Umm Al Quwain
Location of Umm Al Quwain in the UAE
|Country||United Arab Emirates|
|Seat||Umm Al Quwain|
|o Type||Absolute monarchy|
|o Emir||Saud bin Rashid Al Mualla|
|o Metro||755 km2 (292 sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (UAE Standard Time)|
The Emirate of Umm Al Quwain (UAQ; Arabic: ?; pronounced [?um: alqaj'wajn]) is one of the seven constituent emirates in the United Arab Emirates, located in the north of the country. It is the second smallest and least populous Emirate in the UAE. The closest body of water near it is the Persian Gulf. The emirate is ruled by Saud bin Rashid Al Mualla. The current crown prince is Rashid bin Saud bin Rashid Al Mua'lla, and the deputy ruler is Abdullah bin Rashid Al Mualla III. It had 72,000 inhabitants in 2007 and has an area of 770 km2 (300 sq mi).
Unlike some of its neighbours, Umm Al Quwain has not made any significant find of oil or gas in its territory and depends on revenue from hotels, parks and tourism, fisheries and general trading activities as well as the Umm Al Quwain Free Trade Zone (UAQFTZ) based at Port Ahmed Bin Rashid.
A number of government initiatives and strategies have been put in place to incentivise growth in trade and industrial activity in the emirate, including a 2018 move to reduce government fees to business and waive fines and violations levied against businesses which had not renewed their trade licenses.
Multiple theories have been established on the etymology of the name Umm Al Quwain. The most accepted meaning is that the name means "mother of the two powers" - from the phrase "Umm Al Quwatain" (Arabic: ?, romanized: Umm Al Quwatain, lit. 'The mother of two powers'). The two powers here are usually indicated as the two forms of geographical powers. Locals describe it as the richness of activities both on land and water, others refer to it as the two powers of economy and agriculture. Another theory is that the word "Quwain" is inspired by an Arabic word "Qawn" meaning 'iron'. Therefore, some believe that it may refer to iron in the place.
The Emirate of Umm Al Quwain holds significant archaeological interest, with major finds at both Tell Abraq and Ed-Dur pointing to significant Ancient Near Eastern Cities. Arrowheads and other polished flint tools have been unearthed in various sites across the UAE while pieces of Ubaid Age pottery have been unearthed along the shores of the emirate. All evidence obtained so far indicate that contact with Mesopotamia existed as early as the 5th millennium BC, as an indigenous ceramic industry, did not emerge until the 3rd century BC.
Finds at both Tell Abraq and Ed-Dur show habitation in the area throughout the Bronze Age, from the Hafit period, through the Umm Al Nar period and the later Wadi Suq and Iron I, II and III ages. Finds also link Ed-Dur with the inland settlement of Mleiha, especially distinctive burials of animals with their heads turned back on their bodies. Significant trading links with both the Western Sumerian culture and the Eastern Indus Valley culture are displayed at these sites, with the semi-nomadic Magan people smelting bronze mined in the Hajar Mountains and then shipping the smelted ore.
Macedonian coinage unearthed at Ed-Dur dates back to Alexander the Great, while hundreds of coins have been found bearing the name of Abi'el. In March 2019, 15 tombs, bronze statues, settlement remains, jewellery and pottery, dating back to the 1st century CE, were unearthed here. It is thought Ed-Dur is the site of Omana, mentioned by both Pliny and Strabo as an important town in the Lower Persian Gulf.
During the Bronze Age, agriculture flourished, with dates being the prominent crop. Wheat, millet and other grains were also cultivated wherever there was enough water for irrigation. It is now widely believed that the climate during the period was more temperate than now.
On 8 January 1820, Sheikh Abdullah bin Rashid signed the General Maritime Treaty with the United Kingdom, thus accepting a British protectorate in order to keep the Ottoman Turks out. Like Ajman, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah, its position on the route to India made it important enough to be recognized as a salute state with a three gun salute.
By 1908, J. G. Lorimer's famous survey of the Trucial Coast, the Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia, had Umm Al Quwain listed as a town of some 5,000 inhabitants and identified as the major boat-building centre on the coast, producing some 20 boats a year compared to 10 in Dubai and 5 in Sharjah.
The American oil company Occidental acquired a concession to search for oil in Umm Al Quwain territorial waters on 19 November 1969. Occidental proposed drilling an exploratory well nine miles from the island of Abu Musa in the Persian Gulf in what it considered to be Umm Al Quwain waters. However, this conflicted with a 12-mile territorial limit claimed by Sharjah. On 15 May 1970, the British authorities referred the dispute to arbitration, but ruled that Occidental could continue to drill. On 20 May, Iran informed the British that it laid claim to Abu Musa and the two Tunbs' islands, and would intercede if Occidental continued to drill. The British proposed a three-month suspension of drilling pending the outcome of arbitration, a decision enforced by a British minesweeper, which intercepted Occidental's drilling platform and moved it out of the area.
The agreement between Sharjah and Iran over the island of Abu Musa, made on 29 November 1971 and the subsequent invasion of the islands on 30 November 1971 rendered the issue moot. Occidental would never find oil under its Umm Al Quwain concession.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
During November to March, the average temperature is 27 °C (81 °F) by day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night, but it can rise to over 40 °C (104 °F) in the peak of the summer and when humidity levels are high. The rainfall is minimal and averages 42 mm (1.7 in) a year. The coastline experiences cooling sea breezes during the day.
Al Sinniyah island, close to the city of Umm Al Quwain is home to the UAE's largest Socotra cormorant colony, with over 15,000 pairs making it the third largest colony in the world. Arabian gazelles have been introduced to Sinniyah and appear to be prospering. Marine life is remarkable for its abundance and diversity. Blacktip reef sharks patrol the outer shoreline, while green turtles are ubiquitous in the inner leads in particular. Between Al Sinniyah and the mainland is Khor Al Beidah, an expansive area of sand and mud flats of international importance for its waterfowl. Although not formally protected, the island of Sinaiyah, along with Khor Al Beidah, is one of the largest areas of undisturbed and varied coastal environment remaining anywhere in the UAE.
The UAE culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam and traditional Arab culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday.