported more confidence since the amendment of the penal code.[63] 141 police reports for harassment were filed in Cairo in 2015, though this number may underestimate the issue as many reports were reportedly withdrawn.[64] Despite a reduction to 120 complaints and 35 arrests for harassment in 2016,[65] many women still find it necessary to take significant precautions during Eid.[66] 2018 showed continued evidence of reduction.[67]

Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine

A concert held to celebrate Eid al-Fitr in Beirut

Jordanians decorate their homes and prepare sumptuous meals for family and friends. They prepare new clothes and shoes for the festival. Eid festivities in Jordan may vary culturally depending on the region, but one common thread in all celebrations is generosity and hospitality. It is a common Jordanian tradition for families to gather at the patriarchal home after the Eid prayers. Before the special Eid meal is served, young children will line up in front of each adult family member, who dispense money as gifts to the children. Jordanians would also hang fanous lanterns.[22]

In Lebanon, many concerts take place during Eid al-Fitr by Lebanese and other Arab superstars. Musicians also perform on the Beirut waterfront. Other activities include art exhibitions.[68]

Ma'amoul and Kahk are popular cookie treats baked and consumed during Eid in Syria and Lebanon.[69]

Iraq

In Iraq, kleicha (the traditional snack)[70] and lamb are popular foods.[71]

The Iraqi Kurds tend to visit cemeteries to remember their lost ones one day before the festival. After the prayers, Iraqi Kurdish families would gather together for large breakfasts of rice and stew, as well as candies, nuts and caffeinated beverages.[72]

Yemen

In Yemen, Bint al-sahn is the preferred snack during Eid celebrations.[73]

Africa

Group of Yao women sharing a meal of ugali during Eid ul-Fitr in Mozambique

Nigeria

Eid is popularly known as Small Sallah in Nigeria. During the day, people generally greet each other by saying Barka Da Sallah, which translated to "Greetings on Sallah" in the Hausa language The last as long as 3 days .[74]

Tunisia

Since 2012, Tunisia celebrates Eid for three days (with preparations starting several days earlier), two of which are national holidays. Special biscuits, including Baklawa and several kinds of "ka'ak", are made to give to friends and relatives on the day.[75]

Somalia

People at the ocean beach during Eid al-Fitr in Mogadishu

In Somalia and other Islamic parts of the Horn region, Eid al-Fitr is observed by the Muslim communities. Celebrations marking the event are typically accompanied by elaborate banquets, where special dishes such as xalwo (halwo) and buskut (buskuit) are served.[76]

Tanzania

Muslims in Tanzania celebrate Eid al-Fitr, when they normally dress in fine clothes and decorate their homes with lights. Special foods are prepared and shared with family and visitors, while children receive gifts.[77] In Zanzibar it is popular for locals to buy new clothing, while women would shop for handbags, necklaces and other clothing. For some youngsters Eid nights involve dancing at a club. Children would receive coins of money from locals.[78]

South Africa

Muslims in Durban during Eid al-Fitr prayers

In Cape Town, hundreds of Muslims--each with something to share with others at the time of the breaking of the fast--gather at Green Point in the evening of the last day of Ramadan for the sighting of the moon. The Maghrib (sunset) prayer is then performed in congregation and the formal moon-sighting results are announced thereafter.[79]

Morocco

Eid al-Fitr mass prayer in Morocco

Eid es-Seghir is the name of Eid al-Fitr among Moroccans. Many families have a tradition of buying new clothes for their children during the holiday. Common food choices for eid dinner include couscous, lamb or beef brochettes and others.[80] In the north, musicians play Andalusian music accompanied by fast clapping.[45]

Ethiopia

Eid is an important event for Muslims in Ethiopia, who form the largest Muslim community in East Africa.[81]

Sudan

In Sudan, where 97% of the population is Muslim,[82] preparations for Eid begin the last few days of Ramadan. For days, ka'ak (sugar powdered cookies), bettifour (dry baked goods including dainty biscuits, baked meringues and macaroons--whose name are derived from the French petit four), and popcorn are baked in large batches to serve to guests and to give to family and friends; dressy Eid clothes are either shopped for or sewn; girls and women decorate their hands and feet with henna; and parts of the house may even be painted. The night before Eid, the whole household partakes in cleaning the house and yard and setting out the finest bedsheets, table cloths, and decorations. On the day of Eid, men and boys (and occasionally women and girls) will attend the Eid prayer. For the next 3 days, families will then visit each other, extended family, neighbors, and close friends. In these short visits, the baked goods, chocolates, and sweets are served, and often large lunches are prepared for the visiting well-wishers. Children are given gifts, either in the form of toys or money.[83]

Senegal

A Senegalese girl dressed in traditional attire during the Eid celebration

The holiday is widely called Korité in Senegal and elsewhere across West Africa. It is a national holiday, celebrated for three days, with families normally having new clothes made for the holiday. Gifts and donations are normally exchanged.[84]

Ivory Coast

In the Ivory Coast, Eid is a large feast among Muslims. The celebration lasts between two and ten days depending on region.[85]

Central Asia

Tajikistan

Kyrgyzstan

In Kyrgyzstan the day is known as Orozo Ait (Kyrgyz: ). The local population celebrate in various ways such as by partying, eating and singing. Festivals often feature long distance horse racing and other horse-based sports. People would tend to wear fancy and bright clothes, while people would sing Jaramazan tunes and receive cooked bread, candy or cash in return.[86][87]

Uzbekistan

Ramazon Hayit or Ro?za hayiti is a public holiday in Uzbekistan and widely celebrated. Traditional pastry such as kush-tili, plov and chak-chak are prepared by Uzbek families the day before Eid al-Fitr for consumption. Businesses tend to sell a high range of candies and children's toys during this period.[74]

Kazakhstan

Known as Oraza Ait ( ) Kazakh Muslims tend to visit each other during the celebration and handing out fried doughnuts such as baursaki to others. However mutton, soup, tea and kymyz (horse milk) are also popular food and drinks during the holiday.[88]

South Asia

Recent dates of Eid al-Fitr in the region of South Asia

Islamic Year Gregorian date of Eid al-Fitr in the region of South Asia
1440 5 June 2019
1441 24 May 2020
1442 14 May 2021

Afghanistan

An Afghan child eating a piece of candy received as a gift on Eid al-Fitr

In the predominantly Sunni Muslim culture of Afghanistan, Eid al-Fitr holds significant importance and is celebrated widely for three days. It popularly involves special festivities for children and the youngest members of families.[89] The most common greeting is Kochnai Akhtar (Blessed Eid) in the Pashto-speaking community. Afghans start preparing for the Eid al-Fitr festival up to ten days prior by cleaning their homes (called Khana Takani in Dari). Afghans visit their local bazaars to buy new clothes, sweets, and snacks including Jalebi, Shor-Nakhod (made with chickpeas), Cake wa Kolcha (a simple cake, similar to pound cake). The traditional Bolani (vegetarian flatbreads) is a popular meal during Eid al-Fitr in Afghanistan.[89]

On the day of Eid al-Fitr, Afghans will first offer their Eid prayers and then gather in their homes with their families, greeting one another by saying "Eid Mubarak" and usually adding "Eidet Mobarak Roza wa Namazet Qabool Dakhel Hajiha wa Ghaziha," which means "Happy Eid to you; may your fasting and prayers be accepted by Allah, and may you be counted among those who will go to the Hajj-pilgrimage." Family elders will give money and gifts to children. It is also common practice to visit families and friends, which may be difficult to do at other times of the year. Children walk from home to home saying "Khala Eidet Mubarak" ("aunt happy Eid"), and they receive cookies or Pala. At night, multiple campfires are set around houses, sometimes to the point that entire valleys may initially appear to be engulfed in flame. Celebratory fire with automatic rifles, particularly tracer rounds, can also be expected in high density.[90]

India

Mehndi is the application of henna as a temporary form of skin decoration, commonly applied during Eid al-Fitr.

Special celebratory dishes in India include Lachcha or sivayyan, a dish of fine, toasted sweet vermicelli noodles with milk and dried fruit (see Sheer khurma).[91]

Pakistan

Eid prayers at Badshahi Mosque, in Lahore, Pakistan

In Pakistan, Eid al-Fitr is also referred to as ‎, chhot? ?d, 'the Lesser Eid' or ‎, mh? ?d, 'Sweet Eid'.[6] People are supposed to give obligatory charity on behalf of each of their family members to the needy or poor before Eid day or, at most, before the Eid prayer, allowing for all to share in the joy of Eid. At home, family members enjoy special Eid breakfast with various types of sweets and desserts, including Kheer and the traditional dessert Sheer Khurma, which is made of vermicelli, milk, butter, dry fruits, and dates. Eid is mainly enjoyed by the kids, as they mostly receive money in cash called "Eidi" as gift from their relatives and elders.[92] People tend to get fresh and crisp banknotes to gift children with. State Bank of Pakistan issues fresh currency notes every year for this purpose.[93]

The following table shows the record of Eid al-Fitr as per announcement of Ruet-e-Hilal Committee Pakistan during recent years:

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan Muslims like to eat watalappam, falooda, samosa, gulab jamun and other national and regional dishes.[94]

Bangladesh

Eid prayer in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

The preparation for Eid in Bangladesh starts from the last quarter of the holy month of Ramadan. The markets and shopping malls become overwhelmed with people. Those who live away from their families for their job or livelihood, they return to their home towns and villages to celebrate the festival with family members and relatives. In the Chaand Raat children gather at the open field to see the Hilal (crescent moon) of the month of Shawwal. Girls decorate their hands with Mehndi. Like other South Asian countries, Lachcha (Vermicelli) are served with Roti as breakfast in Bangladesh. Then people attend the Eid prayer in Eidgah. Children do salam by touching the feet of the elderly members of the family. And elders give them a small amount of money which is known as "Salami" or "Eidi (gift)", which is a major part of Eid happiness for children. Delicious dishes like Biryani, Polao, Korma etc. are served in the dining table. Wealthy Muslims in Bangladesh also distribute Zakat alms to the poor people. People visit the house of relatives and greet each other saying "Eid Mubarak" (Happy Eid).[95]

Nepal

Nepalese Muslims often consume the popular Nepalese dessert sewai (Vermicelli pudding) to mark the occasion.[96]

Maldives

Celebration in the Maldives include cultural performances such as music, belly dancing and fire performances.[97]

Southeast Asia

Indonesia

Eid celebration in Jakarta, Indonesia

Eid is known in Indonesia as Hari Raya Idul Fitri, or more popularly as Lebaran, and is a national holiday.[98] People return to their home town or city (an exodus known as mudik) to celebrate with their families and to ask forgiveness from parents, in-laws, and other elders.[99] Festivities start the night before with chanting the Takbir and lighting lamps. On the day itself, after Eid prayer in the morning, zakat alms for the poor are distributed in the mosques. People gather with family and neighbors in traditional clothing and have a special Lebaran meal. Children are given money in colourful envelopes.[100] Later, it is common for Muslims in Indonesia to visit the graves of relatives to ritually clean the grave. Muslims also visit the living in a special ritual called Halal bi-Halal sometime during or several days after Idul Fitri.[101]

Lebaran continues with drumming and street parades.[45]

Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei

In Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, Eid is more commonly known as Hari Raya Aidilfitri (Jawi ), Hari Raya Idul Fitri, Hari Raya Puasa, Hari Raya Fitrah or Hari Lebaran. Hari Raya means 'Celebration Day'.

Rows of Pelita (oil lamps) which is used to illuminate homes and the streets during the season. Seen here in Muar, Johor, Malaysia

It is customary for workers in the city to return to their home town to celebrate with their families and to ask forgiveness from parents, in-laws, and other elders. This is known in Malaysia as balik kampung (homecoming).

The night before Hari Raya is filled with the sounds of takbir in the mosques or musallahs. In many parts of Malaysia, especially in the rural areas, pelita or panjut or lampu colok (as known by Malay-Singaporeans) (oil lamps, similar to tiki torches) are lit up and placed outside and around homes, while tiki torches themselves are also a popular decoration for that holiday. Special dishes like ketupat, rendang, lemang (a type of glutinous rice cooked in bamboo) and other Malay delicacies such as various kuih-muih are served during this day. It is common to greet people with "Salam Aidilfitri" or "Selamat Hari Raya" which means "Happy Eid". Muslims also greet one another with "maaf zahir dan batin", which means "Forgive my physical and emotional (wrongdoings)".

It is customary for Muslim-Malaysians to wear a traditional cultural clothing on Hari Raya. The Malay variant (worn in Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Southern Thailand) is known as the Baju Melayu, shirt worn with a sarong known as kain samping or songket and a headwear known as songkok. Malaysian women's clothing is referred to as Baju Kurung and baju kebaya. It is a common practice however for the Malays in Singapore and Johor, Malaysia to refer to the baju kurung in reference to the type of outfit, worn by both men and women.

Street festival during Eid in Geylang, Singapore

In Malaysia, especially in the major cities, people take turns to set aside a time for open house when they stay at home to receive and entertain neighbours, family and other visitors. It is common to see non-Muslims made welcome during Eid at these open houses. They also celebrate by lighting traditional bamboo cannon firecrackers known as meriam buluh, using kerosene in large hollow bamboo tubes or Chinese imported crackers. The traditional bamboo cannon, meriam buloh, and fireworks are notoriously loud and can be very dangerous to operator, bystander and even nearby buildings. These are usually bamboo tubes 5-10 cm (2.0-3.9 in) in diameter and 4-7 m (13-23 ft) long, filled with either: water and several hundred grams of calcium carbide, or heated kerosene, then ignited by match.

In Malaysia, children are given token sums of money, also known as "duit raya", from their parents or elders.[102][103]

Thailand

There are almost 3 million Muslims in Thailand. In the southernmost provinces, wearing gold on Eid is a popular practice there along with neighbouring Myanmar. In some parts of the country, Muslim residences would open their homes with food specialities to visitors.[104]

Cambodia, Vietnam

The Muslims of Cambodia often open their homes to friends and neighbours to share food together.[105] Men, women and children dress in fine attire, while the preferred dress colour is white, symbolising the purity of the soul after a month of Ramadan.[106] It is customary during Eid for Cambodian Muslims to donate 3 kilograms of rice to the poor or disabled.[107]

Eid is also celebrated by the much smaller Muslim community of Vietnam, who are mostly of the same ethnic Cham people as in Cambodia.

Myanmar

During Ramadan, in small towns and big villages with significant Muslim populations, Burmese Muslim youth organize singing teams called Jago (meaning "wake up"). Jago teams usually do not use musical instruments apart from the occasional use of harmonica mouth organs.[108] The roving groups of singers will take the tunes of popular Hindi movie songs, replaced with Burmese lyrics and invocations about fasting, the principles of Islam, and the benefits of Salat.[109]

Philippines

Among Muslim Filipinos in the Philippines, Eid al-Fitr is commonly known as Hariraya, Buka, Hariraya Buka, or Hariraya Buka Puasa.[110][111][112] It is also known as Wakas ng Ramadan (literally "End of Ramadan"), Araw ng Raya ("Feast Day"), or Pagtatapos ng Pag-aayuno ("End of the Fast") in Filipino. It was proclaimed a legal holiday for Muslim Filipinos in 1977 by Presidential Decree 1083. In 2002, this was upgraded to a public national holiday by Republic Act 9177. It is also sometimes known by its Malay name "Hari Raya Puasa"; and by its Indonesian name "Lebaran".[113][114][115]

President Rodrigo Duterte interacts with participants of the 2016 Eid al-Fitr celebrations in Davao City, Philippines

Its beginning is decided by the sighting of the crescent moon (hilal), followed by morning prayers in mosques or public plazas.[116] When this occurs can sometimes differ depending on the regional government. In some places it is based on the physical sighting of the hilal; while in others it is determined by the Regional Darul Ifta' of Bangsamoro (RDI-BARMM) or the National Commission on Muslim Filipinos (NCMF), especially during cloudy days.[110][117][118]

The sighting of the hilal is traditionally marked by the beating of drums in some regions. In modern times, this has evolved into a noise barrage known as "Mobile Takbir", where celebrants, especially youths, rev their motorcycles or honk their horns while driving through the streets. Guns are also sometimes fired. These practices have been discouraged by the Grand Mufti of Bangsamoro and local government officials as not being in accordance with Islamic teachings as well as being dangerous and causing accidents in the past.[118][119][120]

Hariraya is characterized by the giving of gifts (known as Eidi), food sharing (salu-salo), and visiting the elderly and the sick.[120][121] Food, alms, and basic necessities are also donated to the poor, a practice known as Fitrana or Zakat al-Fitr. This is usually done a day before Eid al-Fitr.[113][122] Various traditional sweet delicacies of the different Muslim Filipino ethnic groups are served for breakfast, including daral, dodol, browas, tinagtag, panyalam, jampok, and so on.[123] Various activities also mark the celebrations, including dancing, boat races, horse races, and carabao fighting in cities and towns with significant Muslim populations. In Metro Manila, the celebrations are usually held at the Manila Golden Mosque and the Quirino Grandstand.[116] The celebration lasts for three days.[117]

East Asia

China

An ethnic Hui family celebrating Eid al-Fitr in Ningxia

In the People's Republic of China, out of 56 officially recognized ethnic groups, Eid al-Fitr is celebrated by at least 10 ethnic groups that are predominantly Muslim. These groups are said to total 18 million according to official statistics, but some observers say the actual number may be much higher. It is also a public holiday in China in certain regions, including two Province Prefecture Level regions, Ningxia and Xinjiang. All residents in these areas, regardless of religion, are entitled to either a one-day or three-day official holiday. Outside the Muslim-majority regions, only Muslims are entitled to a one-day holiday. In Xinjiang province, Eid al-Fitr is even celebrated by the Han Chinese population. During the holiday, supplies of mutton, lamb and beef are distributed to households as part of a welfare program funded by government agencies, public and private institutions, and businesses. In Yunnan, Muslim populations are spread throughout the region. On Eid al-Fitr, however, some devotees may travel to Sayyid 'Ajjal's grave after their communal prayers. There, they will conduct readings from the Quran and clean the tomb, reminiscent of the historic annual Chinese Qingming festival, in which people go to their ancestors' graves, sweep and clean the area, and make food offerings.[] Finally the accomplishments of the Sayyid 'Ajall will be related in story form, concluded by a special prayer service to honour the hundreds of thousands of Muslims killed during the Panthay Rebellion, and the hundreds killed during the Cultural Revolution.[124]

Taiwan

The Eid al-Fitr prayer and celebration in Taiwan draws much attention from local media. Special features of the event are regularly carried out in the newspapers and aired on televisions. These phenomena gives a boost to the Islamic activities in Taiwan.[125][126] Muslims, mostly Indonesian blue collar men and women, typically gather at Taipei Main Station to perform the prayer.[127]

Europe

Pomaks dancing during Ramazan Bayram in a village centre in Bulgaria

Ukraine

In Ukraine, Eid al-Fitr (Ukrainian: ?-) as well as Eid al-Adha have been official state holidays since 2020.[128] During the festival, Ukrainian Muslims (most of whom are Crimean Tatars) often gather with loved ones.[129]

Greece

Eid al-Fitr (i.e. Seker Bayram, Sugar Feast) is celebrated in Greece mainly in the Western Thrace region from the local Muslim minority (Turks, Pomaks and Roma), along with the other two major celebrations, Kurban Bayram (Sacrifice Feast) and H?d?rellez. On the day of the Bayram, family gathers together, wear their best clothes, and celebrate with a common meal, after attending the morning prayer. The women prepare and offer sweets to family and visitors, while small children go around and pay their respects to the elderly by kissing their hands. The elder in turn reward them with candies, sweets, and small amounts of money.[130][131] Local Muslim shopkeepers close their shops this day, while Muslim minority schools have a 5-day holiday for the feast.[131] Some entertainment venues and clubs hold special events for the night of the Bayram.[132]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Eid al-Fitr is locally known as Bayram or Bajram. It is a three-day public holiday. As with other Muslims, Bosnians attend a dawn prayer and a sermon, after which people visit each other, give gifts to children and popularly consume baklava.[133][134]

Albania

Albanian Muslims generally celebrate the day as with most other countries. The day is known as Fitër Bajrami or Bajrami i Madh in Albania.[135] Magiritsa (Greek Easter soup) is popularly consumed.[74]

United Kingdom

Although Eid al-Fitr is not a recognized public holiday in the United Kingdom,[136] many schools, businesses, and organisations allow for at least a day's leave to be taken for religious celebrations.[137][138]

In the Gregorian calendar

Conversion of Hijri years 1343 to 1500 to the Gregorian calendar, with first days of al-Muharram (brown), Ramadan (grey) and Shawwal (black) bolded, and Eid al-Adha dotted – in the SVG file, hover over a spot to show its dates and a line to show the month

Although the date of Eid al-Fitr is always the same in the Islamic calendar, the date in the Gregorian calendar falls approximately 11 days earlier each successive year, since the Islamic calendar is lunar and the Gregorian calendar is solar. Hence if the Eid falls in the first ten days of a Gregorian calendar year, there will be a second Eid in the last ten days of the same Gregorian calendar year, as happened in 2000 CE. The Gregorian date may vary between countries depending on the local visibility of the new moon. Some expatriate Muslim communities follow the dates as determined for their home country, while others follow the local dates of their country of residence.

The following table shows predicted dates and announced dates based on new moon sightings for Saudi Arabia.[1]

Recent dates of Eid al-Fitr in Saudi Arabia
Islamic year Umm al-Qura predicted High Judiciary Council of
Saudi Arabia announced
1415 03 March 1995 03 March 1995
1416 20 February 1996 20 February 1996
1417 09 February 1997 09 February 1997
1418 30 January 1998 30 January 1998
1419 19 January 1999 19 January 1999
1420 08 January 2000 08 January 2000
1421 27 December 2000 27 December 2000
1422 16 December 2001 16 December 2001
1423 05 December 2002 05 December 2002
1424 25 November 2003 25 November 2003
1425 14 November 2004 13 November 2004
1426 03 November 2005 03 November 2005
1427 23 October 2006 23 October 2006
1428 13 October 2007 12 October 2007
1429 01 October 2008 30 September 2008
1430 20 September 2009 20 September 2009
1431 10 September 2010 10 September 2010
1432 30 August 2011 30 August 2011
1433 19 August 2012 19 August 2012
1434 08 August 2013 08 August 2013
1435 28 July 2014 28 July 2014
1436 17 July 2015 17 July 2015
1437 06 July 2016 06 July 2016
1438 25 June 2017 25 June 2017
1439 15 June 2018 15 June 2018[139]
1440 04 June 2019 04 June 2019[140]
1441 24 May 2020 24 May 2020[141]
1442 13 May 2021 13 May 2021[142]
1443 02 May 2022
1444 21 April 2023
1445 10 April 2024
1446 30 March 2025
1447 20 March 2026
1448 09 March 2027
1449 26 February 2028
1450 14 February 2029

Arts and media

Gallery

See also

Citations

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General sources

External links


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